Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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36(3): 201-10.

The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) is a self-report measure to assess parental beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding child feeding, with a focus on obesity proneness in children. Confirmatory factor analysis tested a 7-factor model, which included four factors measuring parental beliefs related to child's obesity proneness, and three factors measuring parental control practices and attitudes regarding child feeding. Using a sample of 394 mothers and fathers, three models were tested, and the third model confirmed an acceptable fit, including correlated factors. Internal consistencies for the seven factors were above 0.70. With minor changes, this same 7-factor model was also confirmed in a second sample of 148 mothers and fathers, and a third sample of 126 Hispanic mothers and fathers. As predicted, four of the seven factors were related to an independent measure of children's weight status, providing initial support for the validity of the instrument. The CFQ can be used to assess aspects of child-feeding perceptions, attitudes, and practices and their relationships to children's developing food acceptance patterns, the controls of food intake, and obesity. The CFQ is designed for use with parents of children ranging in age from about 2 to 11 years of age. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.


Bird, E. (1998). "'High Class Cookery': gender, status and domestic subjects, 1890-1930." Gender and Education 10(2): 117-131.

Blake, C. and C. A. Bisogni (2003). "Personal and family food choice schemas of rural women in upstate New York." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 35(6): 282.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to gain conceptual understanding of the cognitive processes involved in food choice among low- to moderate-income rural women. Design: This interpretivist study used grounded theory methods and a theory-guided approach. Participants/Setting: Sixteen women aged 18 to 50 years from varied household compositions were purposively recruited in an upstate New York rural county. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Study participants held both personal and family food choice schemas characterized by food meanings and behavioral scripts. Food meanings encompassed self-reported beliefs and feelings associated with food. Food choice scripts described behavioral plans for regularized food and eating situations. Five personal food choice schemas (dieter, health fanatic, picky eater, nonrestrictive eater, inconsistent eater) and 4 family food choice schemas (peacekeeper, healthy provider, struggler, partnership) emerged. Conclusions and Implications: The findings advance conceptual understanding of the cognitive processes involved in food choice by demonstrating the existence of different food choice schemas for personal and family food choice situations. Further study is needed on food choice schemas in different populations in various food and eating situations.
Blake, C. and C. A. Bisogni (2003). "Personal and family food choice schemas of rural women in upstate New York." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 35(6): 282-293.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to gain conceptual understanding of the cognitive processes involved in food choice among low- to moderate-income rural women.

Design: This interpretivist study used grounded theory methods and a theory-guided approach.
Participants/Setting: Sixteen women aged 18 to 50 years from varied household compositions were purposively recruited in an upstate New York rural county.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method.
Results: Study participants held both personal and family food choice schemas characterized by food meanings and behavioral scripts. Food meanings encompassed self-reported beliefs and feelings associated with food. Food choice scripts described behavioral plans for regularized food and eating situations. Five personal food choice schemas (dieter, health fanatic, picky eater, nonrestrictive eater, inconsistent eater) and 4 family food choice schemas (peacekeeper, healthy provider, struggler, partnership) emerged.
Conclusions and Implications: The findings advance conceptual understanding of the cognitive processes involved in food choice by demonstrating the existence of different food choice schemas for personal and family food choice situations. Further study is needed on food choice schemas in different populations in various food and eating situations.

Bland, R. M., N. C. Rollins, et al. (2003). "Maternal recall of exclusive breast feeding duration." 88(9): 778-783.

Background: Both the pattern and duration of breast feeding are important determinants of health outcomes. In vertical HIV transmission research, reliable documentation of early breast feeding practices is important in order to correctly attribute postnatal transmission to feeding pattern. Aims: To validate methods of collecting data on the duration of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) in an area of South Africa with a high HIV prevalence rate. Methods: A total of 130 mothers were interviewed weekly, postnatally. At every interview a 48 hour and a seven day recall breast feeding history were taken. A subset of 70 mothers also received two intermediate visits per week during which additional 48 hour, non-overlapping, recall interviews were conducted. Ninety three infants were revisited at 6 - 9 months of age when mothers' recall of EBF duration from birth was documented. The different methods of recalling EBF status were compared against an a priori "best comparison" in each case. Results: Reported breast feeding practices over the previous 48 hours did not reflect EBF practices since birth ( specificity 65 - 89%; positive predictive value 31 - 48%). Six month EBF duration recall was equally poor ( sensitivity at 2 weeks 79%; specificity 40%). Seven day recall accurately reflected EBF practices compared with thrice weekly recall over the same time period ( sensitivity 96%, specificity 94%). Conclusions: 48 hour EBF status does not accurately reflect feeding practices since birth. Long term recall data on EBF are even more inaccurate. We recommend that data on duration of EBF be collected prospectively at intervals of no longer than one week.
Blaylock, J., D. Smallwood, et al. (1999). "Economics, food choices and nutrition." Food Policy 24: 269-286.

Bliss, M. C., J. Wilkie, et al. (1997). "The effect of discharge pack formula and breast pumps on breastfeeding duration and choice of infant feeding method." 24(2): 90-97.

Background: A study of breast feeding mothers was conducted from October 1993 through July 1994 in the western United States to determine the influence of components of hospital discharge packs on the duration of breastfeeding. Method: On discharge from the hospital, over 1600 breastfeeding mothers were given one of four free discharge packs, identical in all ways except that one contained a can of powdered formula, one a manual breast pump, one both formula and primp, and one neither. During the following 6 months, mothers were interviewed by telephone three times by an independent research firm to determine how and what they were feeding their infants. Analysis of the independent and interactive effects of both formula and pump was performed and the moderating effects of age, ethnicity, marital and insurance status, prebirth feeding plan, and the effect of returning to outside employment or school were examined Results: Across the entire sample, the contents of the discharge packs had a negligible effect on feeding method and breastfeeding duration. Examination of select subgroups revealed modest discharge pack effects, wherein the presence of discharge pack formula increased the likelihood of introducing supplementation during the first 6 weeks whereas receipt of pumps prolonged full breastfeeding. Even in these select groups, however no effect was observed on the overall duration of breastfeeding. Conclusion: Relative to other known influences on the choice of feeding method and on breastfeeding duration, discharge pack contents do not merit great concern.
Blyth, R., D. K. Creedy, et al. (2002). "Effect of maternal confidence on breastfeeding duration: An application of breastfeeding self-efficacy theory." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 29(4): 278-284.

Bo, S., G. Menato, et al. (2001). "Dietary fat and gestational hyperglycaemia." 44(8): 972-978.

Aims/hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between life-style habits and glucose abnormalities in Caucasian women with and without conventional risk factors for gestational diabetes. Methods. A total of 126 pregnant women with gestational diabetes. 84 with impaired glucose tolerance and 294 with normal glucose tolerance, identified by sequential screening, were interviewed to determine their usual weekly food pattern, amount of exercise, smoking habits and alcohol intake. Results. Patients with glucose abnormalities were older and shorter in height and had significantly higher BMI before pregnancy, percentage of diabetic first-degree relatives and higher intake of saturated fat. Patients without known risk factors for gestational diabetes (i.e. younger than 35 years of age, BMI < 25 kg/m(2), no first-degree diabetic relatives) included 40 with impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes. In a multiple logistic regression model age, short stature, familial diabetes, BMI and percentages of saturated fat were associated with impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes in all patients, after adjustment for gestational age. In patients without conventional risk factors only percentages of saturated fat (OR = 2.0, 95%-CI = 1.2-3.2) and polyunsaturated fat (OR = 0.85; 95%-CI = 0.77-0.92) were associated with gestational hyperglycaemia, after adjustment for age, gestational age and BMI. Conclusion/interpretation. Saturated fat has an independent role in the development of gestational glucose abnormalities. This role is more important in the absence of conventional risk factors suggesting that glucose abnormalities could be prevented during pregnancy, at least in some groups of women.
Boardman, K. (1994). Representations of femininity, domesticity, sexuality, work and independence in mid-Victorian women's magazines, University of Strathclyde.

Boardman, K. (2000). "The Ideology of Domesticity: the Regulation of the Household Economy in Victorian Women's Magazines." Victorian Periodicals Review 33(2): 150-164.

Discusses the effects that Victorian women's magazines aimed at middle-class and working-class readers had on their understanding and embracing of gender and class roles embodied in a domesticity centered on household economy and managing or working as servants.
Boas, G. and A. O. Lovejoy (1935). Primitivism and Related Ideas in Antiquity. Baltimore, John Hopkins.

Bobel, C. G. (2001). "Bounded liberation - A focused study of La Leche League International." 15(1): 130-151.

Combining participant observation with in-depth interviewing, this small-scale, focused study examines the philosophies and practices promoted by La Leche League International (LLLI), the foremost international breast-feeding support organization. In particular: the study examines four linked conceptual paradoxes related to reconceptualizing women's bodies, validating motherhood, staying home, and living with baby, each representing an internal contradiction of liberation and constraint for League members. While LLLI's prescriptions for "good mothering through breast-feeding" may encourage women to reclaim their bodies, boost their sense of competence at mothers, and resist conventional authorities, at the the some time, the League's conception of what it means to be a good mother pushes women into socially prescribed and limiting roles rooted in biological determinism.
Bober, S. J., R. Humphry, et al. (2001). "Toddlers' persistence in the emerging occupations of functional play and self-feeding." 55(4): 369-376.

Objective. This descriptive study explores motivation of toddlers who are typically developing to persist with challenging occupations. Method. The persistence of 33 children, 12 to 19 months of age (M = 15.7 months), in functional play and self-feeding with a utensil was examined through videotape analysis of on-task behaviors. Results. A modest correlation was demonstrated between the percentages of on-task time in the two conditions (r =.44, p < .01). Although chronological age was not associated with persistence, participants' age-equivalent fine motor scores were correlated with persistence with challenging toys (r = .33, p < .03) but not with self-feeding with a utensil. Having an older sibling was associated with longer periods of functional play, t(32) = 3.02, p < .005, but the amount the parent urged the child to eat with a utensil was not associated with persistence in self-feeding. Conclusion. The modest association between on-task time for functional play and self-feeding with a utensil reveals that factors other than urge to meet perceptual motor challenges lead to children's persistence. The results reinforce the importance of considering not. only challenging activities, but also the experienced meaning that elicits optimal effort and, thus, learning.


Bodnarchuk, J. L., W. O. Eaton, et al. (2006). "Transitions in Breastfeeding: Daily Parent Diaries Provide Evidence of Behavior Over Time." J Hum Lact %R 10.1177/0890334406286992 22(2): 166-174.

This study addressed a key question for assessing breastfeeding duration: at what point is an infant considered no longer exclusively breastfed or no longer breastfed at all? Mothers provided longitudinal infant feeding data via daily checklists. Transitions between exclusive to partial breastfeeding and partial to no breastfeeding were compared across 11 time periods for 10 age groups of infants. Daily transitions between exclusive and partial breastfeeding were common, especially for infants 6 months of age and younger, and transitions from partial to no breastfeeding occurred much more quickly than transitions from exclusive to partial breast-feeding. Ages at supplementation and weaning calculated in 1-day or 7-day spans correlated highly (intraclass correlation = .99). These results support the Breastfeeding Definitions and Data Collection Periods guideline recently developed by the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada and may bring the breastfeeding research and clinical communities closer to a consensus on the definition of breastfeeding over time.


Bolin, K., Lindgren, B., Lindstrom, Nystedt, P. (2003). "Investments in social capital -implications of social interactions for the production of health." Social Science & Medicine 56(1421-1435).

Booth, S. "Researching Health and Homelessness: Methodological Challenges for Researchers Working with a Vulnerable, Hard to Reach, Transient Population."

Outlines methodological considerations for researchers working with vulnerable, transient, hard-to-reach populations in the context of planning a study to examine the food & nutrition issues for homeless young people in inner-city Adelaide, Australia. Although homelessness is the focus, many of the points are transferable to other "hidden" or hard-to-reach populations. This applies particularly to those whose lives can be characterized by stigmatization & powerlessness, eg, people with mental illness, sex workers, drug users/dealers, or transsexuals, ie, groups that are relatively "invisible" on a daily basis. 13 References. Adapted from the source document.
Botsford, A. (2003). "Family policy. The value of applying family systems theory in social policymaking." Gerontologist 43: 286-287.

Botshon, L. and M. Goldsmith (2003). Middlebrow moderns : popular American women writers of the 1920s. Boston, Mass., Northeastern University Press ; [London : Eurospan, distributor].

Bottorff, J., L. , J. Oliffe, et al. (2006). "Men's constructions of smoking in the context of women's tobacco reduction during pregnancy and postpartum " Social Science and Medicine 62(12): 3096-3108

Men's smoking is largely under-examined despite research that has consistently linked partner smoking to pregnant women's smoking and smoking relapse in the postpartum. An on-going qualitative study involving 31 couples in Canada exploring the influence of couple interactions on women's tobacco reduction provided the opportunity to examine men's smoking in the context of women's tobacco reduction or cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. Individual open-ended interviews with 20 men who smoked were conducted at 0–6 weeks following the birth of their infants and again at 16–24 weeks postpartum. Constant comparative methods were used along with social constructivist perspectives of fatherhood and gender to guide data analysis and enhance theoretical sensitivity. Four themes emerged in men's accounts of their tobacco use: (1) expressing masculinity through smoking, (2) reconciling smoking as a family man, (3) losing the freedom to smoke, and (4) resisting a smoke-less life. Men's reliance on and commitment to dominant ideals of masculinity seemed to preclude them from viewing their partner's tobacco reduction or cessation for pregnancy as an opportunity for cessation. Expectant and new fathers who smoke, however, may be optimally targeted for cessation interventions because it is a time when men experience discomfort with their smoking and when discontinuities in everyday life associated with the transition to fatherhood and presence of a new baby provide opportunities for establishing new routines. Implications for gender-sensitive smoking cessation interventions are discussed.

Boumtje, P. I., C. L. Huang, et al. (2005). "Dietary habits, demographics and the development of overweight and obesity among children in the United States." Food Policy 30: 115-128.

Bourcier, E., D. J. Bowen, et al. (2003). "Evaluation of strategies used by family food preparers to influence healthy eating." Appetite 41(3): 265-272.

The family may exert powerful influence on family members' eating habits, though there is very little conclusive literature regarding the specific mechanisms. The authors investigated how often family food preparers use particular strategies to encourage their families to eat more healthily and then related these strategies to healthy eating outcomes in children. We identified significant differences in strategy use between family age subgroups, and we included strategy types in multiple linear regression models to predict differences in families with children. Results indicate that discussing healthy food related to 'Pressuring' strategies and discussing healthy eating related to 'Feeling and looking good' predicted healthy eating outcomes. Findings have implications for designing dietary interventions to have the largest public health impact. copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bourcier, E., D. J. Bowen, et al. (2003). "Evaluation of strategies used by family food preparers to influence healthy eating: Research Report." Appetite 41: 265-272.

The family may exert powerful influence on family members' eating habits, though there is very little conclusive literature regarding the specific mechanisms. The authors investigated how often family food preparers use particular strategies to encourage their families to eat more healthily and then related these strategies to healthy eating outcomes in children. We identified significant differences in strategy use between family age subgroups, and we included strategy types in multiple linear regression models to predict differences in families with children. Results indicate that discussing healthy food related to 'Pressuring' strategies and discussing healthy eating related to 'Feeling and looking good' predicted healthy eating outcomes. Findings have implications for designing dietary interventions to have the largest public health impact.


Bourdieu, P. (1979). Distinction: a social critique of the judgment of taste. London, Routledge.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). Distinction : a social critique of the judgement of taste. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. J. G. R. (Ed.). New York:, Greewood Press.

Bower, J. A. and L. Sandall (2002). "Children as Consumers - snacking behaviour inprimary school children." International Journal of Consumer Studies 26(1): 15-26.

Bowlby, S., S. Gregory, et al. (1997). "'Doing Home': Patriarchy, Caring, and Space." Women's Studies International Forum 20(3): 343-350.

Braithwaite, B. (1995). Women's magazines : the first 300 years. London, Peter Owen.

Braithwaite, B. and J. Barrell (1979). The business of women's magazines : the agonies and the ecstasies. London, Associated Business Press.

Braithwaite, B. and J. Barrell (1988). The business of women's magazines. London, Kogan Page.

Bramhagen, A. C., I. Axelsson, et al. (2006). "Mothers' experiences of feeding situations - an interview study." 15(1): 29-34.

Aim. The aim of the study was to describe parents' experiences concerning feeding situations and their contact with the nurse at the Child Health Service (CHS). Background. Some of the most important tasks for the nurse at the CHS are to monitor growth, detect feeding difficulties and give advice concerning food intake and feeding practices. Method. Eighteen mothers differing in age, education, ethnicity and number of children and recruited from different CHS were interviewed. The narratives were transcribed verbatim and analysed by content analysis at manifest and latent levels. Result. All mothers' described that food and feeding were essential parts of their lives requiring a great deal of time and involvement. Two major categories of mothers' attitudes in feeding situations were identified - a flexible attitude and a controlling attitude. Mothers with a flexible attitude were sensitive to the child's signals and responded to them in order to obtain good communication. Mothers who expressed a need for control established rules and routines regarding the feeding situations. Mothers with a controlling attitude expressed receiving inadequate support from the nurse at the CHS. Conclusion and clinical implication. This study shows that some mothers experience inadequate support from the nurse at the CHS. Knowledge about mothers' experiences of feeding situations and their different attitudes towards the child during feeding might improve the CHS nurses' knowledge and help them understand and more adequately support mothers who experience feeding difficulties.


Brandt-Meyer, E. and S. S. Butler. "Food for People, Not for Profit: Meanings of a Farm Project for Homeless and Very Poor Participants."

The design of programs that address homelessness & extreme poverty are seldom informed by the people that such programs most affect: the homeless & very poor themselves. Presented here as a case example is the Farm Project, describing what it meant to a group of 28 homeless & very poor participants in a small northeastern city. The Farm Project intervention was based on the practice principles of empowerment, self-determination, & self-efficacy. Using a naturalistic design, & drawing on data from semistructured interviews, identified are three thematic categories: personal & emotional meanings, group experience & interactional meanings, & resource acquisition meanings. Participants found the project to be of significant personal benefit. 16 References. Adapted from the source document.


Brann, L. S. and J. D. Skinner (2005). "More controlling child-feeding practices are found among parents of boys with an average body mass index compared with parents of boys with a high body mass index." Journal of the American Dietetic Association
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