Advanced Placement European History Theme



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Advanced Placement European History

Theme The study of European history introduces students to cultural, economic, political, and social developments that played a fundamental role in shaping the world in which they live. Without this knowledge, we would lack the context for understanding the development of contemporary institutions, the role of continuity and change in present-day society and politics, and the evolution of current forms of artistic expression and intellectual discourse. In addition to providing a basic narrative of events and movements, the goals of AP European History are to develop (a) an understanding of some of the principal themes in modern European history, (b) an ability to analyze historical evidence and historical interpretation, and (c) an ability to express historical understanding in writing.

Strand History

Topic The Birth of Modern Europe – Part Two: The Upheaval in Christendom

The growth of secular philosophy combined with internal disunity and corruption within the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy to produce multiple movements to reform Church doctrine and practice. These exploded into the Protestant Reformation, which spawned new denominations of Christianity across western Europe. These in turn caused internal political upheavals and wars between countries, as religious doctrine mixed with political and economic interests to create a volatile climate. The Roman Catholic Church weathered this struggle by reaffirming its traditions and reforming some of its practices.



Pacing

Weeks 6-8



Content Statement

1. Corruption within the Roman Catholic Church inspired the Protestant movement initiated by Martin Luther; Luther’s reformist doctrines transformed Christian practice and inspired political/social revolution within the Holy Roman Empire.

Learning Targets:

 I can describe the institutional and individual behaviors of the Church and its hierarchy that had led to criticism by the early 16th Century.

 I can explain the concepts introduced by Martin Luther and what made it possible for him to develop and promote those concepts.

 I can evaluate the outcomes of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.


2. The Protestant Reformation saw philosophical and political differences produce additional denominations within Christianity; the Roman Catholic Church responded with a mix of retrenchment and reform.

Learning Targets:

 I can explain the doctrines and practices of Calvinism.

 I can explain the reasons for and describe the instability caused by Henry VIII’s split from the Roman Catholic Church.

 I can assess to what extent the Catholic Counter-Reformation responded to the challenge of the Protestant Reformation.


3. Adherents to the new Protestant denominations found allies and enemies among European monarchs and their subjects; this resulted in devastating civil wars and conflicts between nations.

Learning Targets:

 I can explain the division of the Habsburg family and its empire.

 I can explain how Habsburg Spain and Elizabethan England became rivals and describe the outcome of this rivalry.

 I can describe the instability in France brought on by religious conflict.

 I can examine the leadership provided by Cardinal Richelieu.

 I can explain the origins and escalation of the Thirty Years’ War.

 I can explain the causes and consequences of the Habsburg defeat in the Thirty Years’ War.


Content Elaborations

The Church, having seen its power undermined by its own failures and events beyond its control, wounded itself most when its leaders again indulged in decadent spending, then turned to controversial practices like the sale of indulgences to raise funds to cover this spending. The sale of indulgences sparked criticism across western Europe, but especially among many Germans who had come to view the Church as extortionist and parasitic. They responded with enthusiasm to Martin Luther’s “Ninety-five Theses,” and even to his rejection of more fundamental doctrines of the Church. Preaching that salvation is attainable only through faith, Luther was protected from the authority of the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor by Frederick the Wise of Saxony. German peasants took Luther’s defiance to heart and rebelled against Church and noble authority – a revolt that was suppressed. But German princes chose up sides and made war on each other for nearly thirty years until the Peace of Augsburg allowed each to choose whether to be Lutheran or Catholic.


Others broke from the Church as well. In Geneva, John Calvin, working from the principle of predetermination, established a community of God’s “elect” based on Old Testament principles; this inspired others across western Europe. In England, King Henry VIII split his subjects from the Church when he was refused an annulment of his marriage that he deemed necessary to produce a male heir. The Church of England was thus born and spread across the world as England built a global empire, even as turmoil over religion enveloped England itself. The Church, having lost nearly half its adherents in Europe, sought to fight back by reaffirming its traditional doctrines but reforming its objectionable behaviors. This “Counter-Reformation” was successful in “stopping the bleeding” and stabilizing the Church’s following.
The division between Protestants and Catholics, however, was soon swept up into geopolitical power struggles and a series of conflicts and wars broke out that had, in some cases, devastating consequences for affected populations. The mighty Habsburg family, divided into Spanish and Austrian (aligned) factions, saw their power targeted and undermined as a result of these wars. Spain’s Philip II presided over a “Siglo di Oro” that saw Spain grow to preeminence in wealth and culture, but the English, led by Queen Elizabeth I, challenged and defeated Spain, precipitating a slow but steady decline. In the meantime, religious turmoil between the Catholic majority and Huguenot (Calvinist) minority in France produced a lengthy civil war, won by the Huguenot Henri of Navare, who became Henri IV, known as “Good King Henry.” But the “Good King” was assassinated by radicals, and his son Louis XIII came under the sway of Richelieu who, though a Catholic Cardinal, made power his real religion.
Under the sway of Richelieu, France waged war on its Huguenot minority and sought to undermine the power of the Habsburgs. The opportunity appeared when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, having crushed a rebellion of Bohemians, sought to reverse the Peace of Augsburg and restore Catholicism throughout the empire. The entry of Lutheran Sweden in support of German Lutherans turned the tide against the Habsburgs and opened a door for Richelieu. The intervention of Catholic France on the side of the Lutherans ultimately ended the war in their favor, stunning the wounded Habsburgs.


Content Vocabulary

 College of Cardinals  Siege of Le Rochelle

 tithe  Raison d’état

 simony  Peace of Augsburg

 indulgences  Defenestration of Prague

 Purgatory  Bohemian Revolt

 absolution  Battle of White Mountain

 Jubilee Bargain  Burning of Magdeburg

 Scriptural Truth  Battle of Lutzen

 Justification by Faith Alone  French intervention

 “Good Works”  Peace of Westphalia

 Priesthood of All Believers  Sixtus IV (della Rovere)

 pastor  Alexander VI (Borgia)

 Diet of Worms  Julius II (della Rovere)

 Nationalism  Leo X (di Medici)

 Staupitz Society  Desiderius Erasmus

 vernacular  In Praise of Folly

 Karsthans  Julius Exclusus

 Peasants’ War  Girolamo Savonarola

 War of the League of Schmalkald  Johann Tetzel

(Schmalkaldic War)  Martin Luther “95 Theses”

 Peace of Augsburg  “Exsurge Domine”

 Predetermination/Predestination  Frederick “the Wise”

 foreknowledge  Charles V, HRE

 omniscience/omnipotence  John Eck

 transcendent  Martin Luther

 The Elect  Thomas Muntzer

 Hugenots  John Calvin

 Presbyterians  John Knox

 Puritans  Guy de Bray

 Dutch Reformed Church  Henry the VIII

 annulment  Sir Thomas More

 Act of Supremacy  “Defense of the Seven

 Church of England/Anglican Sacraments”

 Act of Succession  Katherine of Aragon

 Regency  Mary 1

 Counter-Reformation  Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

 Council of Trento  Anne Boleyn

 Index of Forbidden Books  Elizabeth I

 Baroque art  Jane Seymour

 Society of Jesus (Jesuits)  Edward VI

 Inquisition  Catherine Parr

 Dutch Revolt  Ignatius Loyola

 Spanish Inquisition  William “the Silent” (Orange)

 Spanish Habsburgs  Phillip II

 Siglo de Oro  Ferdinand I, HRE

 Austrian Habsburgs  Sir Francis Drake

 “Sea Dogs”  Mary, Queen of Scots

 intervention in Dutch Revolt  Charles IX

 Anglo-Spanish War  Henri of Navarre/Henri IV

 Armada  Louis XIII

 Drake’s Raid  Marie di Medicis

 Galleons  Cardinal Richelieu

 Battle of Gravelines (Armand Duplessis)

 “Protestant Wind”  Ferdinand II, HRE

 Hugenots  Christian IV

 Guises  Albrecht von Wallenstein

 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  Gustav Adolf

 Edict of Nantes


Academic Vocabulary

Formative Assessments

Students are required to create a chapter outline or synopsis weekly that measures their comprehension of the major people, events, and trends that characterize the era or theme being studied during that portion of the unit. They may be quizzed or required to produce a written response to prompt. Evidence of students’ miscomprehension or lack of comprehension is addressed by the teacher in subsequent lessons.



Summative Assessments

Students are required to complete a series of multiple choice questions modeled after those which will appear on the AP European History Exam. In these, more than one plausible response is provided, and the student must distinguish the correct response from among the merely plausible. Students are also required to complete an essay that integrates content and concepts from throughout the unit into a coherent written argument. In the case of a document-based question, the student is required to also integrate evidence from a series of provided primary sources.



Resources

 Palmer, R. R., Colton, Joel, and Kramer, Lloyd, A History of the Modern World Tenth Edition

 Caldwell, Amy, Beeler, John, and Clark, Charles, ed., Sources of Western Society

 Davies, Norman, Europe: A History

 Davison, Michael Worth, ed., Everyday Life Through the Ages

 Fordham University, The Internet Modern History Sourcebook http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.asp

 Lualdi, Katharine, ed., Sources of The Making of the West

 Sherman, Dennis, Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Interpretations

 Tierney, Brian, Kagan, Donald, and Williams, L. Pearce, eds., Great Issues in Western Civilization

 Bainton, Roland, Here I Stand

 Churchill, Winston, History of the English-Speaking Peoples (Vol. II)

 Durant, William, The Reformation

 Kissinger, Henry, Diplomacy

Manchester, William, A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance

 Marius, Richard, Martin Luther

 McNeill, William, The Pursuit of Power

 Ozment, Stephen, A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People

 Parker, Geoffrey, Success Is Never Final

 Tuchman, Barbara, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam

 Watson, Francis, Wallenstein




Enrichment Strategies

Due to the nature of the AP European History curriculum, it is difficult to envision an approach to enrichment. The course is taught with the expectation that its content and standards for performance are equivalent to those of a first-year college survey course, and students who choose to enroll in this course do so in anticipation that the course, in and of itself, is an enrichment of their education in history. Students may choose to read the complete versions of texts referenced during the course, with the encouragement and support of the instructor.




Integrations

 ELA: Historical background for works of literature; writing analytical essays

 Science/Engineering: Technologies that allowed for conquest and exploration

 Visual Arts: Historical background for works of art and architecture




Intervention Strategies

The most common deficiency of students who take AP European History is in writing. For these students, it is necessary to: (1) review the process of creating a coherent historical written argument; (2) break down the process into its constituent parts and have the students practice those parts individually; (3) meet individually with those students to consult with them about their progress.


Another area of struggle for students is with exams. For these students, it is important to: (1) develop daily skills that will allow them to summarize and organize the information they will need to be successful on exams; (2) teach them to develop a systematic approach to exam preparation; (3) provide extra assistance with exam preparation in the form of student- or teacher-led study groups/review sessions.
For students who struggle to read, it is advised that an alternative text be provided that the student may read prior to reading the chronologically similar sections of the main text.

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