Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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105(9): 1411-1416.

Objective To determine if differences existed in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their sons' weight, controlling child-feeding practices (ie, restriction, monitoring, and pressure to eat), and parenting styles (ie, authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) by their sons' body mass index (BMI). Design One person (L.S.B.) interviewed mothers and boys using validated questionnaires and measured boys' weight and height; fathers completed questionnaires independently. Subjects/setting Subjects were white, preadolescent boys and their parents. Boys were grouped by their BMI into an average BMI group (n=25; BMI percentile between 33rd and 68th) and a high BMI group (n=24; BMI percentile >= 85th). Statistical analyses performed Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance. Results Mothers and fathers of boys with a high BMI saw their sons as more overweight (mothers P=.03, fathers P=.01), were more concerned about their sons' weight (P <.0001, P=.004), and used pressure to eat with their sons less often than mothers and fathers of boys with an average BMI (P <.0001, P <.0001). In addition, fathers of boys with a high BMI monitored their sons' eating less often than fathers of boys with an average BMI (P=.006). No differences were found in parenting by boys' BMI groups for either mothers or fathers. Conclusions More controlling child-feeding practices were found among mothers (pressure to eat) and fathers (pressure to eat and monitoring) of boys with an average BMI compared with parents of boys with a high BMI. A better understanding of the relationships between feeding practices and boys' weight is necessary. However, longitudinal research is needed to provide evidence of causal association.


Brann, L. S. and J. D. Skinner (2005). "More controlling child-feeding practices are found among parents of boys with an average body mass index compared with parents of boys with a high body mass index." 105(9): 1411-1416.

Objective To determine if differences existed in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their sons' weight, controlling child-feeding practices (ie, restriction, monitoring, and pressure to eat), and parenting styles (ie, authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) by their sons' body mass index (BMI). Design One person (L.S.B.) interviewed mothers and boys using validated questionnaires and measured boys' weight and height; fathers completed questionnaires independently. Subjects/setting Subjects were white, preadolescent boys and their parents. Boys were grouped by their BMI into an average BMI group (n=25; BMI percentile between 33rd and 68th) and a high BMI group (n=24; BMI percentile >= 85th). Statistical analyses performed Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance. Results Mothers and fathers of boys with a high BMI saw their sons as more overweight (mothers P=.03, fathers P=.01), were more concerned about their sons' weight (P <.0001, P=.004), and used pressure to eat with their sons less often than mothers and fathers of boys with an average BMI (P <.0001, P <.0001). In addition, fathers of boys with a high BMI monitored their sons' eating less often than fathers of boys with an average BMI (P=.006). No differences were found in parenting by boys' BMI groups for either mothers or fathers. Conclusions More controlling child-feeding practices were found among mothers (pressure to eat) and fathers (pressure to eat and monitoring) of boys with an average BMI compared with parents of boys with a high BMI. A better understanding of the relationships between feeding practices and boys' weight is necessary. However, longitudinal research is needed to provide evidence of causal association.


Brannen, J. (1995). "Young-People and Their Contribution to Household Work." Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association 29(2): 317-338.

This article considers the theoretical and empirical neglect of children's contribution to household work. It draws upon a two-stage study of the transfer of responsibility from parents to their sixteen year-olds; a questionnaire survey of 843 young people and an interview study of parents and young people in 64 households. It considers the frequency and nature of young people's contribution to housework and changes taking place between the questionnaire and the interview studies, and makes the distinction between family-care and self-care. Drawing on the interview accounts, it examines parents' general expectations of young people in respect of housework and, more specifically, the ways these negotiations work out in practice with respect to a number of criteria - gender, cultural values, age and birth order, mothers' employment and young people's employment and education. These factors were also found to structure the survey data.


Brannen, J. and M. Obrien (1995). "Social Focus on Children - Church,J, Summerfield,C." Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association 29(4): 729-737.

Brannen, J. and P. Storey (1998). "School meals and the start of secondary school." Health Education Research 13(1): 73-86.

The article draws on empirical data from a study of children's health in the context of children's transition to secondary school. It focuses upon the school food practices of children in the context of changes which have occurred in recent years within the UK secondary school meals service, i.e. a move from 'meal provision' via Local Education Authorities to the individualized, commercial system of 'food choice'. The study draws upon: (1) extensive data from a questionnaire survey (N = 536) with children which was conducted in three state secondary schools in West London containing a high proportion of ethnic minority (Asian origin) children; and (2) intensive case study data from a subsample of 31 households, drawn from the survey according to the following criteria: mothers' employment status (full-time and nonemployed), sex of child, household composition (single mother and two parent households! and ethnic origin of parents (UK origin and Asian origin). The children and their mothers and fathers were separately interviewed. Drawing on both the quantitative and qualitative data, the article describes the school as a site of food consumption and identifies different kinds of food practices of children in their first year of secondary school which are mediated by a variety of factors. These include: the sex of the child, household resources via parental employment the decisions and choices of children themselves, and the strategies that parents (mothers:, employ to control their children's diet. The option available to children to make choices about food emerges as an attractive and novel feature of moving to secondary school, but one that may have consequences for children's health because of the mode of food supply and the nature of the food on offer.
Braun, B. (2001). Perspectives on Parenting. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 239-248.

Brembeck, H. (2004). Pinnochio Meets Jafar: The Wonders of Happy Meal Toys. Beyond the Competent Child: Exploring contemporary childhoods in the Nordic welfare societies. H. Brembeck, B. Johansson and J. Kampmann. Roskilde, Roskilde University Press: 293-313.

Brembeck, H. (2005). "Home to McDonald's: Upholding the family dinner with the help of McDonald's." Food, Culture and Society 8(2): 216-226.

Brembeck, H. (2005). Supervising Healthy Eating: Swedish Women Fighting the Gender Barrier. Faire La cuisine, Toulouse.

The work of feeding the family is generally regarded as intimately bound to identities as a woman, souse and mother, leading to the trauma of the 'empty nest' when children are leaving home. This paper challenges these statements, using examles from an ongoing project of Swedish 'baby-boomer' women born in the 1940s. For these women cooking and the preparation of food for the family is not altogether intertwined with their identities as women. They have generally accepted the main repsonsibility for feeding the family, but not as a devotional work of love on their own, but rather as supervisors of the children and the husband, who in many instances are the ones doing most oart of the practical work. For the baby-boomer women in this study, cooking and provisioning is not an essential part of female identity, but is seen as something that might be undertaken by any family member regardless of sex.
Brembeck, H., B. Johansson, et al., Eds. (2004). Beyond the Competent Child: Exploring contemporary childhoods in the Nordic welfare societies. Roskilde, Roskilde University Press.

Brewis, A. and M. Gartin (X2006). "Biocultural construction of obesogenic ecologies of childhood: Parent-feeding versus child-eating strategies." American Journal of Human Biology 18(2): 203-213.



Human biologists recognize the centrality of parental feeding beliefs and related practices in structuring children's under-nutrition risk in food-insecure settings. By contrast, how they might similarly structure children's nutrition-related health risks in calorically rich ecologies has barely been considered. Using the case of 3- to 6-year-old children in a rural Southeastern U.S. community with very high obesity rates, we use cognitive methods such as consensus analysis to determine how parental cultural models of child eating and feeding are linked to high calorie, obesogenic child diets. We find that parental models are very consistent with biomedical understandings (reduce fat, reduce sugar, portion control, etc.). Regardless, children's diets are extremely high in calories overall as well as in high sugar and fat food items. We suggest three likely and mutually reinforcing contributing factors to persistent and increasing early childhood overweight and obesity: parents' ambivalence about modeling healthy eating, children's active resistance, and the balance of parents' social against nutritive goals at mealtimes. The active role of children as social architects of their own biology has been little explored in human biological studies, and should provide novel and important understandings of the biocultural construction of childhood over-nutrition.
Briefel, R., P. Ziegler, et al. (2006). "Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: Characteristics and usual nutrient intake of hispanic and non-hispanic infants and toddlers." 106(1): S84-S95.

Objective To compare demographic and maternal characteristics and usual nutrient intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age in the United States. Design We conducted three interviews by telephone to collect information on sociodemographic and maternal characteristics, feeding practices, and dietary intake in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. We collected 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second day's intake on a subsample, using the Nutrition Data System for Research. We used the Personal Computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation to estimate usual nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy and excess for three age subgroups-infants 4-5 months, infants 6-11 months, and toddlers 12-24 months-and Hispanic or non-Hispanic ethnicity. Subjects A national sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4-24 months, including 371 Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic subjects. Statistical analysis We compared means, percentile distributions, and percentages by age/Hispanic ethnicity subgroup, and applied the Dietary Reference Intakes to assess nutrient intakes. Results Mothers of Hispanic infants and toddlers were younger, less likely to be married, and had lower education levels than mothers of non-Hispanic infants and toddlers (P < .01). Hispanic infants and toddlers had significantly higher rates of participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children than non-Hispanic infants and toddlers (42% to 23%) and were more likely to reside in urban areas and have lower annual household income levels (P < .01). There were no significant differences in usual energy intake between Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, and mean usual energy intake exceeded the mean estimated energy requirement for all age/ethnicity subgroups. Hispanic toddlers consumed a significantly higher proportion of energy from carbohydrate (56% to 53%, P < .01) and a significantly lower percentage of energy from fat (31% to 33%, P < .01) than nonHispanics. Comparing usual mean intakes, Hispanic infants age 6 to 11 months had a significantly lower intake of calcium than non-Hispanics (means of 574 mg and 626 mg per day, respectively, P < .05) and a significantly higher intake of sodium compared with non-Hispanics of the same age (means of 647 mg to 476 mg per day, P < .01). For infants, mean usual intakes were adequate for all nutrients. For toddlers, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was low (< 1%) with the exception of vitamin E, which was inadequate for 39% of Hispanic toddlers and 50% of non-Hispanic toddlers. For nutrients with defined Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, more than one third to almost half of toddlers exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for vitamin A and zinc, and more than half (53% and 58% for Hispanics and non-Hispanic toddlers, respectively) exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Usual mean intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and folate, potassium, and fiber were significantly higher among Hispanic toddlers compared with non-Hispanic toddlers. Conclusions The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study data provide information that is useful to practitioners, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program staff, and parents for delivering nutrition education messages that are consistent with dietary guidance for infants and toddlers as well as compatible with cultural preferences.
Brod, H. and M. Kaufman (1994). Theorizing masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Brown, R. T., A. Madan-Swain, et al. (2003). "Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their mothers." Journal of Traumatic Stress 16(4): 309-318.

We examined symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their mothers and the contribution of family functioning, including perceived emotional support and familial conflict, and individual factors including life stress and severity of disease to PTSD symptoms. Participants were 52 adolescent cancer survivors and their mothers and 42 healthy adolescent counterparts and their mothers. Findings revealed that mothers of cancer survivors endorsed more PTSD symptoms than did their healthy counterparts and that survivors and mothers also reported greater recent and past stressful life events. Although no survivors met clinical criteria for a PTSD diagnosis, over 36% endorsed mild subthreshold symptomatology. Findings are discussed in the context of understanding PTSD symptoms within a family systems framework
Brown, T., K. Klingaman, et al. (2005). "Body orientations, sleep positions, and breast feeding behavior amongst solitary and co-sleeping (bedsharing) human mother-infant pairs: mutual physiological regulatory effects." American Journal of Physical Anthropology: 80-80.

Brunner, E., M. Rayner, et al. (2001). "Making public health nutrition relevant to evidence-based action." Public Health Nutrition 4(6): 1297-1299.

Brunt, D. and L. Hansson. (2002). "The social networks of persons with severe mental illness in in-patient settings and supported community settings."

The social networks of individuals with severe mental illness admitted to long-term in-patient settings and living in two types of supported housing, small congregate community residences and independent living with support, were compared. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) was used. The results showed no substantial differences in social networks between the two types of supported community residences. These were pooled for further analyses and comparisons between in-patient settings and supported community settings. No differences were found between the two settings either for the four subscales of ISSI or for the overall ISSI score. Stepwise regression analysis revealed a positive association between perceived quality of life and social network and an inverse relation between negative symptoms and social network. Other factors possibly influencing social networks across housing settings are discussed. More qualitative data is called for in the study of social networks of persons with severe mental illness. (Original abstract)


Bruss, M. B., J. Morris, et al. (2003). "Prevention of childhood obesity: sociocultural and familial factors." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103(8): 1042-1045.

Brynhildsen, J., A. Sydsjö, et al. (2006). "Trends in body mass index during early pregnancy in Swedish women 1978–2001 " Public Health 120(5): 393-399

Objective: to study the body mass index (BMI) in women seeking maternity health care during early pregnancy in Sweden, and to show trends for a period of more than 20 years.
Study design: register study.
Methods: data from the maternity health programme on consecutively delivered women in two Swedish hospitals were collected for the years 1978, 1986, 1992, 1997 and 2001. All women were weighed at their first midwife visit between 8 and 10 weeks of gestation and height was also measured.
Results: data on 4883 women were collected. Data on weight were available for 4490 (92%) women and data on BMI were available for 4378 (90%) women. The age-adjusted average weight increased from 59.5 kg in 1978 to 68.2 kg in 2001, and the BMI increased from 21.7 in 1978 to 24.7 in 2001. In 2001, 38.6% of the women had a BMI >25 compared with 11.2 in 1978. In 2001, 11.6% of the women were obese compared with 2.2% in 1978.
Conclusions: during the last two decades, an alarming increase in weight has occurred in Swedish women of childbearing age.

Buchinger, B. (1992). "On the Undigestible - Body, Politics, Women." 21(1): 79-88.

This article deals with the phenomenon of women's eating disorders, focusing especially on bulemia, first identified about twenty years ago. The problematic aspects of current clinical debate on this phenomenon become evident when viewed as a product and expression of an asymetric and unequal sex-gender-system. The first part of the article describes the symptoms and experiences of individual women followed by a brief overview of the "social cultural substrata" involved, thus supplying the nexus of the individual and political. The family, especially mother-daughter relationship, is examined as expressions of a sex-gender-system, followed by social analysis of "nourishment" and the "body". The paper underscores the biased social organization of the relationship between the sexes, shows how bulemia can be interpreted as a form of female struggle towards a "femininity in its own right and legality".
Buhling, K. J., B. Kurzidim, et al. (2004). "Introductory experience with the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS (R); Medtronic Minimed (R)) in detecting hyperglycemia by comparing the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-pregnant women and in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes." 112(10): 556-560.

Objective: To assess the detection rate of hyperglycemia with a continuous glucose monitoring system compared to a self-monitoring blood glucose profile in non-pregnant, non-diabetic pregnant women, and patients with impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes. Methods: Eight non-pregnant (NP) and 56 pregnant women (17 dietary-treated gestational diabetics (GDM), 15 women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 non-diabetic pregnant women (NDP)) underwent a 72-hour measurement with the CGMS((R)) (Medtronic Minimed((R)), Northridge, CA, USA). Self-monitored blood glucose measurements, performed 30 minutes before and 120 minutes after each meal, were compared to the duration of hyperglycemia monitored by the continuous glucose monitoring system. Results: No clinically observable infection was found at the subcutaneous tissue where the electrode was placed. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in body mass index, HbA1c, and in gestational age, but not in age or parity. Using the self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), 88% (7/8) of the NP and 54% (13/24) of the NDP had no measurement above 6.7 mmol/l. However, 17% (4/24) of the NDP and 40% (6/15) of the IGT showed more than two measurements above 6.7 mmol/l compared to 24% (4/17) of the dietary-treated GDM. The differences between these groups were not significant (p = 0.21). The mean durations (+/- SD) of hyperglycemia above 6.7 mmol/l/24 h were: NP 111 +/- 120 min, NDP 138 +/- 120 min, IGT 381.8 +/- 295 min, and GDM 190 +/- 155 min, p = 0.017; above 7.8 mmol/l/24 h NP 24 +/- 49 min, NDP 38 +/- 47 min, IGT 170.7 +/- 190 min, and GDM 64 +/- 88 min, p=0.016; and above 8.9 mmol/l/24 h NP 9.3 +/- 25 min, NDP 7.5 +/- 14 min, IGT 59 +/- 77 min, and GDM 14 +/- 21 min, p = 0.026. There was no significant difference in the fetal outcome or rate of birth percentiles using the sensor data. Conclusions: The use of the sensor in pregnant women is unproblematic. a) The CGMS((R)) detected more frequent and longer durations of hyperglycemia in GDM compared to non-diabetic pregnant women than the SMBG. b) Women with an IGT exhibited higher glucose levels than patients with gestational diabetes. c) The clinical importance of these hyperglycemic intervals, e.g. with respect to the risk for macrosomia, must be assessed in larger trials.


Buhling, K. J., T. Winkel, et al. (2005). "Optimal timing for postprandial glucose measurement in pregnant women with diabetes and a non-diabetic pregnant population evaluated by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS (R))." 33(2): 125-131.

Objective: Using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS(R); Medtronic Minimed) for a group of pregnant women with and without glucose intolerance, we attempted to answer the following questions: (1) when does the physiological peak of postprandial glucose occur?; (2) do non-diabetic pregnant women and pregnant women with diabetes have different postprandial glucose profiles?; and (3) what is the optimal time for postprandial glucose measurement rated according to clinical outcome? Methods: We included 53 pregnant women in our study. Based on the criteria of the German Diabetes Association (fasting, 5.0 mmol/L; 1-h, 10.0 mmol/L; 2-h, 8.6 mmol/L) we included 13 women with gestational diabetes, four with type 1 diabetes and 36 non-diabetic pregnant (NDP) women. Gestational and type 1 diabetics were classed as one group: pregnancy complicated by diabetes (PCD). Patients with carbohydrate intolerance underwent dietary counseling in accordance with the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association. Patients received a CGMS(R) for use over 72 h. This was calibrated seven, times a day with an Accu-Check(R). The pre- and postprandial glucose levels were documented at 15-min intervals for 3 h from the beginning of each meal. The postprandial data from the three meals were added. The group was divided according to three clinical outcome parameters: mode of delivery, birth weight percentile, and diabetes-associated complications. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups were found for body mass index, fetal birth weight and oral glucose tolerance test. No significant differences were found for age, parity and gestational age, mode of delivery, and diabetes-associated complications. The sensor provided similar numbers of measurements in both groups (278 +/- 43 vs. 298 +/- 73, P=0.507). The postprandial glucose peak was reached after 82 +/- 18 min in the non-diabetics vs. 74 +/- 23 min in the PCD group (not significant). Postprandial glucose values were normally slightly higher in PCD (not significant). We added the postprandial glucose values at each time interval for the three meals for each day. For the sum, there was a significant difference between the measurements at 120 min and at 135 min postprandial (P<0.05). Dividing the group by clinical outcome showed a significant difference between the postprandial time intervals of 75 min and 105 min (P<0.05). In addition, the time interval was different from 60 min to 135 min for the mode of delivery and birth weight percentile (P<0.05). Conclusion: The 120-min interval is too long and has a lower correlation to clinical outcome parameters than earlier measurements. Our findings show that the optimal time for testing is between 45 and 120 min postprandial. Based on our practical experience and dietary recommendations, we would prefer a 60-min interval, because patients can calculate this more easily and can have more freedom to eat the recommended number of snacks.


Bullock, K. (2003). "Healthy family systems: The changing role of grandparents in rural areas." Gerontologist
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