Advanced Placement Human Geography Terms & Concepts Review I geography: It’s Nature & Perspective (5 to 10%)



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Advanced Placement Human Geography Terms & Concepts Review



I Geography: It’s Nature & Perspective (5 % to 10%)

  • 1. The portion of the world’s land surface that is permanently settled by human beings: Ecumene



  • 2. A venture involving 3 or more national states- political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives: Supranationalism



  • 3. The process whereby regions with a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government: Devolution



  • 4. A force that unifies people: Centripetal Force



  • 5. A force that divides people: Centrifugal Force



  • 6. A group of people united by a common culture: Nation



  • 7. Your potential score on this test if you memorize this entire list a 5



  • 8. The amount of statements you should learn each day before the test including today, February 27th 8.06 (let’s just stick with 8)



  • 9. An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs State



  • 10. A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality Nation- State



  • 11. States in which 2 or more ethnic groups with traditions of self- determination coexist Multinational State



  • 12. The position of anything on Earth’s surface which can be described using toponym, site, situation, or mathematical grid location.



  • 13. 4 ways of identifying location Toponym, Site, Situation, Absolute



  • 14. A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character Place



  • 15. An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features Region



  • 16. The process of the spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another Diffusion



  • 17. Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships Cultural Ecology



  • 18. Fundamental geographic question Why of Where?



  • 19. The process whereby we think spatially, producing mental images of space which allows is to navigate and to communicate about the relative position of things in space Mental Mapping



  • 20. Authors of Mental Maps Gould & White



  • 21. The result of the modification of the natural landscape by human activities (first defined by Carl Sauer) The Cultural Landscape (Agricultural, Ethnic…)



  • 22. Whittlesey’s concept that successive societies leave their cultural imprint on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape Sequent Occupancy



  • 23. Term for the size of an area studied from local to global Scale



  • 24. The relationship of a map size to the real-world Map Scale



  • 25. First person to use the term “geography” who calculated the circumference of the Earth to within 0.05% Eratosthenes



  • 26. First person to describe location using a mathematical grid Hipparchus



  • 27. First geographers to use the scientific method- they devised the environmental determinism approach Humbolt & Ritter



  • 28. The scientific study of the locations of people and activities across Earth’s surface and the reasons for their distribution Geography





  • 30. The art and science fo map-making Cartography



  • 31. Transferring the image of globe onto a flat sheet of paper Map Projection



  • 32. Distortions created by map projections Relative Size, Shape, Distance,& Direction



  • 33. Map projection formed by placing a cylinder around a globe –Useful for sea travel Mercator Projection



  • 34. Type of map that shows cities, provinces, countiesm and countires Political





  • 36. Type of map that shows differences in elevation, usually using isolines Relief



  • 37. Type of map that uses various colors to show the varitaions in the levels of certain characteristics Chloropleth



  • 38.Type of map that uses dots to represent a given value of a characteristic in order to show its distribution and concentration Dot Distribution



  • 39. Gathering of data from satellites for cartographic purposes Remote Sensing



  • 40. Computer systems that process geographic data, usually to make layered maps(thematic layers) showing the correlation between various characteristics Geographic Information Systems (GIS)



  • 41.The tiny areas recorded by satellite sensors used in GIS Pixels



  • 42. Navigation systems using satellites Global Positioning Systems (GPS)



  • 43. The interaction of a culture and its natural environment Cultural Ecology



  • 44. An approach to understanding the interaction of people and the physical environment which demonstrates how the environment causes social development Environmental Determinism



  • 45. An approach to understanding the interaction of people and the physical environ which rejects environmental determinism in favor of a multi-cause rationale for social development Possiblism



  • 46. Human-induced environmental change such as global warming Anthropogenic



  • 47. Restraint in the use of natural resources to ensure enough resources remain for future generations Sustainability



  • 48. Term for a place name Toponym



  • 49. The physical characteristics of a place Site



  • 50. The relative location of a place Situation



  • 51. Mathematical or grid location such as formed by latitude and longitude or townships and ranges Absolute Location



  • 52. The survey system, different from the rectangular system, used in Quebec and Louisiana in which land is divided into narrow parcels along rivers, Longlot System



  • 53.Frequency of a characteristic in a given locale Density



  • 54. The spread of a characteristic in a given locale- it can be clustered or dispersed Concentration



  • 55. Geometric arrangement of a characteristic in a given locale Pattern



  • 56. The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions Culture



  • 57. 3 parts into which cultural regions are divided according to Donald Meinig: Core, Domain, Sphere



  • 58. The average weather in a place over a long period of time Climate



  • 59. An area distinguished by one or more unique characteristics Region



  • 60. A region in which the characteristic(s) apply throughout Formal Region





  • 62. The diminishing density of a characteristic in a outward direction from the core toward the periphery Distance Decay



  • 63. The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance Friction of Distance



  • 64. Term for the reduction in time it takes for something to diffuse to a distance place Time-Space Compression



  • 65. A perceived region such as “downtown” Perceptual Region



  • 66. A perceptual region defined by locals such as the American South Vernacular Region



  • 67. Facts or features that are unique to a particular region Idiographic



  • 68. Facts and features that are universal Nomothetic



  • 69. The interdependence of places which occurs through networks in which people, ideas, and goods move between places Spatial Interaction





  • 71. Cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come in close contact Transculturation



  • 72. Change in a less developed society that results from contact with a more developed society Acculturation



  • 73. The incorporation of a less developed society into a more developed society Assimilation



  • 74. The spreading of a characteristic form place to place Diffusion



  • 75. A node of the origination of an innovation Hearth



  • 76. Movement of a characteristic through the movement of people Relocation Diffusion



  • 77. Permanent relocation diffusion Migration



  • 78. Diffusion from a node of authority Hierarchical Diffusion



  • 79. Rapid widespread diffusion Contagious Diffusion





  • 81. II Population (13% to 17%)



  • 82. Factory owned by non-Mexican countries operating in Mexico to take advantage of cheap labor an proximity to U.S. markets Maquiladora



  • 83. The free trade agreement between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)



  • 84. The area in North Mexico with a lower population density Hollow Core



  • 85. Scientific study of population Demography



  • 86. Capacity of an environment to support a population Carrying Capacity



  • 87. The inability of the resources and economic system in an area to meet the needs of the population Overpopulation



  • 88. The number of people supported by a unit of arable land Physiological Density



  • 89. Ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land Agricultural Density



  • 90. Total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in an area Crude Birth Rate (CBR)



  • 91. Total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in an area Crude Death Rate (CDR)



  • 92. Percentage by which a population grows in a year Natural Increase Rate (NIR)



  • 93. Average number of children born to a woman in an area Total Fertility Rate (TFR)



  • 94. Number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared to the number of live births per 1000 in an area Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)



  • 95. The number of years it takes the population to double Doubling Time



  • 96. The process of population change over time Demographic Transition





  • (Population + births - deaths + immigration - emigration)Demographic Accounting Equation



  • 98. Location of the geographic population center of the U.S. today called the centroid Missouri



  • 99. Bar graph showing population distribution by age and gender Population Pyramid (Age/Sex Graph)



  • 100.The number of people in the workforce compared to the number outside the workforce Dependency Ratio



  • 101. The number of males per 100 females in an area Sex Ratio



  • 102. Author of An Essay on the Principles of Population which predicted that food supplies would not be able to grow fast enough to keep up with population growth Thomas Malthus



  • 103. The hypothesis that disagreed with Malthus and stated that increasing populations motivate improved agricultural technologies Boserup Hypothesis



  • 104. China’s anti-natalist policy One Child Policy



  • 105. The change in the principle causes of death overtime Epidemiological Transition



  • 106. The shape that a “J” curve becomes when considering Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model “S” Curve



  • 107. The movement of people from place to place Mobility





  • 109. Reoccurring mobility Circulation Mobility



  • 110. A type of circulation mobility in which people move in a cyclical pattern Seasonal Mobility



  • 111. Permanent relocation diffusion Migration



  • 112. Formulated the 11 Laws of Migration Ravenstein



  • 113. Migration away from a place (Exiting) Emigration



  • 114. Motivations to move away from a place Push Factors



  • 115. Migration to a place (Into) Immigration



  • 116. Motivation to move place to place Pull Factors



  • 117. The mathematical difference between immigration and emigration Net Migration





  • 119. Migration from region to region Interregional



  • 120. Migration from country to country International Migration



  • 121. Zelinsky’s explanation of migration patterns that correspond to the stages of demographic transition Migration Transition



  • 122. The process in which members of a family or a particular group migrate to the same locale Chain Migration



  • 123. Type of migration in which people move away from environmental disasters Eco- Migration



  • 124. Term for those who emigrated from the Dust Bowl Okies



  • 125. U.S. government agency that deals with immigration, formerly called the INS Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (BCIS)



  • 126. 1986 Act of the U.S. Congress that step up a procedure for allowing undocumented workers to become citizens and the stricter documentation of workers 1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act



  • 127. Document that grants entry permission to foreign citizens Visa





  • 129. The mass emigration of talented people Brain Drain



  • 130. 1980 mass migration of people from Cuba to the U.S. Mariel Boatlift



  • 131. Name that the Long Expedition gave to the Southern Great Plains in the U.S. Great American Desert



  • 132. Term for the old industrial northeastern part of the U.S. Rustbelt



  • 133. Temporary labor forces ,usually made up of students, in the USSR Komsomols



  • 134. Interregional migration to cities Urbanization





  • 136. Interregional migration to rural areas Counter-Urbanization



  • 137. Migration that occurs in stages, such as to a nearby village an then to a town and then to a city Step Migration



  • 138.The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of places farther away Intervening Opportunity



  • 139. The restriction of migration from Eastern Europe during the Cold War is an example of An Intervening Obstacle



  • 140. Mexican squatter settlement Colonia



  • 141. “Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” Tobler’s First Law of Geography”



  • 142. A model used to predict spatial interaction, where size (population) is directly related to interaction and distance is inversely related to interaction Gravity Model



  • 143.William J Reilly’s explanation of the fact that larger cities have larger trade areas (retail hinterlands) Law of Retail Gravitation



  • 144. The boundary between two trade areas in the retail gravitation model Breaking Point



  • 145. A well-defined migration channel from a specific origin to a particular destination Migration Stream



  • 146. UN organization that deals with refugees United Nation High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR)



  • 147. African country that won its independence from Ethiopian Eritrea



  • 148. 1948 UN document that declares, among other things, that everyone has a right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution Universal Declaration of Human Rights



  • 149. III . Cultural Patterns & Processes (13% to 17%)



  • 150. Highly efficient method of shipping that uses steel boxes to ship goods that are easily transferred from ship to rail to truck Containerized Shipping



  • 151. Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea Asian Tigers/4 Dragons



  • 152. Chinese government policy regarding Hong Kong1 Country, 2 Systems



  • 153. The process of determining the size of the units to be investigated in GIS (counties, provinces…) Map Aggregation



  • 154.Map data collected by the researcher Primary Map Data



  • 155. Map data obtained from published sources like the Census Bureau and PRB Secondary Map Data



  • 156. Type of map that uses a symbol in varying sizes to show the magnitude of a characteristic Proportional Symbol Map



  • 157. The fusion of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique hybrid trait such as the blending of Islam and Hinduism in the Sikh Faith Syncretism



  • 158. The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of peoples distinct traditions Culture





  • 160. Man’s imprint on the natural landscape Cultural Landscape



  • 161. Customs of small homogeneous rural groups that remain unique through relative isolation- varies mostly with place Folk Culture



  • 162. Customs of a large heterogeneous group that diffuse widely, creating a uniform landscape- Varies mostly with time Popular Culture



  • 163.The most important mechanism for the diffusion of popular culture TV



  • 164. The continuous flow and return flow of migrants from a particular place to a particular place Migration Stream



  • 165. Innovations (or diseases) that are less (or more) accessible to people of certain gender, class, age, or ethnicity .Biases Innovations



  • 166. An functional urban area of at least 50,000 in the U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)



  • 167. A graph showing the correlation between two variable Scatter Plot



  • 168. The differentiation of languages over time and space in which, through isolation, dialects become distinct languages Language Divergence



  • 169. The transculturation (cultural borrowing) of languages that occurs through interaction Language Convergence



  • 170. An invented language of the twentieth century based on Latin that was intended to become a world language Esperanto



  • 171. The communication system of a group of people Language



  • 172. Written form of a language Literary Tradition



  • 173. Language spoken by the largest number of people Mandarin Chinese



  • 174. Language most widely (spatially) spoken English



  • 175. Commonly used language of trade Lingua Franca



  • 176. A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed before recorded history (Indo- European) Language Family



  • 177. A collection of languages within a family related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago (Germanic) Language Branch



  • 178. A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past (West Germanic) Language Group



  • 179. A variation of a language spoken in a particular region or by a particular group (American Midland South) Dialect
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