Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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39(11): 2083-2100.

Whelan, E. and P. J. Cooper (2000). "The association between childhood feeding problems and maternal eating disorder: a community study." 30(1): 69-77.

Background. A possible association between childhood feeding problems and maternal eating disorder has been suggested by a clinic-based self-report questionnaire study. A community study was conducted, using standardized psychiatric interviews, to investigate the strength and specificity of this putative association. Methods. Four-year-old children were screened using a self-report version of the Behaviour Screening Questionnaire, completed by mothers, and the Pre-School Behaviour Checklist, completed by teachers. Three groups of children were identified for follow-up: children with feeding problems (N = 42), children with a non-feeding form of disturbance (i.e, shyness, fearfulness or behavioural disturbance; N = 79), and a random sample of children with no disturbance (N = 29). The presence of feeding problems was confirmed by assessment of a filmed family meal, with ratings made blind to child group and maternal mental state. Maternal current and past affective disorder and current and past eating disorder were systematically assessed, blind to child status, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule and the Eating Disorder Examination respectively. Results. Compared with the mothers of the two comparison groups of children, the mothers of the children with feeding problems had no raised rate of any affective disorder, either current or past, but they did have a markedly raised rate of both current and past DSM-IV eating disorder. The odds ratio of maternal eating disorder for the children with feeding problems was significantly raised at 11.1 (CI 1.4-91.8). Conclusion. There is a strong and specific association between childhood feeding problems and maternal eating disorder.
Whitaker, R. C., C. M. Deeks, et al. (2000). "The relationship of childhood adiposity to parent body mass index and eating behavior." Obesity Research. 8(3): 234-40.

OBJECTIVE: To better understand risk factors for the development of obesity in early childhood, we examined the association between children's adiposity and their parents' eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Parents of 85 white children 36 months of age (49 boys and 36 girls) completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire measuring three dimensions of parent eating behavior: disinhibited eating, cognitive restraint of eating, and susceptibility to hunger. Parent BMI (kg/m2) was calculated using self-reported height and weight. The children's percentage body fat was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of parents were obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Both maternal and paternal BMI were associated with higher scores for disinhibition (r = 0.69 and r = 0.68, p < 0.001), and maternal BMI was also associated with higher scores for hunger (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). There were no significant relationships between children's percentage body fat and parent eating scores, and the correlation between children's percentage body fat and parent BMI was significant only between mothers and daughters (r = 0.35, p = 0.04). Obese parents were no more likely to have a child who was fatter (upper quintile of percentage body fat for gender). DISCUSSION: Among 36 month-old white children, parent eating behavior was related to parent BMI, but not to children's adiposity. There was only a weak relationship between parent BMI and child adiposity. Despite the aggregation of adiposity within families due to shared genes and environments, children may not express differences in susceptibility to obesity by 3 years of age.

Whitaker, R. C., S. N. Sherman, et al. (2004). "Altering the perceptions of WIC health professionals about childhood obesity using video with facilitated group discussion." 104(3): 379-386.

Objective To determine if viewing a documentary video, followed by facilitated group discussion,, could alter the perceptions of those providing public health nutrition services about the barriers and solutions to addressing the problem of obesity in low-income preschoolers. Design Before-after trial to determine how often study participants could identify any of the 17 barriers and seven solutions targeted in the video and during the facilitated group discussion. Subjects/Setting One hundred fifty-five attendees of the 2001 Kentucky Maternal and Child Health Conference participated in the study. Sixty percent were nurses, 24% were dietitians or nutritionists, and 64% had Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) counseling experience. Intervention Participants first viewed a 20-minute documentary video about three families enrolled in WIC. A 40-minute facilitated group discussion followed to highlight the 17 barriers (eg, WIC families are struggling with many demands in their lives that make nutrition a low priority and WIC health professionals "lecture" clients on what they "need to know") and seven solutions (eg, adjusting WIC counseling to assess parenting skills and to increase sensitivity to clients' life context and stresses). Main Outcome Measures/ Analyses Participants responded before and after the intervention to the same two open-ended questions, one about barriers and one about solutions. Participant responses were coded to count instances of identifying any of the 17 barriers and seven solutions. Results At baseline, 51% of participants were unable to record any of the barriers, and 91% could not identify any of the solutions. After the intervention, 37% could identify at least one more of the target barriers than they did at baseline, and 24% could identify at least one more of the target solutions. Conclusions A documentary-style video, used with facilitated group discussion, can produce a short-term change in the perceptions of those providing public health nutrition services about addressing the problem of obesity in low-income preschool children.

White, C. L. (1970). Women's magazines, 1693-1968. London, Joseph.

Whiteman, S. D., S. M. McHale, et al. (2003). "What parents learn from experience: The first child as a first draft?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 65(3): 608-621.

This study sought evidence for the proposition that experiences with earlier-born adolescents will improve parents' interactions with and parenting of later-born adolescents. Participants were mothers, fathers, and both first- and second- born siblings from 392 families participating in a longitudinal study. To collect information on siblings' family experiences, family members were interviewed individually in their homes. During the subsequent 2 to 3 weeks, 7 evening telephone interviews were also conducted, which focused on siblings' daily activities. Findings suggest that when parent-adolescent relationships were measured at the same age for both siblings, parents experienced less conflict with their second-born as compared with their firstborn adolescent offspring and exhibited greater knowledge of their secondborn offspring's daily activities as compared with their firstborns' daily experiences. These results are consistent with the notion that parents may learn from their childrearing experiences
Whiting, P. A. (2001). "Women's Magazines and the Representation of Death in Eighteenth-Century England." DAI 61(8): 3190-A.

Wiemann, C. M., J. C. DuBois, et al. (1998). "Racial/ethnic differences in the decision to breastfeed among adolescent mothers." 101(6).

Objective. To identify racial/ethnic differences in prevalence and the factors that influence decisions to breastfeed among adolescent mothers. Methods. A total of 696 Mexican-American, African-American, and Caucasian adolescent mothers #18 years of age were interviewed on the postpartum ward of university hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Self-reported factors associated with the decision to breastfeed were assessed. Results. The decision to breastfeed was reported by 55% of Mexican-American, 45% of Caucasian, and 15% of African-American adolescent mothers. With the exception of perceived benefits of breastfeeding and exposure to educational materials, most factors associated with breastfeeding differed by race/ethnicity. Among Mexican-Americans, important factors included having relied on feeding advice (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 7.6); the feeding preference of a partner (AOR = 7.0) or mother (AOR = 6.6); and feeding decisions made in early pregnancy (AOR = 4.7). Among African-Americans, important factors included living with a partner (AOR= 10.6); having a mother who breastfed (AOR= 5.9); the feeding preference of a partner (AOR = 5.6) or health care provider (AOR = 4.7); and low family support (AOR 3.4). Among Caucasians, health care providers' feeding preference (AOR = 6.1) having two or more breastfeeding role models (AOR = 4.1); not being enrolled in Women, Infants, and Children's Supplemental Nutrition Program (AOR = 3.0) having relied on infant-feeding advice (AOR = 3.0); and prenatal alcohol use (AOR= 2.6) were associated with the decision to breastfeed. Conclusions. Prevalence and influences to breastfeed differ by patient race/ethnicity. We speculate that targeting the adolescent mother and members of her support system, educating them before and during pregnancy, and stressing benefits of this method while eliminating misinformation, especially among African-Americans, may be important intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding.
Wiemann, C. M., J. C. DuBois, et al. (1998). "Strategies to promote breast-feeding among adolescent mothers." 152(9): 862-869.

Objective: To identify characteristics of adolescent mothers who bottle-feed who considered breast-feeding their infants and strategies to promote breast-feeding within this special group. Design: Adolescents completed an hour-long interview within 48 hours of delivery that elicited factors considered important to the mother's feeding decision and indices of mental health. Setting: Postpartum ward of university hospital. Subjects: A total of 693 adolescents 18 years old or younger (mean age, 16.7 years) from African American, Mexican American, or white race or ethnicity; 27% of Mexican American participants spoke little or no English. Main Outcome Measures: Factors associated with breast-feeding decision. Results: Those who chose bottle-feeding thereafter, bottle-feeders) who had considered breast-feeding were first compared with bottle-feeders who had not considered breast-feeding and then with adolescents who breastfed. After controlling for ethnicity, bottle-feeders who had considered breast-feeding were more likely than those who had not considered breast-feeding to be impoverished (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.8), to have delayed their feeding decision until the later stages of pregnancy (AOR = 4.6), to have been encouraged to breast-feed (AOR=4.5), to have friends who breast-fed (AOR=2.3), and to have experienced low financial, tangible, emotional, or informational support from their families (AOR=1.6). They were more likely to cite barriers associated with breast-feeding while returning to school or work (AOR=2.0) and less likely to state that bottle-feeding was healthier (AOR=0.3) as reasons for bottle-feeding. Compared with those who chose breast-feeding thereafter, breast-feeders), this group was more likely to have made the feeding decision alone rather than relying on advice (AOR=4.6), to have made this decision in the later stages of pregnancy (AOR=4.4), to report fewer breast-feeding role models (AOR=1.8) and fewer significant others who encouraged breast-feeding (AOR=2.8), and to report at least 2 significant others who encouraged bottle-feeding (AOR=3.2). They were also less likely to have attempted to breast-feed a previous child (AOR=3.3). Conclusions: A subgroup of adolescent mothers who had considered breast-feeding but ultimately chose to bottle-feed may be identified in the late stages of gestation by collecting information on financial status, family support, perceived barriers to breast-feeding and attending school or working, timing of the feeding decision, prior breast-feeding experience, breast-feeding role models, and encouragement to breast-feed. We speculate that strategies to promote breast-feeding should focus on role modeling and facilitation.

Wigfall, V. (2006). "Bringing Back Community: Family Support From the Bottom Up." Children and society 20(1): 17-29.

Wiggins, S. (2004). " 'Good for 'you': generic and individual healthy eating advice in family mealtimes.'" Journal of Health Psychology 9(4): 535-548.

Wiles, R. (1994). 'I'm not Fat, I'm Pregnant': The Impact of Pregnancy on Fat Women's Body Image. Women and Health Feminist Persepectives. S. Wilkinson and C. Kitzinger. London, Taylor & Francis: 33-49.

Wilkinson, R. B. and F. B. Scherl (2006). "Psychological health, maternal attachment and attachment style in breast- and formula-feeding mothers: a preliminary study." 24(1): 5-19.

This study examined psychological health, maternal attachment, and attachment style in an Australian sample of breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Thirty-six breast- feeding and 24 formula-feeding women with a child between 4 and 6 months of age were recruited through community health centres and snowball sampling. Participation involved a 30-minute interview and completion of relevant questionnaires. Contrary to expectations, no differences were found between breast- and formula-feeding mothers in terms of their psychological health and maternal attachment. Results suggest that secure attachment styles are related to greater psychological health and that they predict the likelihood of a mother changing feeding method. The results of this study challenge widely held assumptions concerning the importance of breast-feeding for maternal well-being and attachment with infants, and support the literature suggesting attachment styles play an important role in affect regulation and the adjustment to new motherhood.
Wilkinson, R. G. (1992). "For debate: income distribution and life expectancy." British Medical Journal 304: 165-168.

William, F. (2002). "The presence of feminism in the future of welfare,." Economy and Society, 31(4): 501-519.

Williams, F. (2001). " In and beyond New Labour: towards a new political ethics of care,." Critical Social Policy 21(4): 467-490.

Williams, M. A., I. Emanuel, et al. (1999). "A population-based cohort study of the relation between maternal birthweight and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in four racial/ethnic groups." 13(4): 452-465.

Intrauterine growth retardation and low birthweight have been associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type II diabetes later in life. We hypothesised that maternal low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study subjects comprised women giving birth in Washington State between 1987 and 1995. Information for 21528 births to non-Hispanic white women, 6359 to African-American women, 7456 to Native American women and 6496 to Hispanic women was available for analysis. All information was derived from statewide computerised vital records and hospital discharge summaries of obstetric and neonatal admissions with linkage to birth certificates of mothers. Maternal birthweight was collected from subjects' birth certificates. Information from both the birth certificates and the obstetric and neonatal admissions database was used to determine whether subjects developed GDM. Poisson regression models were estimated to calculate unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM by categories of maternal birthweight. The cumulative incidence of GDM among non-Hispanic white, African-American, Native American and Hispanic women was 2.8, 2.6, 2.7 and 3.0% respectively. After adjusting for maternal age, parity, cigarette smoking, history of chronic hypertension and participation in the Medicaid programme, non-Hispanic white women with a birthweight < 2000 g were 1.7 times more likely to have had their pregnancy complicated by GDM (RR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.8, 3.3) than those with a birthweight 3000-3999 g. The corresponding adjusted RRs for African-American, Native American, and Hispanic women were 2.8 [95% CI 1.2, 6.1], 3.1 [95% CI 1.2, 8.2] and 2.4 [95% CI 0.9, 6.0] respectively. Among African-American women, those with a birthweight greater than or equal to 4000 g also experienced a twofold increased risk of GDM (RR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.0, 4.1). This association of high birthweight and increased GDM risk was not found among women in the other three racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that individuals with low birthweight constitute a group at increased risk for GDM.
Williams, P. D., A. R. Williams, et al. (2002). "Interrelationships among variables affecting well siblings and mothers in families of children with a chronic illness or disability." Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25(5): 411-424.

A structural equation model (SEM) examined interrelationships among psychosocial variables known to affect the health and development of well siblings and parents when a child with a chronic illness or disability is a member of the family. Using dyads of 252 well children and parents, socioeconomic status (SES) and family cohesion were associated with the parent- reported behavior of the well sibling. SES also influenced the mood of the mother that in turn influenced family cohesion. The well sibling's knowledge about the illness of the brother or sister, attitude toward the illness, mood, self-esteem, and feelings of social support were interrelated and related to the behavior of the well sibling. The SEM suggests that interventions may be directed at several points in these interactions including boosting knowledge levels of the well sibling, improving family cohesion, and assuring adequate "income" support to the family through income transfers or in- kind services

Williams, R. (1988). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. London, Fontana.

Wills, W. (2005). "Food and Eating Practices During the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts." Journal of Youth Studies 8(1): 97-110.

This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after

leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from indepth

interviews with 31 young people aged 16 /24 years studying at a college of further

education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and

places and their impact on young people’s eating habits and routines. Young people’s

changing peer groups were related to the re-negotiation of food and eating practices and

young people often adopted particular habits when with particular groups of peers. The

consumption of alcohol, and feelings about appetite, weight and appearance, were sources

of anxiety for some young people, who often felt alone and different to their peers. Young

people often voiced a desire to differentiate from the food ethos present in their family

home and this was sometimes related to the adoption of a vegetarian diet; some young

people, however, reported being nostalgic for the ‘family food’ they ate before making the

transition from school. This study shows that food and eating practices are not ordinary,

mundane events in young people’s lives, but an important part of dealing with the

transition to new social contexts.
Wills, W., K. Backett-Milburn, et al. (2005). "The influence of the secondary school setting on the food practices of young teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds in Scotland." Health Education Research 20(4): 458-465.

In this paper, we explore the secondary school environment as an important context for understanding young teenagers' eating habits and food practices. We draw on data collected during semi-structured interviews with 36 young teenagers (aged 13/14 years) living in disadvantaged circumstances in Scotland. We found that the systems inherent in school had an impact on what, where and when participants ate their lunch. Each school had rules governing use of the school dining hall and participants sometimes chose to leave this environment to buy food outside school premises. Our interviews showed that parents determined how much money young people took to school and, therefore, had some control over their food choices. Participants rarely spoke of giving priority to food and eating during the non-curriculum parts of the school day, preferring to spend time 'hanging out' with friends. Eating with friends was sometimes reported as a cause of anxiety, particularly when participants had concerns about body image, appetite or appearance. We suggest that young teenagers' dislike for queuing for food, their ability to budget for food at school and their desire to maximize time spent with friends influence food choices; therefore, these are issues which have implications for health education and will be of interest to those responsible for school meal provision.

Willson, P. R. (1997). "Cooking the Patriotic Omelette: Women and the Italian Fascist Ruralization Campaign." European History Quarterly 27(4): 531-547.

Discusses Massaie Rurali [rural housewives], the largest Fascist women's organization, as it illuminates the Fascist ruralization campaign aimed at Italian peasant women and the process of female politicization, the study of which has primarily focused on middle-class women. The Massaie Rurali, founded in 1934, was typical of the 1930's trend of taking the Fascist movement to people of all classes and, for the first time, to women. Although this Fascist mobilization effort was ostensibly to provide moral, social, and technological assistance to rural women on growing and selling produce, housework, childcare, and crafts; Fascism's aim was nation-building rather than agricultural improvement. Its real goal was to help peasant women (viewed as key to the ruralization movement) appreciate and accept rural life under Fascism. Ultimately the ruralization campaign had little impact on stopping the urban shift and collapsed by 1943. The propaganda campaigns of the movement, however, played a role in shaping later political involvement by rural women.

Wilson, G. and K. Wood (2004). "The influence of children on parental purchases during supermarket shopping." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(4): 329-336.

Wilson, G. and K. Wood (2004). "The influence of children on parental purchases during supermarket shopping." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(4): 329-336.

Wilson, M. (2004). "Masculinity, femininity and meat consumption, or 'Don't Have a Cow, Man!'" AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 56(S): 99.

Winship, J. (1980). Advertising in women's magazines, 1956-74. Birmingham (Birmingham B15 2TT), Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham.

Winship, J. (1981). Woman becomes an 'individual' : femininity and consumption in women's magazines 1954-69. Birmingham (University of Birmingham, P.O. Box 363, Birmingham), Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies.

Winship, J. (1987). Inside women's magazines. London, Pandora.

Winship, J. (1990). Women's magazines. Milton Keynes, Open University.

Winslow, S. (2005). "Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Parenthood, 1977-1997."

Although many observers assume that balancing the often-competing demands of work & family has become increasingly difficult in recent decades, little research has explicitly examined this proposition. This study examines this question by drawing on data from the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey & the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. The author found that work-family conflict has increased during this period, particularly for men. In addition, marital, parental, & spouse's employment status prove to be consistently important predictors of work-family conflict. Future research focusing on men's experiences of conflict, examining conflict from the perspective of the family unit, & exploring the effects of workplace policies is suggested. 4 Tables, 3 Appendixes, 57 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright 2005.].
Wiryo, H. and M. Hakimi (2005). "Implementation of health education, based on ethnographic study, to increase the colostrum and decrease early solid food feeding." Health Education & Behavior

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