Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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135(7): 1683-1690.

An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions and to use them to establish components of children's food insecurity experience. Children (n = 32; 11-16 y old) from after school programs and a middle school in low-income areas participated in individual semistructured in-depth interviews. Children as young as 11 y could describe behaviors associated with food insecurity if they had experienced it directly or indirectly. Using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis, children's descriptions of behaviors associated with food insecurity were categorized into components of quantity of food, quality of food, psychological aspects, and social aspects described in the household food insecurity literature. Aspects of quantity included eating less than usual and eating more or eating fast when food was available. Aspects of quality included use of a few kinds of low-cost foods. Psychological aspects included worry/anxiety/sadness about the family food supply, feelings of having no choice in the foods eaten, shame/fear of being labeled as poor, and attempts to shield children. Social aspects of food insecurity centered on using social networks to acquire food or money and social exclusion. These results provide valuable information in understanding the effect of food insecurity on children's well-being especially relative to the social and emotional aspects of well-being.
Connell, R. and J. Messerschmidt (2005). "Hegemonic masculinity - Rethinking the concept." GENDER & SOCIETY 19(6): 829-859.

The concept of hegemonic masculinity has influenced gender studies across many academic fields but has also attracted serious criticism. The authors trace the origin of the concept in a convergence of ideas in the early 1980s and map the ways it was applied when research on men and masculinities expanded. Evaluating the principal criticisms, the authors defend the underlying concept of masculinity; which in most research use is neither reified nor essentialist. However the criticism of trait models of gender and rigid typologies is sound. The treatment of the subject in research on hegemonic masculinity can be improved with the aid of recent psychological models, although limits to discursive flexibility must be recognized. The concept of hegemonic masculinity does not equate to a model of social reproduction; we need to recognize social struggles in which subordinated masculinities influence dominant forms. Finally, the authors review what has been confirmed from early formulations (the idea of multiple masculinities, the concept of hegemony, and the emphasis on change) and what needs to be discarded (one-dimensional treatment of hierarchy and trait conceptions of gender). The authors suggest reformulation of the concept in four areas: a more complex model of gender hierarchy emphasizing the agency of women; explicit recognition of the geography of masculinities, emphasizing the interplay among local, regional, and global levels; a more specific treatment of embodiment in contexts of privilege and power; and a stronger emphasis on the dynamics of hegemonic masculinity, recognizing internal contradictions and the possibilities of movement toward gender democracy.


Conradson, D. (2003). "Spaces of Care in the City: The Place of a Community Drop-In Centre."

This paper explores the ways in which drop-in centers may at times function as spaces of care in the city. Drawing on participant observation research in a particular center in Bristol, England, it focuses on social relations in the drop-in space & the various subjectivities that were observed to emerge in this relational environment. Through a consideration of individuals who appeared to be positively assisted by their involvement in the drop-in, a sense is developed of the different ways in which such agencies may function as spaces of care. Use is made of Carl Rogers's notion of the core conditions for successful therapeutic encounter, as developed within the person-centered school of humanistic psychotherapy, to explicate these positive experiences. At the same time it was clear that some individuals found the drop-in to be a less than comfortable or even exclusionary environment. The paper concludes by reflecting on the broader significance of drop-in centers as caring environments & on the value of humanistic conceptions of therapeutic relation for interpreting organizational spacings of subjectivity. 1 Figure, 81 References. Adapted from the source document.


Conway, R., S. Reddy, et al. (1999). "Dietary restraint and weight gain during pregnancy." 53(11): 849-853.

Objectives: To explore dietary intake and weight gain during pregnancy in relation to dietary restraint. Design: Longitudinal prospective study. Attitudes to weight gain during pregnancy were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake by 7-d weighed diet records in early and late pregnancy. Setting: South West London 1995 - 1996. Subjects: 74 Caucasian pregnant women expecting their first or second baby were recruited through a London hospital and data from 62 women were analysed. Results: Restrained eaters were significantly less likely to experience weight gains within the recommended range for their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.026). They gained either more or less weight than recommended. Conclusions: Dietary restraint appears to have undesirable influences on eating and weight gain during pregnancy which require further attention. Sponsorship: South Bank University and Cow and Gate Nutricia Ltd. provided financial assistance for this project. Descriptors: dietary restraint; pregnancy; weight gain; slimming.


Cook, C. J. (1999). "Patterns of weaning and adult response to stress." 67(5): 803-808.

Early environmental effects including variation in maternal care? can modify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. One of the more overt early effects, involving maternal care, is weaning restraint. In this study the effects of different patterns of weaning, in the rat (Rattus norvegicus), on both adult response to restraint stress and to dexamethasone administration were examined. Animals that as pups experienced a gradual lengthening time of separation from the mother, between 21 and 30 days of postnatal age (completely separated on 30 days), showed lower levels of systemic corticosterone and glutamate in the sensory cortex in response to restraint stress than seen in other groups. These animals also showed greater suppression of corticosterone by dexamethasone than did animals abruptly removed from the mother at 21 days of age. Animals left in the cage with the mother until either 30 or 40 days of age showed the greatest levels of corticosterone and glutamate in the sensory cortex in response to the stress and the least suppression by dexamethasone. These results suggest that changes in maternal contact at time of weaning can influence adult responsiveness to stress. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.


Cook, W. L. (2001). "Interpersonal influence in family systems: A social relations model analysis." Child Development 72(4): 1179-1197.

Is parental control of a child's behavior due to the parenting style of the parent (e.g., authoritative parenting), the child's inclination toward compliance (i.e., an "easy" child), or the reciprocal system of parent-child exchange? This study addressed this question, as well as the broader one of who drives the interaction whenever one family member influences another. Family members from 208 two-parent two-child families of adolescents rated the degree to which each person in the family influenced each of the other family members. Social relations analysis of these data indicated that characteristics of the partner and the unique actor-partner "fit" were systematic sources of interpersonal influence, and that reciprocal influence was present in most-but not all-family dyads. A pattern in which parents compensate for each other's influenceability was also found. It is recommended that these findings be replicated using observational data that have been sequentially analyzed


Cooke, L. J., J. Wardle, et al. (2004). "Demographic, familial and trait predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption by pre-school children." Public Health Nutrition 7(2): 295-302.

Copperman, N. (2004). "Heightening awareness about soft drink consumption." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(8): 1249-1250.

Coren, C. (2003). "Clinician support may play a role in mothers' decision to continue breast-feeding." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35(6): 278-279.

Cornwall, A. and N. Lindisfarne (1994). Dislocating masculinity : comparative ethnographies. London, Routledge.

Costa, D. L. (2004). "Race and pregnancy outcomes in the twentieth century: A long-term comparison." Journal of Economic History 64(4): 1056-1086.

Counihan, C. and S. L. Kaplan (1998). Food and gender : identity and power. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Harwood Academic Publishers.

Counihan, C. and P. Van Esterik (1997). Food and culture : a reader. New York ; London, Routledge.

Coveney, J. (2000). Food, Morals and Meaning: the pleasure and anxiety of eating. London, Routledge.

Coveney, J. (2005). "A qualitative study exploring socio-economic differences in parental lay knowledge of food and health: Implications for public health nutrition." Public Health Nutrition 8(3): 290-297.

Background: The role played by lay knowledge in understanding health inequalities has received increased interest recently. Very little is known, however, about how lay knowledge of food and health varies across social class. The present exploratory study compared and contrasted ways in which people from different social backgrounds draw on and use different forms of lay knowledge about food and health. Method: Parents from 40 families were recruited from two socio-economically different suburbs (20 families from each suburb). In-depth interviews were conducted with the mother and father in each family to examine lay knowledge about food and health. All interviews were transcribed and coded for specific themes. Responses from each suburb were compared and contrasted. Results: Different forms of lay knowledge about food and health were noted, especially concerning children's eating habits. Parents in the high-income suburb were more likely to discuss food and health in technical terms informed by contemporary nutritional or medical priorities. Parents in the low-income suburb did not share this discourse, but instead were more likely to discuss food in terms related to children's outward appearance or functional capacity. Conclusions and implications: The research highlights differences in lay knowledge about food and health across social class. It emphasises the need for public health nutrition policy-makers and practitioners to pay attention to lay knowledge on its own terms, rather than attempting to educate from predetermined assumptions, principles and standards. copyright The Author 2004.


Coveney, J. (2005). "A qualitative study exploring socio-economic differences in parental lay knowledge of food and health: implications for public health nutrition." 8(3): 290-297.

Background: The role played by lay knowledge in understanding health inequalities has received increased interest recently. Very little is known, however, about how lay knowledge of food and health varies across social class. The present exploratory study compared and contrasted ways in which people from different social backgrounds draw on and use different forms of lay knowledge about food and health. Method: Parents from 40 families were recruited from two socio-economically different suburbs (20 families from each suburb). In-depth interviews were conducted with the mother and father in each family to examine lay knowledge about food and health. All interviews were transcribed and coded for specific themes. Responses from each suburb were compared and contrasted. Results: Different forms of lay knowledge about food and health were noted, especially concerning children's eating habits. Parents in the high-income suburb were more likely to discuss food and health in technical terms informed by contemporary nutritional or medical priorities. Parents in the low-income suburb did not share this discourse, but instead were more likely to discuss food in terms related to children's outward appearance or functional capacity. Conclusions and implications: The research highlights differences in lay knowledge about food and health across social class. It emphasises the need for public health nutrition policy-makers and practitioners to pay attention to lay knowledge on its own terms, rather than attempting to educate from predetermined assumptions, principles and standards.


Coveney, J. (2005). "A qualitative study exploring socio-economic differences in parental lay knowledge of food and health: implications for public health nutrition." PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 8(3): 290-297.

BACKGROUND: The role played by lay knowledge in understanding health inequalities has received increased interest recently. Very little is known, however, about how lay knowledge of food and health varies across social class. The present exploratory study compared and contrasted ways in which people from different social backgrounds draw on and use different forms of lay knowledge about food and health. METHOD: Parents from 40 families were recruited from two socio-economically different suburbs (20 families from each suburb). In-depth interviews were conducted with the mother and father in each family to examine lay knowledge about food and health. All interviews were transcribed and coded for specific themes. Responses from each suburb were compared and contrasted. RESULTS: Different forms of lay knowledge about food and health were noted, especially concerning children's eating habits. Parents in the high-income suburb were more likely to discuss food and health in technical terms informed by contemporary nutritional or medical priorities. Parents in the low-income suburb did not share this discourse, but instead were more likely to discuss food in terms related to children's outward appearance or functional capacity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The research highlights differences in lay knowledge about food and health across social class. It emphasises the need for public health nutrition policy-makers and practitioners to pay attention to lay knowledge on its own terms, rather than attempting to educate from predetermined assumptions, principles and standards.


Coveney, J. and I. ebrary (2000). Food, morals and meaning : the pleasure and anxiety of eating. London ; New York, Routledge.

Cowan, P. A. and C. P. Cowan (2002). "Interventions as tests of family systems theories: Marital and family relationships in children's development and psychopathology." Development and Psychopathology 14(4): 731-759.

This paper addresses the role of family-based studies of preventive and therapeutic interventions in our understanding of normal development and psychopathology. The emphasis is on interventions designed to improve parent-child and/or marital relationships as a way of facilitating development and reducing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Intervention designs provide the gold standard for testing causal hypotheses. We begin by discussing the complexity of validating these hypotheses and the implications of the shift from it traditional emphasis on theories of etiology to developmental psychopathology's newer paradigm describing risks --> pathways --> outcomes. We summarize correlational studies that document the fact that difficult and ineffective parent-child and marital relationships function as risk factors for children's cognitive, social, and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence. We then review prevention studies and therapy evaluation studies that establish some specific parenting and marital variables as causal risk factors with respect to these Outcomes. Our discussion focuses on what intervention studies have revealed so far and suggests an agenda for further research
Cowdery, R. S. and C. Knudson-Martin. (2005). "The Construction of Motherhood: Tasks, Relational Connection, and Gender Equality."

This qualitative analysis of 50 couples explored how gender equality is related to the construction of motherhood in their day-to-day interactions. Results identified two models of mothering: (a) mothering as a gendered talent & (b) mothering as conscious collaboration. The first model perpetuated gender inequality through a recursive task-relationship cycle between mothers & children. More equal couples consciously collaborated to create a task-relationship spiral for fathers as well as mothers. Processes involved in each view of mothering were discussed relative to the distribution of parenting tasks. The findings suggest that families would benefit from education & clinical approaches that address gender & power, encourage open discussion regarding how child care choices are made, & develop new skills for both genders. 1 Table, 2 Figures, 40 References. Adapted from the source document.


Craig, S. (1992). Men, masculinity, and the media. Newbury Park, Calif. ; London, Sage Publications.

Crampton, R. (2006). Beta Male. The Times. London.

Crang, P., C. Dwyer, et al. (2003). "Transnationalism and the spaces of commodity culture." Progress in Physical Geography 27(4): 438-456.

This paper presents a critical assessment of the concept of transnationalism and its place within the current refiguration of cultural geography. Identifying three specific concerns with current theorizations of transnationalism (regarding the concept's scope, specificity and politics), the paper discusses the widely perceived need to 'ground' the study of transnationalism in specific empirical research. It argues that this discussion has been unhelpfully dominated by an overemphasis on identifying transnational migrant and diasporic communities. The paper highlights the authors' research with a range of food and fashion firms working between Britain and the Indian subcontinent to argue that an analysis of commodity culture provides an alternative way of advancing our understanding of contemporary transnationality. This approach suggests that transnational space can be recognized as both multidimensional and multiply inhabited. The paper concludes by outlining the alternative ways in which attention to commodity culture helps 'ground' the concept of transnationalism.


Cricco-Lizza, R. (2005). "The milk of human kindness: Environmental and human interactions in a WIC clinic that influence infant-feeding decisions of Black women." Qualitative Health Research 15(4): 525-538.

Cullen, K., Baranowski, T, Rittenberry, L, Olvera, N (2000). "Social-environmental influences on children's diets: results from focus groups with African-, Euro- and Mexican-American children and their parents." HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 15(5): 581-590.

Cummins, S. a. M., S. (2002). "'"Food Deserts" - evidence and assumption In health policy making,." British Medical Journal 325:(436-8).

Curtin, D. and L. Heldke, Eds. (1992). Cooking, Eating, Thinking: Transformative Philosophies of Food. Bllomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press.

Cutting, T. M., J. O. Fisher, et al. (1999). "Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers' dietary disinhibition." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 608-613.

Dachner, N. and V. Tarasuk. "Homeless squeegee kids: food insecurity and daily survival."

Current knowledge about food insecurity in North America is largely based on research with low-income households. Much less is known about the food experiences of homeless people, a group who are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. This study explored the food experiences of street youth, one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in Canada. To gain an in-depth understanding of food insecurity within the context of daily life, ethnographic research was undertaken with street youth at one inner-city drop-in centre in Toronto, Canada. Results of this study reveal that street youth's access to food was precarious amidst the instability and chaos of street life. The day-to-day lives of the street youth encountered in this study were characterized by a constant struggle to find safe, secure shelter, generate income, and obtain sufficient food. In this context, food was a precious commodity. Food access was inextricably linked to and contingent upon conditions of health, shelter, and income. Food access was precarious since everyday food sources purchased food and charitable food assistance were ultimately insecure. Squeegeeing (washing car windows), the primary source of income for youth in the study, was dependent on the weather, political and public will, and youth's physical health, and thus did not generate enough money to continuously meet basic food needs. Charitable food assistance was considered poor quality and was associated with food sickness. The often unsavoury atmosphere of charitable food programmes, their locations, capacity, and idiosyncratic rules, policies, and hours of operation also affected access. Findings from this study extend the current understanding of food insecurity to homeless youth and offer insight into current responses to hunger and homelessness.
Dachner, N. and V. Tarasuk (2002). "Homeless squeegee kids: food insecurity and daily survival." Social science & medicine 54(7): 1039-49.

Current knowledge about food insecurity in North America is largely based on research with low-income households. Much less is known about the food experiences of homeless people, a group who are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. This study explored the food experiences of street youth, one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in Canada. To gain an in-depth understanding of food insecurity within the context of daily life, ethnographic research was undertaken with street youth at one inner-city drop-in centre in Toronto, Canada. Results of this study reveal that street youth's access to food was precarious amidst the instability and chaos of street life. The day-to-day lives of the street youth encountered in this study were characterized by a constant struggle to find safe, secure shelter, generate income, and obtain sufficient food. In this context, food was a precious commodity. Food access was inextricably linked to and contingent upon conditions of health, shelter, and income. Food access was precarious since everyday food sources purchased food and charitable food assistance were ultimately insecure. Squeegeeing (washing car windows), the primary source of income for youth in the study, was dependent on the weather, political and public will, and youth's physical health, and thus did not generate enough money to continuously meet basic food needs. Charitable food assistance was considered poor quality and was associated with food sickness. The often unsavoury atmosphere of charitable food programmes, their locations, capacity, and idiosyncratic rules, policies, and hours of operation also affected access. Findings from this study extend the current understanding of food insecurity to homeless youth and offer insight into current responses to hunger and homelessness.


Damato, E. G., D. A. Dowling, et al. (2005). "Duration of breast feeding for mothers of twins." Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 34(2): 201-209.

Damato, E. G., D. A. Dowling, et al. (2005). "Explanation for cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of twins." Journal of Human Lactation

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