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1. A major development of this historical event was the publication of letters written to Henry McComb. It began when Thomas Durant and other stockholders organized a company under an existing charter which soon assigned contracts to seven trustees. The reputations of congressmen James Brooks and James Patterson and Vice President Schulyer Colfax were ruined when it was revealed that they had been given stock in a company run by Oakes Ames. FTP, what was this scandal involving a scheme surrounding the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad?

Answer: Credit Mobilier
2. Several methods to detect this particle rely on its interactions with isotopes, including its conversion of gallium-71 to germanium-71 and chlorine-37 to radioactive argon, the latter of which is used at the Homestake gold mine observatory in South Dakota. Postulated in 1931 to account for the missing energy in beta decay, it was tenitively identified in 1953 and more definitely in 1956, has no charge, and is thought to travel at the speed of light and have zero rest mass, although in some grand unified theories it is predicted to have nonzero mass. FTP, what are these leptons associated with the tau particle, muons, and electrons?

Answer: neutrinos
3. The godson of Anthony Koberger, this artist wrote the theoretical studies Treatise on Measurement and Four Books on Human Proportions. Called "the Apelles of black lines" by Erasmus, his early works include illustrations for Brant's Ship of Fools and the Paumgarter Alter, while mature work's like Feast of the Rose-garlands were intended to compete with the best Italian paintings. His best-known works came from his middle period, including St. Jerome in his Study and The Knight, Death and the Devil. FTP, name this great German Renaissance artist and engraver, creator of the Apocalypse series.

Answer: Albrecht Durer
4. This literary character was originally named Maury by his mother, who frequently calls him God's judgment on her. Often supervised by Versh, T.P., and Luster Gibson, he is often seen standing at the gate of his family's house, but when it was once left unlocked he grabbed a passing girl, leading his older brother Jason to have him castrated. Throughout his life, the only person who can stop his bellowing is his sister Caddie. FTP, who is this mentally impaired youngest son of the Compson family in The Sound and the Fury?

Answer: Benjy Compson or Benjamin Compson
5. The most important rituals of this religion are the bembes, in which spirits enter the bodies of the participants. Its adherants prefer to call it Lucumi, and its principal saints include Elegua and Shango. Collectively, its saints, called orishas, were identified with major Roman Catholic saints in order to protect its early practitioners, Yoruba slaves who were forced to work in Cuba, and who later migrated to the United States. Spanish for "the way of the saints", FTP, what is this religion which gained attention in the early 1990s when its animal sacrifices were declared to be protected by the first amendment?

Answer: Santeria (prompt on The Order of the Orishas or The Order of Lucumi)
6. In 1994 this man was made head of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee. After studying at King's College, London, he was ordained a deacon of the Anglican Church in 1960 and held a number of church positions in England. He returned to Sputh Africa in 1975 to become Dean of Johannesburg, and went on to become Bishop of Lesotho, Bishop of Johanessburg, and Archbishop of Cape Town. FTP, who was this leader awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his nonviolent protest against apartheid?

Answer: Bishop Desmond Tutu
7. At the end of this philosophical work, the author discusses the awe induced by "the starry heavens above and the moral law within". In it, the author maintains that to act morally is to act for the sake of duty, and deduces that it is never right to tell a lie, sighting as an example the desire to lie to a murderer who is searching for your friend. Offering a philosophy of ethics based on the free will of man, this work's main feature is a new formula which can be used to judge whether an action is moral. FTP, what is this 1788 work containing the "categorical imperative", the second of three "critiques" by Immanuel Kant?

Answer: Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vermunft)
8. This compound acts as a neurotransmitter by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia, and corpus striatum. A catecholamine, it is formed as an intermediate compound from dihydroxyphenylalanine during the metabolism of tyrosine, and is the precursor of epinephrine and norepinephrine. FTP, what is this nitrogen-containing organic compound whose deficiency leads to Parkinson's disease?

Answer: dopamine (or hydroxytyramine)
9. During its early course this river picks up melted snow and glacial meltwaters from the Zaskar, Shyok, and Gilgit streams, and flows as a rapid stream between the Swat and Hazara regions and across the Salt Range. It then receives its most notable tributaries, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej, also known as the "Five Rivers", and after reaching Thatta it begins its delta stage and empties into the Arabian Sea. FTP, what is this 1,800 mile long river, the chief river of Pakistan?

Answer: Indus
10. The protagonist of this novella is inspired to travel by the sight of a man standing before a mortuary chapel, while symbolically important is his encounter with an old man who has joined a group of young clerks by donning a wig and false teeth. The protagonist, the acclaimed author of Maia and The Abject, sees his prized discipline and reasonableness desert him after encountering a vacationing Polish family, whose youngest member, the charming youth Tadzio, captivates the protagonist and leads him to his downfall. FTP, what is this work about Gustav von Aschenbach, arguably the best-known novella by Thomas Mann?

Answer: Death in Venice
11. This man's Memoirs of His Life and Writings, commonly called the Autobiography, first appeared in a highly bowdlerized version published by Lord Sheffield, and is one of the more acclaimed English-language works of its kind. In his youth he was engaged to Suzanne Curchod, future mother of Madame de Stael, but his father prevented the marriage. Although he was harshly criticised for the historical criticism of Christianity found in several chapters of his most famous work, he gained general acclaim for his masterpiece, whose scheme was developed in Italy while he was "musing amidst the ruins of the Capitol". FTP, who was this author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"?

Answer: Edward Gibbon
12. In his final paper this chemist described palladium hydride, the first known instance of a solid compound formed from a metal and a gas. From his work on the three forms of phosphoric acid he developed the concept of polybasic acids, devised the method of dialysis, and proved that partial decomposition of certain chemical compounds results from liquid diffusion, but is best known for a law used to separate isotopes stating that the rates at which gases diffuse is inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities. FTP, who was this Scottish chemist, considered the father of colloid chemistry?

Answer: Thomas Graham
13. The main leaders of this political group were Carl Schurz, George Curtis, and Henry Cabot Lodge. Single-issue reformers who took orthodox Republican positions on most issues, they defected from their party on the issue of civil service reform, and their name was first used by Charles Dana in the New York Sun, deriving it from an Algonkian word meaning "great chief". FTP, who were these politicians who deserted James Blaine in favor of Grover Cleveland in the 1884 presidential election?

Answer: mugwumps
14. Included in this novel are descriptions of Interzone, where Liquiefactionists, Divisionists, Senders, and Factualists contend for control. It opens with the protagonist disposing of his herion paraphernalia in Washington Square, after which he travels with his friend Gains buying drugs, escapes the narcotics agents Hauser and O'Brien, and travels to South America in search of sex and a halucinogenic vine called Yage. Throughout the novel, the protagonist, Bill Lee, experiences paranoid fantasies in which he believes he works for Islam Incorporated in Freeland, where he engages the services of Dr. Benway. FTP, what is this surrealistic classic of Beat Literature written by William S. Burroughs?

Answer: Naked Lunch
15. Author of the book "Theism and Humanism", this man became Secretary for Scotland in 1886, and from 1887-91 served as Chief Secretary for Ireland, where his policy of suppression earned him the nickname "bloody". He engineered the 1904 entente with France and succeeded Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915, ten years after his four year stint as Prime Minister ended, but he is best-known for his time as Foreign Secretary from 1916-19, specifically a short November 2, 1917 communication to Lord Rothschild. FTP, name this man whose declaration expressed Great Britain's support for a Jewish homeland.

Answer: Arthur James Balfour
16. In 1980 Robert Axelrod held an experiment in which a number of computer programs opposed each other in this game, and determined that the best long-term strategy is to adopt a forgiving approach. Applicable to real-life problems such as the nuclear arms race and price wars, it was first formulated by Albert Tucker, and concerns two criminals who must each decide whether to confess to a robbery. FTP, what is this famous dilemma?

Answer: Prisoner’s dilemma
17. This goddess formed an astral triad with the sun god Shamash and the moon god Sin, and her symbol was a star with 6, 8, or 16 rays within a circle. A major myth tells how she was rescued by the creature Asushu-Namir from her sister, the underworld goddess Ereshkigal. She had descended to the underworld by passing through seven gates, losing an article of clothing at each, in an attempt to retrieve her beloved Tammuz. FTP, who was this Babylonian goddess who, in her anger, sent the bull of heaven against Gilgamesh after he rejected her, not to be confused with a bad movie starring Dustin Hoffman and Warren Beatty?

Answer: Ishtar
18. Among the most famous types of this animal are sooty, laysan, and black-browed, and because of their tameness on land they are also known by common names like mollymawk and gooney. Making up the family Diomedeidae, they are among the most spectacular gliders of all birds, using their long, narrow wings to stay aloft in windy weather for hours, although in calm air they have trouble keeping their stout bodies airborne and prefer to rest on the ocean surface. Known for their size, the wandering version has a typical wingspread of more than 11 feet, the largest among living birds. FTP, what is this type of bird which sailors held were bad luck to kill?

Answer: albatross
19. Questa o quella is a notworthy aria in this opera, one of the few post-1830's operas to feature the baritone as the chief protagonist. The action is driven by a curse placed by Monterone on the protagonist, who is soon approached by the assassin Sparafucile, who is soon paid to kill the libertine Duke of Mantua. However, Maddalena falls for the duke and has Sparafucile spare him, after which he mistakenly kills Gilda, the protagonist's daughter. Featuring the aria La donne e mobile, FTP, what is this opera about a court jester by Verdi?

Answer: Rigoletto
20. Near the end of this poem, the poet imagines an old farmer, described as a "hoary-headed swain", who replies to the questions the poet has posed. Earlier, the author claimed that many of the poor could have flourished outside their rural environment, stating "Full many a flower is born to blush unseen/ And waste its sweetness on the desert air". Lamenting the unfulfilled potential of a "mute inglorious Milton", he then wonders how many potential evil doers were rendered guiltless by living "far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife". FTP, such is a partial description of what famous poem by Thomas Gray?

Answer: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
21. At the age of 7 this man was given the title Duke of Reichstadt, but possessed no official political power. From the age of 3 until his death in 1832 he lived at Vienna under the control of Metternich. Known as l'Aiglon, or The Eaglet, he was named King of Rome on his birth, but never ruled. FTP, who was this son of Marie Louise who was named successor to Napoleon Bonaparte on his abdication?

Answer: Napoleon II


1. FTPE, name the following from chemistry.

1. (10 points) This is the number of groups, molecules, atoms, or ions, surrounding a given atom or ion in a complex or crystal.

Answer: coordination number

2. (10 points) Often seen in crystals, this is an arrangement of spheres so as to occupy the minimum amount of space. In it, each sphere is surrounded by six neighbors in a single plane, while spheres on the second plane fit into the depressions made by the first plane. The coordination number for a crystal exhibiting this is 12.

Answer: close packing

3. (10 points) There are seven classifications of crystal systems based on their unit cell. If the cell is parallelpiped with sides a, b, and c, what classification results when all the sides are equal, but the angles between the sides are all different?

Answer: triclinic
2. FTPE, answer the following about U.S. foreign policy.

1. (10 points) Associated with the presidency of Taft, this policy used foreign investments and loans to Latin America to support US business interests in those areas.

Answer: Dollar Diplomacy

2. (10 points) This man was the architect of Dollar Diplomacy while serving as Taft's Secretary of State. He was also Attorney General from 1901-04 and drew up the legislation creating the Department of Commerce and Labor.

Answer: Philander Knox

3. (10 points) Dollar Diplomacy was frequently supported using this modification to the Monroe Doctrine which asserted the US right to intervene in the actions of countries which did not keep domestic order or honor international financial agreements.

Answer: Roosevelt Corollary
3. FTPE, name these Supreme Court cases.

1. (10 points) In this 1962 case the court overturned Colgrove v. Green by voting 6-2 that federal courts had jurisdiction over apportionment of state legislatures, laying the foundation for Wesberry v. Sanders and Reynolds v. Sims.

Answer: Baker v. Carr

2. (10 points) The Court ruled 5-4 that state courts could not use evidence found by unreasonable search and seizures in this case sparked with Cleveland police failed to present a warrant while searching an apartment in which obscene materials were found. It overturned Wolf v. Colorado.

Answer: Mapp v. Ohio

3. (10 points) In 1875 the Court ruled unanomously that the 14th Amendment did not require states to let women vote, declaring the "the Constitution does not confer the right of suffrage on anyone."

Answer: Minor v. Happersett
4. FTPE, name the following about a Moliere play.

1. (10 points) In this play, the well-to-do Parisian Orgon is won over by the title character's hypocrital shows of piousness, and he eventually gives the title character the deed to his home.

Answer: Tartuffe

2. (10 points) Orgon's son Damis is thrown out of the house after witnessing Tartuffe attempt to seduce this wife of Orgon.

Answer: Elmire

3. (10 points) Tartuffe threatens to thwart the proposed marriage of Orgon's daughter Mariane to this man.

Answer: Valere
5. FTPE, answer the following about a religious group.

1. (10 points) Formed in 1954, this religious group is loosely based on Christianity as interpreted by its founder, a former engineering student and dock worker who claimed to have talked with Jesus, Buddha, and Moses. They are controversial due to accusations that they brainwash their members.

Answer: Unification Church (prompt on Moonies)

2. (10 points) This South Korean founder of the Unification Church was convicted of tax fraud in 1982. His name is the source of a popular nickname for the Unification Church.

Answer: Sun Myung Moon

3. (10 points) The core document of the Unification Church is this book which contains Moon's autobiography and religious views.

Answer: Divine Principle
6. FTPE, name these orders of ungulates given the type of hooved animals which they contain.

1. (10 points) even-toed ungulates, including swine, camels, deer, and bovines

Answer: artiodactyla or artiodactyls

2. (10 points) elephants

Answer: Proboscidea

3. (10 points) odd-toed ungulates, including horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses

Answer: Perissodactyla or Perissodactyls
7. FTPE, name these violin virtuosos.

1. (10 points) One of the foremost improvisers of his day, this 18th and 19th century violinist composed 42 Etudes ou caprices and the opera Lodoiska. He is the namesake of the opus 47 violin concerto of Beethoven which was actually written for the English virtuoso George Hightower.

Answer: Rodolphe Kreutzer

2. (10 points) This man's second violin sonata contains the famous Bell Canto section. Known for his revolutionary use of pizzicato, he became famous for 24 caprices and rumors of his association with the Devil.

Answer: Niccolo Paganini

3. (10 points) The brother of the pianist Hephzibah, this violinist rose to fame at the age of 7, and studied under Enesco and Adolf Busch. He was known for championing Eastern music and reviving forgotten works, such as an early manuscript concerto of Mendelssohn.

Answer: Yehudi Menuhin
8. FTPE, show you deserve an A in Roman history and name these leaders.

1. (10 points) This man succeeded Hadrian as emperor, and ran a streamlined government which secured the weaker points of Rome's frontier. Known for a wall representing Rome's northernmost frontier in Britain, his name indicated his respect for the Senate's traditional role in government.

Answer: Titus Aurelius Antoninus Pius

2. (10 points) After accompanying a young Augustus to Rome after Julius Caesar's assassination, this leader won decisive naval victories at Naulochus against Sextus Pompeius in 35 BC and at Actium. Given wide responsibilities by Augustus, he was a prolific builder responsible for the Pantheon and the Pont du Gard in Nimes, France.

Answer: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

3. (10 points) This man served with Paulinus against the Iceni queen Boudicca, and as governor of Roman Britain from 78-84 AD he extended the Roman frontier and subjugated the Ordovices. His life was recorded by his son-in-law, Tacitus.

Answer: Gnaeus Julius Agricola
9. FTPE, name the following physics stuff associated with the spectrum of hydrogen.

1. (10 points) This constant occuring in the formulae for atomic spectra is related to the binding energy between an electron and a nucleon, and has value 1.097 times 10 to the 7 inverse meters.

Answer: Rydberg constant

2. (10 points) The relationship between the lines of the visible spectrum of hydrogen is described by this series given by 1 over lambda equals the Rydberg constant times the quantity 1 over 4 plus 1 over n sub 2 squared.

Answer: Balmer series

3. (10 points) Not predicted by Dirac's quantum theory, this shift is a small energy difference between the 2 S 1/2 and 2 P 1/2 energy levels in the hydrogen spectrum, and won its discoveror the 1955 Nobel Physics Prize.

Answer: Lamb shift
10. Despite the raging feud between your tournament editor and the University of Kentucky Role Playing Society, this question editor has decided that if you are going to write trash, write hard-core trash. FTPE, answer the following about Dungeons and Dragons's Dragonlance Saga.

1. (10 points) This is the world in which the Dragonlance saga is set.

Answer: Krynn

2. (10 points) In the saga, Krynn is threatened by this evil dragon god who attempts to find a way onto Krynn. She shares her name with a goddess in Babylonian myth.

Answer: Tiamat

3. (10 points) Tiamat's plans are foiled by a band of adventurers which includes this charismatic, power-hungry wizard who goes on to challenge Tiamat's place among the gods after taking the powers of Fistandantilis.

Answer: Raistlin
11. 30-20-10, name the author from works.

1. (30 points) The plays The Confidential Clerk and The Elder Statesman, the essay collection For Lancelot Andrewes, the poems Gerontion and Marina

(20 points) The critical works After Strange Gods and The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism, the play The Family Reunion, the poems Sweeney Erect and Ash Wednesday

(10 points) The play Murder in the Cathedral, the poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Answer: Thomas Sterns Eliot
12. FTPE, name these key figures associated with the end of the Trojan War.

1. (10 points) This son of Priam and Hecuba possessed the gift of prophecy. When captured by the Greeks, he told them what they had to do to achieve victory.

Answer: Helenus

2. (10 points) Along with stealing the Palladium and finding the poison arrows of Heracles, Helenus informed the Greeks that they must persuade this son of Achilles and Deidamea to join the war.

Answer: Neoptolemus

3. (10 points) This son of Hector and Andromache was thrown over the wall of Troy by Neoptolemus when just a baby due to Neoptolemus's fears that he might try to avenge Hector's death and reestablish the kingdom of Troy.

Answer: Astyanax
13. FTPE, name these European royal houses.

1. (10 points) A branch of the Capetians, this French house began when Philip VI ascended due to the Salic Law. The direct line ended with Charles VIII, but the dynasty continued with the Orleans branch until Henry III was replaced by the Bourbon Henry of Navarre.

Answer: Valois

2. (10 points) This was the name of the English royal family from 1901-17. Edward VII inherited it from his father, Prince Albert, but the name was replaced by Windsor during World War I.

Answer: Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

3. (10 points) This house began with Alfonso, illegitimate son of John I of Protugal. After becoming the wealthiest family in Portugal, they married into the royal family, and when Spain was ousted they took the throne, ruling from 1640-1910.

Answer: Braganza
14. FTPE, answer the following about an artist and his work.

1. (10 points) Although he spent the last 20 years of his life working secretly on the large mixed-media construction Etant Donnes, or Given that..., he is best known for readymades like Fountain and for Nude Descending A Staircase, #2.

Answer: Marcel Duchamp

2. (10 points) Sometimes referred to as "The Large Glass", this Duchamp artwork consists of two panes of glass separated by a horizontal strip. In the top can be seen the female of the title dangling lifelessly in an isolated cage, while in the bottom are a circle of nine men standing to the left of a coffee grinder.

Answer: The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even

3. (10 points) In this artwork Duchamp has simply added to the Mona Lisa a mustache, goatee, and obscene abbreviated message along the bottom which gives it its name.

Answer: L.H.O.O.Q.
15. FTPE, answer the following about metallurgy.

1. (10 points) Spiegel is a specific type of this impure form of iron produced by a blast furnace. It is named for the blocks into which the iron is cast.

Answer: pig iron

2. (10 points) In this process for converting pig iron into steel, the pig iron is loaded into a tilting furnace at about 1250 degrees Celsius. Air is blown into the furnace, impurities are removed by the converter lining, and the molten steel is poured off by tilting the furnace.

Answer: Bessemer process

3. (10 points) In the modern VLN version of the Bessemer process, oxygen and steam are blown into the furnace in place of air to minimize the absorption of this element by the steel.

Answer: nitrogen
16. FTPE, name the following about Winterbourne's in literature.

1. (10 points) While staying at Vevey, Frederick Forsythe Winterbourne meets this title herione of a Henry James novel who eventually dies of malaria.

Answer: Daisy Miller

2. (10 points) Giles Winterbourne's death is the main plot development in this author's novel The Woodlanders.

Answer: Thomas Hardy

3. (10 points) This man's novel Death of a Hero conecrns George and Elizabeth Winterbourne. The husband of Hilda Doolittle, he was the English Imagist poet responsible for Images of War and Soft Answers.

Answer: Richard Aldington
17. FTPE, philosophical deduction.

1. (10 points) This type of philosophical construction deduces the truth of a categorical statement from the truth of two other categorical statements. An example would be using the statements "All men are mortal" and "No gods are mortal" to conclude "No men are gods".

Answer: categorical syllogism

2. (10 points) This Latin phrase describes an argument which uses the law "If P, then Q" to deduce that since P is true, Q must in fact also be true.

Answer: modus ponens

3. (10 points) Similar to modus ponens, this Latin phrase describes an argument which uses the law "If P, then Q" to deduce that since Q is not true, the P must also not be true.

Answer: modus tollens
18. FTPE, answer the following about a certain European country.

1. (10 points) Scanderbeg is the national hero of this country whose national movement began with the League of Prizren. During WWII, its non-Communist resistance group was the Balli Kombetar.

Answer: Albania

2. (10 points) This man declared himself king of Albania in 1928, but was forced to flee to Britain when Albania was overrun by the Italians in 1939.

Answer: King Zog I

3. (10 points) Along with Mehmet Shehu this man led the communist faction in Albania during the 1940s. Head of state from 1954 until his death in 1985, his hardcore Stalism led him to split with both the Soviet Union and China.

Answer: Enver Hoxha
19. FTPE, name these Wharton works.

1. (10 points) Unfinished on her death, this novel tells of a group of social-climbing maidens who leave New York to conquer the social circles of London, guided by the governess Laura Testvalley. It was supposed to end with Nan leaving the Duke of Titagel for Guy Thwarte.

Answer: The Buccaneers

2. (10 points) Originally titled "A Moment's Ornament", this novel tells of the decline and fall of Lily Bart.

Answer: The House of Mirth

3. (10 points) The first work to gain a Pulitzer Prize for a female author, it is set in 1870s New York, and tells of the love between Ellen Olenska and Newland Archer.

Answer: The Age of Innocence
20. FTPE, answer the following about world-capital shenanigans.

1. (10 points) With a population of almost 2.8 million, this is the de facto capital of Cote d'Ivoire, although it was recently replaced as the official capital.

Answer: Abidjan

2. (10 points) Abidjan was replaced as the official capital by this town mainly since it was the hometown of the head of state at the time.

Answer: Yamoussoukro

3. (10 points) The capital of Cote d'Ivoire was moved by this man who served as president from 1960 until his 1993 death, when he was replaced by Henri Konan Bedie.

Answer: Felix Houphouet-Boigny

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