1. The rise of big business in the United States encouraged massive migrations and urbanizations, sparked government and popular efforts to reshape the U.S. economy and environment, and renewed debates over U.S. national identity.
I can analyze how large-scale production – accompanied by massive technological change, expanding international communication networks, and pro-growth government policies – fueled the development of a “Gilded Age” marked by an emphasis on consumption, marketing, and business consolidation.
I can illustrate that as leaders of big business and their allies in government aimed to create a unified industrialized nation, they were challenged in different ways by demographic issues, regional differences, and labor movements.
I can explain how westward migration, new systems of farming and transportation, and economic instability led to political and popular conflicts.
2. The emergence of an industrial culture in the United States led to both greater opportunities for, and restrictions on, immigrants, minorities, and women.
I can describe how international and internal migrations increased both urban and rural populations, but gender, racial, ethnic, religious, and socioeconomic inequalities abounded, inspiring some reformers to attempt to address these inequities.
I can show that as transcontinental railroads were completed, bringing more settlers west, U.S. military actions, the destruction of the buffalo, the confinement of American Indians to reservations, and assimilationist policies reduced the number of American Indians and threatened native culture and identity.
3. The “Gilded Age” witnessed new cultural and intellectual movements in tandem with political debates over economic and social policies.
I can describe how Gilded Age politics were intimately tied to big business and focused nationally on economic issues – tariffs, currency, corporate expansion, and laissez-faire economic policy – that engendered numerous calls for reform.
I can explain that new cultural and intellectual movements both buttressed and challenged the social order of the Gilded Age.
1: A. Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportation and communication systems opened new markets in North America, while technological innovations and redesigned financial and management structures such as monopolies sought to maximize the exploitation of natural resources and a growing labor force.
1: B. Businesses and foreign policymakers increasingly looked outside U.S. borders in an effort to gain greater influence and control over markets and natural resources in the Pacific, Asia, and Latin America.
1: C. Business leaders consolidated corporations into trusts and holding companies and defended their resulting status and privilege through theories such as Social Darwinism.
1: D. As cities grew substantially in both size and in number, some segments of American society enjoyed lives of extravagant “conspicuous consumption,” while many others lived in relative poverty.
1: E. The industrial workforce expanded through migration across national borders and internal migration, leading to a more diverse workforce, lower wages, and an increase in child labor.
1: F. Labor and management battled for control over wages and working conditions, with workers organizing local and national unions and/or directly confronting corporate power.
1: G. Despite the industrialization of some segments of the southern economy, a change promoted by southern leaders who called for a “New South,” agrarian sharecropping, and tenant farming systems continued to dominate the region.
1: H. Government agencies and conservationist organizations contended with corporate interests about the extension of public control over natural resources, including land and water.
1: I. Farmers adapted to the new realities of mechanized agriculture and dependence on the evolving railroad system by creating local and regional organizations that sought to resist corporate control of agricultural markets.
1: J. The growth of corporate power in agriculture and economic instability in the farming sector inspired activists to create the People’s (Populist) Party, which called for political reform and a stronger governmental role in the American economic system.
1: K. Business interests battled conservationists as the latter sought to protect sections of unspoiled wilderness through the establishment of national parks and other conservationist and preservationist measures.
2: A. Increased migrations from Asia and from southern and eastern Europe, as well as African American migrations within and out of the South, accompanied the mass movement of people into the nation’s cities and the rural and boomtown areas of the West.
2: B. Cities dramatically reflected divided social conditions among classes, races, ethnicities, and cultures, but presented economic opportunities as factories and new businesses proliferated.
2: C. Immigrants sought both to “Americanize” and to maintain their unique identities; along with others, such as some African Americans and women, they were able to take advantage of new career opportunities even in the face of widespread social prejudices.
2: D. In a urban atmosphere where the access to power was unequally distributed, political machines provided social services in exchange for political support, settlement houses helped immigrants adapt to the new language and customs, and women’s clubs and self-help groups targeted intellectual development and social and political reform.
2: E. Post–Civil War migration to the American West, encouraged by economic opportunities and government policies, caused the federal government to violate treaties with American Indian nations in order to expand the amount of land available to settlers.
2: F. The competition for land in the West among white settlers, Indians, and Mexican Americans led to an increase in violent conflict.
2: G. The U.S. government generally responded to American Indian resistance with military force, eventually dispersing tribes onto small reservations and hoping to end American Indian tribal identities through assimilation.
John D. Rockefeller Dawes Act
J.P. Morgan Chief Joseph
Knights of Labor Ghost Dance movement
American Federation of Labor referendum
Mother Jones socialism
U.S. Fish Commission Interstate Commerce Act
Sierra Club American Protective Association
Department of the Interior Chinese Exclusion Act
the Grange Henry George
Las Gorras Blancas Edward Bellamy
Colored Farmers’ Alliance Gospel of Wealth
NAWSA Booker T. Washington
WCTU Ida Wells-Barnett
subsidies Elizabeth Cady Stanton
America Past and Present, by Divine. (At the time of this writing, we are going through the textbook adoption process and this is likely to change.)
Various primary source excerpts and documents
A History of the American People, by Paul Johnson
A Patriot’s History of the United States, by Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen
From Colony to Superpower, by George Herring
The nature of the course is already enriched as the expectation is that the content and materials are equivalent to a college freshmen survey course. Some strategies for enriching the course further would be to read any of the books on the resources list, obtain full length versions of excerpted primary sources, or explore the Miller Centers website which contains a series of academic essays on each president and covers more details than the College Board requires.
Depending on the unit, a variety of integrations will be utilized. Definitive links will be made with the English department in terms of coordination of writing as well as passages, texts, short reads, and novels that are being utilized in the English classroom. Math will be used in analyzing statistics most often pertaining to elections but not solely. Scientific discoveries and developments will be integrated throughout the discussion of the process of creating modern America. STEM will be incorporated specifically in discussion on industrialization and wartime production. Geography will be a constant as we use maps to illustrate the geographic changes to America and the changing electoral process as well as utilizing world maps for understanding America’s growth as a super power. Visual arts will be used consistently throughout the course in the nature of how art reflects American ideals as well as the importance of political cartoons as a political tool.
Students struggling to succeed in Advanced Placement United States History must first determine if the coursework is too difficult for their abilities. Many students struggle with the volume and level of reading required for success in this course. In those cases it is suggested that a student consider purchasing a study guide book for the Advanced Placement Exam to help them with their reading comprehension. These books outline key concepts in a simple form which helps the student when reading the textbook to focus on main ideas. Students struggling with writing should set up an appointment to meet with the teacher to discuss writing strategies and should also consider meeting with the English and History academic assistants. Students who are struggling with multiple choice exams should make an appointment to come in to go over old exams to get a better idea how to take the multiple choice exam and guide their studying for future tests. Visiting the College Board website for the Advanced Placement United States History exam will provide the student with an additional resource if they are struggling.