Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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22(3): 189-198.

The aim of the study was to evaluate what perceptions predicted feeding choice. A questionnaire assessing the degree of agreement with statements about the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding was developed from analysis of qualitative interviews. Two hundred and twenty-five mothers completed this questionnaire after delivery and indicated the feeding method they chose. Exploratory factorial analyses extracted 10 factors, which were entered in regression analyses predicting the choice of a feeding method. Three factors were significant predictors of the choice of the feeding method : 'breastfeeding physiological advantages for mothers', 'fear of dependency' and 'moral reasoning'. The former factor was the only factor that positively predicted breastfeeding, whereas the latter two positively predicted bottle-feeding. Possible implications to education and prevention are discussed.


Chalmers, I. (2005). "If Evidence-Informed Policy Works in Practice, Does It Matter If It Doesn't Work in Theory?"

Professionals & policy makers sometimes do more harm than good when they intervene in the lives of other people. This should prompt humility & efforts to ensure that policies & practices are informed by rigorous, transparent, up-to-date evaluations of relevant empirical evidence. Systematic reviews of relevant evidence must be designed to minimise the likelihood of confusing the effects of interventions with the effects of biases & chance. Systematic reviews are essential, although insufficient, for informing policies & practice. Critiques of this approach based solely on theory are unhelpful in efforts to protect the public from harmful & useless interventions. 1 Figure, 39 References. Adapted from the source document.


Chamberlayne, P. (2004). "Emotional Retreat and Social Exclusion: Towards Biographical Methods in Professional Training."

This article argues the relevance of biographical case study methods as a tool for professional practice. The case of Laura, manager of a small hostel for homeless people, shows hidden reserves of emotional understanding that Laura finds too risky to bring into play. Analysis of the structure of the interview shows the enactment & lowering of Laura's defenses in interaction with the interviewer. The article argues for support & supervision to allow professionals to recognize & use their capacities for emotional thinking, & that this kind of "experiential truth" is key both for users & professionals in tackling social exclusion. Methodological parallels between biographical methods & effective training are also drawn through discussion of responses to a training video based on a fictionalized version of a critical incident from this interview. 30 References. Adapted from the source document.


Charles, N. and M. Kerr (1986). "Eating Properly, the Family and State Benefit." Sociology 20(3): 412-429.

In this paper we explore the relations between `proper' eating and the family. In particular we are concerned to analyse the attitudes towards food and eating that are expressed by women who are dependent on the state for their basic needs, and the way in which these attitudes relate to food practices within their households. We demonstrate that families living on state benefit find it difficult to eat `properly'; that is, they are unable to consume `proper meals' (consisting of meat or fish, potatoes and vegetables) regularly and a Sunday dinner once a week. Attempts to maintain these standards of proper eating have consequences in terms of the food consumption of all family members. This is explored in relation to single parent and two parent unemployed families and it is shown that the presence of a male partner has an impact on the diet of all members of the family.


Charles, N. and M. Kerr (1986). "Food for Feminist Thought." The Sociological Review 34(3): 537-571.

Charles, N. and M. Kerr (1986). Issues of responsibility and control in the feeding of families. The Politics of Health Education: Raising the Issues. S. Rodmell and A. Watt. London, Routledge: 57-75.

Charles, N. and M. Kerr (1987). Just the way it is: Gender and age differences in family food consumption. Give and Take in Families: Studies in resource distribution. J. Brannen and G. Wilson. London, Allen and Unwin.

Charles, N. and M. Kerr (1988). Women, food and families. Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Charsley, S. R. (1992). Wedding cakes and cultural history. London ; New York, Routledge.

Chase, S. E. (2005). Narrative Inquiry: Multiple Lenses, Approaches, Voices. The Sage Handbook if Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. California; London; New Dehli, Sage.

Chen, M. Y., K. James, et al. (2005). "Health-related behavior and adolescent mothers." 22(4): 280-288.

Objective: To explore health-related behaviors among adolescent mothers living in the rural area of Taoyuan, Taiwan. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive design and nonrandom survey method were used. Sample: The sample consisted of 37 adolescent mothers, identified by public health nurses. Measurements: Standardized interview and Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) questionnaire. Results: Findings revealed a pattern of economic disadvantage. Nearly half of the participants still lived with their biological parents. Two-thirds needed economic support from their parents (generally coming from their biological mother). Thirty-five percent of participants reported never using contraceptives, two-thirds had never had a Pap smear, and 44% did not breast-feed their infants. Nearly 60% of the children were cared for by the biological mothers of the participants. Adolescent mothers with high school education, and who were employed, married, and received parental economic support had better health-related behaviors than adolescent mothers without these characteristics. Conclusions: Although the study sample has geographic limitations, future international studies with similar populations of adolescent mothers in rural settings will help public health nurses understand adolescent mothers' stressors and needs which in turn affect their health-related behaviors. Intervention strategies are needed to encourage behaviors to keep this population healthy.


Cherrier, H. (2005). Using Existential-Phenomenological Interviewing to Explore Meanings of Consumption. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage: 125-135.

Chezem, J., C. Friesen, et al. (2003). "Breastfeeding knowledge, breastfeeding confidence, and infant feeding plans: Effects on actual feeding practices." Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 32(1): 40-47.

Chumbler, N. R., J. Fortney, et al. (2004). "Sense of Coherence and Mental Health Service Utilization: The Case of Family Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Cognitively-Impaired Seniors."

The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether family caregivers with a stronger sense of coherence (SOC) who are caring for community dwelling older adults with cognitive impairment are less likely to use mental health services. An adaptation of the Anderson behavioral model of access to health care was employed as a conceptual framework. Data were collected for 304 impaired older adult/family caregiver dyads. Caregiver mental health service use & sense of coherence were measures as well as predisposing factors (age, gender race, education, type of familial relationship, family size, & co-residence with impaired family member), enabling factors (self-reported awareness of services, travel times to mental health services, social support, & insurance), & need factors (chronic health conditions & distress). The impaired elder's age, level of physical impairment, & level of memory impairment were also examined. Logistic regression results indicated that caregivers who have a stronger SOC were less likely to use mental health services (OR = 0.91, p = 0.006). Other significant independent predictors of mental health service use were social support (OR = 0.34, p = 0.032) & caregivers aiding family members with higher levels of physical impairment (OR = 1.14, p = 0.033). The results of this study support clinicians & planners developing mental health services that use SOC to mitigate the detrimental effects of caregiving. Future research is needed to target effective measures to positively manipulate this variable. 2 Tables, 28 References. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.].


Churchill, W. (1940). "The Few." The Fifties Web Retrieved 28 March, 2006, from http://www.fiftiesweb.com/usa/winston-churchill-so-few.htm.

Chye, J. K., Z. Zain, et al. (1997). "Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors." 43(5): 287-292.

Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal. plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (>27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34), Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, less than or equal to 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor, The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates.
Clark, R. (2002). "Marked men: white masculinity in crisis." JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES 11(3): 297-298.

Clarke, I., A. Hallsworth, et al. (2006). "Retail restructuring and consumer choice 1. Long-term local changes in consumer behaviour: Portsmouth, 1980-2002." Environment and Planning A 38(1): 25-46.

Over the last two decades fundamental changes have taken place in the global supply and local structure of provision of British food retailing. Consumer lifestyles have also changed markedly. Despite some important studies of local interactions between new retail developments and consumers, we argue in this paper that there is a critical need to gauge the cumulative effects of these changes on consumer behaviour over longer periods. In this, the first of two papers, we present the main findings of a study of the effects of long-term retail change on consumers at the local level. We provide in this paper an overview of the changing geography of retail provision and patterns of consumption at the local level. We contextualise the Portsmouth study area as a locality that typifies national changes in retail provision and consumer lifestyles; outline the main findings of two large-scale surveys of food shopping behaviour carried out in 1980 and 2002; and reveal the impacts of retail restructuring on consumer behaviour. We focus in particular on choice between stores at the local level and end by problematising our understanding of how consumers experience choice, emphasising the need for qualitative research. This issue is then dealt with in our complementary second paper, which explores choice within stores and how this relates to the broader spatial context.
Clatterbaugh, K. (2004). "brother's keeper: What the social sciences do (and don't) tell us about masculinity." Contemporary Pscyhology - APA Review of Books 49(4): 448-450.

Clendinning, A. (1998). "Gas and Water Feminism: Maud Adeline Brereton and Edwardian Domestic Technology." Canadian Journal of History 33(1): 1-24.

In 1911, a group of British gas managers made advertising history by establishing a collective organization dedicated to the promotion of a single industry. The British Commercial Gas Association (BCGA) directed its campaigns at various consumer groups, including builders, architects, and tenants. To present the "woman's point of view" to their female customers, the BCGA executive hired Maud Adeline Claudesley Brereton as editor-in-chief of its monthly publicity magazines. A former teacher turned domestic science specialist, Brereton decided to work for the private sector, the gas industry, because it offered a practical solution to housing problems. In this respect, Brereton combined business with social reform. Maud Adeline Brereton anticipated that gas technology, in the form of cookers, water boilers, and gas fires, had the potential to raise housing and nutrition standards for all classes. Within the context of public debates over racial deterioration and eugenics, Brereton promoted ameliorative technology to improve the health of the population. Moreover, she maintained that technology made possible a "domestic revolution" by significantly reducing the time and effort that women, as both servants and housewives, expended on housework. Time saved on housekeeping might be directed to more profitable and gratifying pursuits, including paid employment or voluntary service, extending women's influence beyond the private sphere. Given her preoccupation with public health and domestic architecture, Brereton continued the work of an earlier generation of Victorian feminist designers. As an Edwardian, she was not alone in this crusade, and interwar women's groups renewed calls for affordable labor-saving domestic technology. However, Brereton stands out among her contemporaries because she chose to work not through political organizations, but in the corporate sector in an age when few women held positions of influence in the predominantly male business world.
Clifton, K. (2004). "Mobility strategies and food shopping for low-income families - A case study." Journal of Planning Education and Research 23(4): 402-413.

Cloherty, M., J. Alexander, et al. (2004). "Supplementing breast-fed babies in the UK to protect their mothers from tiredness or distress." Midwifery 20(2): 194-204.

Cloherty, M., J. Alexander, et al. (2005). "The cup-versus-bottle debate: A theme from an ethnographic study of the supplementation of breastfed infants in hospital in the United Kingdom." 21(2): 151-162.

This article reports 1 theme from an ethnographic Study that aimed to describe the experiences. expectations, and beliefs of mothers and health care professionals concerning supplementation in a UK maternity unit. Observation was conducted on the postnatal ward and the newborn infant unit, and 30 mothers, 17 midwives, 4 neonatal nurses, 3 health care assistants, 3 senior house officers, and 3 senior pediatricians gave in-depth interviews during a 9-month period in 2002. One of the major themes that emerged was the cup-versus-bottle debate. There were 3 categories strongly linked to this theme: difficulties returning to the breast, ease Of use, and necessary skills and knowledge. It appears there is an urgent need to determine which is the best method of giving supplementary feeds, so that full, accurate information can be given to mothers. appropriate policies be devised, and the necessary resources and staff training be provided.


Coakley, A. (2003). "Food or ‘virtual’ food? The construction of children’s food in a global economy." International Journal of Consumer Studies 27(4): 335–340.

This paper explores the pattern of change and development in the marketization and reconstitution of food products for children. It is in the past few decades that global corporations’ search for new markets has come to focus intensely on children. In the eyes of global corporations, children are a huge, multibillion dollar market. Childhood may be understood as a social construction but its form is historically specific. At present, the market is defining and reconstituting cultural meanings of childhood without being contested by other significant groups in society. The paper goes on to explore how transnational corporations have transformed the production and marketing of food. The paper discusses the food risks and the challenges faced by the fast food industry which specifically targets children. The reconstitution and the rebranding of popular children’s food is producing ‘virtual’ food rather than real food. We live in an era where childhood offers untold opportunities in the northern hemisphere. However, the global market has come to dominate and define the social construction of childhood. Other cultural forms of identity outside of consumerism are not making the same impression. The food risks associated with the global processing of food and the health risks that have been linked to these new food forms ultimately has consequences not only for children but for society as a whole.


Coates, J. (2003). Men talk : stories in the making of masculinities. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Pub.

Cockburn, C. (1997). "Domestic Technologies: Cinderella and the Engineers." Women's Studies International Forum 20(3): 361-371.

Cohen, D. (1990). Being a man. London, Routledge.

Cohen, M. (1996). Fashioning masculinity : national identity and language in the eighteenth century. London ; New York, Routledge.

Cohen, R. J., L. L. Rivera, et al. (1995). "Delaying the Introduction of Complementary Food until 6 Months Does Not Affect Appetite or Mothers Report of Food Acceptance of Breast-Fed Infants from 6 to 12 Months in a Low-Income, Honduran Population." 125(11): 2787-2792.

Low income, primiparous mothers who had exclusively breast-fed for 4 mo were randomly assigned to one of three groups: I) continued exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF), 2) introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo, with ad libitum nursing 4-6 mo (SF), and 3) introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo, with maintenance of base-line nursing frequency 4-6 mo (SF-M). After the intervention phase (4-6 mo; n = 141), home visits were conducted for a subsample at 9 (n = 60) and 12 (n = 123) mo. At each visit, an observer recorded infant food intake at the midday meal and interviewed the mother regarding usual feeding patterns and the infant's acceptance of 20 common food items. All but two infants (1.5%) were breast-fed to 9 mo and all but eight (6%) to 12 mo. There were no significant differences among groups in breast-feeding frequency, amount or number of foods consumed at the midday meal, percentage of food offered that was consumed, usual daily number of meals and snacks,number of food groups consumed, or overall food acceptance score. Frequency of consumption of foods from eight different food groups (dairy, meats, eggs, grains, beans, fruits, vegetables, tubers) was not significantly different among groups except that, at 9 mo only, the SF group (but not the SF-M group) consumed more vegetables than did the EBF group. These results indicate that delaying the introduction of complementary foods until 6 mo does not adversely affect appetite or food acceptance among breast-fed infants.


Coles, R. L. "The Parenting Roles and Goals of Single Black Full-Time Fathers."

African American fathers' definition of important parenting roles, behavioral objectives for their children, & use of sources of parenting support are studied. Data collected through in-depth interviews with single & married African American fathers (N = 10) & quantitative questionnaires were analyzed. Several findings are reported: (1) participants identified the most important parenting roles as "provider" & "nurturer," & the least important ones as "friend," "authority figure," & "disciplinarian." (2) Gender & behavioral problems played a somewhat significant role in rearranging participants' ordering of parental roles. (3) Fathers' principal parenting objectives were to instill senses of independence & self-reliance in their children. (4) Participants were hesitant to utilize support groups & parenting literature & most frequently turned to their own mothers to receive parenting support. It is concluded that the participants' parenting objectives & concerns are relatively indistinct from other groups of parents. 3 Tables, 82 References. J. W. Parker.


Coley, R. L. (2001). "(In)visible men - Emerging research on low-income, unmarried, and minority fathers." American Psychologist 56(9): 743-753.

The author aims to help make low-income, unmarried, and minority fathers more visible by reviewing the emerging literature base on this population and addressing important conceptual, methodological, and policy issues. Recent evidence is reviewed concerning patterns of fatherhood, factors that support or prohibit fathers' active involvement with their children, and the impact of paternal involvement on children's development. To move the field forward, advances are needed in methodology (increased use of father reports, multiple methods, and longitudinal studies), measurement (greater diversity and depth, multiple reporters), and theoretical and conceptual definitions (family systems perspectives, new and inclusive definitions of fatherhood). In particular, a multidisciplinary and contextualized perspective is an imperative aid to significantly, increase understanding of the lives and impact of low-income, unmarried, and minority fathers


Collins, M. (1999). "The Pornography of Permissiveness: Men's Sexuality and Women's Emancipation in Mid Twentieth-Century Britain." History Workshop Journal(47): 99-120.

The period 1964-72 saw the launching of a number of explicitly pornographic magazines in Britain, and the history of the era cannot be written with the pornography left out. From the alibi material of the 1950's, the new permissiveness of the 1960's led to the "pubic wars" of the 1970's, which made soft-core erotica much less soft than before. The pornographers' task was facilitated by the attitude of the intelligentsia, which gave it a patina of respectability, and sales suddenly ballooned. Pornographers, catering as they continued to do to all manner of male anxieties and fears, recognized feminists as their natural enemies well before any feminist did the reverse. After a brief imaginative flowering in the 1960's, the magazines went back to their old misogynistic trough in the 1970's.


Collins, S. B. "Vulnerability and Assets in Urban Poverty: Bringing Together Participatory Methods and a Sustainable Livelihoods Framework."

The central aim of this study is to contribute to a fuller understanding of poverty by bringing together an analysis of the structural and institutional contexts in which poverty exists with an understanding of the everyday livelihood strategies used by households who are poor. This study goes beyond conventional income poverty measures by bringing together a sustainable livelihoods framework and participatory poverty assessment methods. Both of these approaches, primarily used in non-Western rural and urban settings, have been applied in a Canadian urban setting with low income households who use the emergency services of Project SHARE in Niagara Falls, Ontario. The sustainable livelihoods framework pays particular attention to structural and institutional issues which impact on livelihoods, drawing on the concepts of assets and vulnerability. The importance of assets in the lives of households is explored through in-depth structured interviews with 44 households who use Project SHARE's services. Assets are defined broadly to include household relations, health education, labour (including income), housing (including durable goods) and social networks. The extent of commoditization of public services and the coping strategies pursued by households are also examined. Participatory methods in the study of poverty invite those living in difficult circumstances to participate in an analysis of their own livelihood situation. A participatory poverty assessment has been facilitated with a small group of women who are members of the food co-op at Project SHARE. The Participatory Poverty Assessment explores issues of well-being, assets, the role of institutions, coping strategies and a community action plan. The contribution of both the exploration of assets and the Participatory Poverty Assessment are brought together in a discussion of livelihoods including issues of well-being, gender, social solidarity, capabilities and functionings, and the power of institutions. The combination of a sustainable livelihoods framework and a participatory poverty assessment has demonstrated the importance of non-material needs, uncovered unmet needs, demonstrated the importance of social relationships in sustaining livelihoods, added to an understanding of poverty as an inseparable interaction between means and ends, and demonstrated how the institution of welfare administration shapes and constrains the possibilities for livelihood well-being.


Communities., C. o. t. E. and E. Network on other Measures to Reconcile, Family, Responsibilities, Childcare (1994). Men as carers : towards a culture of responsibility, sharing and reciprocity between women and men in the care and upbringing of children : report of an international seminar Ravenna, Italy May 21-22 1993. London, European Commission Network on Childcare and other Measures to Reconcile Employment and Family Responsibilities.

Connell, C. L., K. L. Lofton, et al. (2005). "Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being." Journal of Nutrition

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