Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Wardle, J., S. Sanderson, et al. (2002). "Parental feeding style and the inter-generational transmission of obesity risk." Obes Res 10(6): 453-62.

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether a community sample of obese mothers with young children used different feeding styles compared with a matched sample of normal-weight mothers. Four aspects of feeding style were assessed: emotional feeding, instrumental feeding (using food as a reward), prompting/encouragement to eat, and control over eating. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were from 214 families with same-sex twins; 100 families in which both parents were overweight or obese and 114 in which both parents were normal weight or lean. RESULTS: We found that obese mothers were no more likely than normal-weight mothers to offer food to deal with emotional distress, use food as a form of reward, or encourage the child to eat more than was wanted. The obese and normal-weight mothers did differ on "control"; obese mothers reported significantly less control over their children's intake, and this was seen for both first-born and second-born twins. Twin analyses showed that these differences were not in response to children's genetic propensities, because monozygotic correlations were no greater than dizygotic correlations for maternal feeding style. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the stereotype of the obese mother, who uses food in nonnutritive ways so that her child also becomes obese, is more likely to be myth than fact. However, the results raise the possibility that lack of control of food intake might contribute to the emergence of differences in weight.
Wasoff, F. a. D., I. (2000). Family Policy. London:, Gildredge Press.

Waugh, E. and C. M. Bulik (1999). "Offspring of women with eating disorders." 25(2): 123-133.

We evaluated health and development, temperament, body satisfaction, nutritional status, and mealtime interaction patterns in offspring (ages 1-4) of women with current or past anorexia and/or bulimia nervosa in comparison to control children. Method: information was gathered via maternal report and interview, health and development records, a 3 day food diary, and a videotaped lunchtime interaction. Results: Children of women with eating disorders had significantly lower birth weights and lengths than control children. There were no differences observed in childhood temperament or mothers' satisfaction with children's appearance. Mothers with eating disorders had more difficulty maintaining breastfeeding and they made significantly fewer positive comments about food and eating than control mothers during the mealtime observation. Discussion: Feeding behavior in women with eating disorders appears to be problematic from pregnancy through the toddler years and has various manifestations from low birth weight, to difficulties with breast feeding to detached and noninteractive mealtimes. Although these factors are unlikely to cause eating disorders, they may contribute to a permissive environment in which a genetic predisposition is more likely to be expressed. (C) 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wayland, C. (2004). "Infant agency and its implication for breast-feeding promotion in Brazil." Human Organization 63(3): 277-288.

Wehler, C., L. F. Weinreb, et al. (2004). "Risk and protective factors for adult and child hunger among low-income housed and homeless female-headed families." 94(1): 109-115.

Objectives. We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Methods. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Results. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or "hassles." Risk factors for child hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. Conclusions. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers' poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs. (Am J Public Health. 2004;94:109-115).
Weiner, S. (1999). "Two Modernities: from Elle to Mademoiselle: Women's Magazines in Postwar France." Contemporary European History 8(3): 395-409.

Beginning with its first issue of 1945, Elle magazine was instrumental in changing the way the French saw female domesticity in the postwar period, infusing the domestic space with an aura of glamour and modernity. Newly glamorous female domesticity went hand-in-hand with images of women as voters and professionals, communicating to the magazine's readers that they could "have it all" - but never to the exclusion of their primary identity as mothers and wives. This ultimately conservative postwar version of femininity came to be challenged in the early 1960's by Mademoiselle, a magazine that projected a reader unmarked by war memories and whose relationship to technology and modernity went beyond the home. Yet, Mademoiselle was grooming the fun-loving teenage girl as a consumer who would one day be a wife and mother as well; from one version of modernity to another, feminine destiny remained the same.


Weinreb, L., C. Wehler, et al. "Hunger: its impact on children's health and mental health."

OBJECTIVE: Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. METHODS: With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year--1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out of home placement, abuse, severe life events count), developmental problems (ie, developmental delay, learning disability, emotional problems), and mother's distress and psychiatric illness. Multivariate regression analyses examined the effect of child hunger on physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: The average family size for both preschoolers and school-aged children was 3; about one third of both groups were white and 40% Puerto Rican. The average income of families was approximately $11 000. Among the school-aged children, on average 10 years old, 50% experienced moderate child hunger and 16% severe child hunger. Compared with those with no hunger, school-aged children with severe hunger were more likely to be homeless (56% vs 29%), have low birth weights (23% vs 6%), and have more stressful life events (9 vs 6) when compared with those with no hunger. School-aged children with severe hunger scores had parent-reported anxiety scores that were more than double the scores for children with no hunger and significantly higher chronic illness counts (3.4 vs 1.8) and internalizing behavior problems when compared with children with no hunger. There was no relationship between hunger and academic achievement. Among preschool-aged children, who averaged 4 years of age, 51% experienced moderate child hunger and 8% severe child hunger. For preschoolers, compared with children with no hunger, severe hunger was associated with homelessness (75% vs 48%), more traumatic life events (8.5 vs 6), low birth weight (23% vs 6%), and higher levels of chronic illness and internalizing behavior problems. Mothers of both preschoolers and school-aged children who reported severe hunger were more likely to have a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. For school-aged children, severe hunger was a significant predictor of chronic illness after controlling for housing status, mother's distress, low birth weight, and child live events. For preschoolers, moderate hunger was a significant predictor of health conditions while controlling for potenns while controlling for potential explanatory factors. For both preschoolers and school-aged children, severe child hunger was associated with higher levels of internalizing behavior problems. After controlling for housing status, mother's distress, and stressful life events, severe child hunger was also associated with higher reported anxiety/depression among school-aged children. CONCLUSION: This study goes beyond previous research and highlights the independent relationship between severe child hunger and adverse physical health and mental health outcomes among low-income children. Study findings underscore the importance of clinical recognition of child hunger and its outcomes, allowing for preventive interventions and efforts to increase access to food-related resources for families.
Weinreb, L., C. Wehler, et al. "Hunger: its impact on children's health and mental health."

OBJECTIVE: Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. METHODS: With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year--1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out of home placement, abuse, severe life events count), developmental problems (ie, developmental delay, learning disability, emotional problems), and mother's distress and psychiatric illness. Multivariate regression analyses examined the effect of child hunger on physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: The average family size for both preschoolers and school-aged children was 3; about one third of both groups were white and 40% Puerto Rican. The average income of families was approximately $11 000. Among the school-aged children, on average 10 years old, 50% experienced moderate child hunger and 16% severe child hunger. Compared with those with no hunger, school-aged children with severe hunger were more likely to be homeless (56% vs 29%), have low birth weights (23% vs 6%), and have more stressful life events (9 vs 6) when compared with those with no hunger. School-aged children with severe hunger scores had parent-reported anxiety scores that were more than double the scores for children with no hunger and significantly higher chronic illness counts (3.4 vs 1.8) and internalizing behavior problems when compared with children with no hunger. There was no relationship between hunger and academic achievement. Among preschool-aged children, who averaged 4 years of age, 51% experienced moderate child hunger and 8% severe child hunger. For preschoolers, compared with children with no hunger, severe hunger was associated with homelessness (75% vs 48%), more traumatic life events (8.5 vs 6), low birth weight (23% vs 6%), and higher levels of chronic illness and internalizing behavior problems. Mothers of both preschoolers and school-aged children who reported severe hunger were more likely to have a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. For school-aged children, severe hunger was a significant predictor of chronic illness after controlling for housing status, mother's distress, low birth weight, and child live events. For preschoolers, moderate hunger was a significant predictor of health conditions while controlling for potenns while controlling for potential explanatory factors. For both preschoolers and school-aged children, severe child hunger was associated with higher levels of internalizing behavior problems. After controlling for housing status, mother's distress, and stressful life events, severe child hunger was also associated with higher reported anxiety/depression among school-aged children. CONCLUSION: This study goes beyond previous research and highlights the independent relationship between severe child hunger and adverse physical health and mental health outcomes among low-income children. Study findings underscore the importance of clinical recognition of child hunger and its outcomes, allowing for preventive interventions and efforts to increase access to food-related resources for families.
Weinreb, L., C. Wehler, et al. (2002). "Hunger: Its impact on children's health and mental health." 110(4).

Objective. Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. Methods. With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year-1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out of home placement, abuse, severe life events count), developmental problems (ie, developmental delay, learning disability, emotional problems), and mother's distress and psychiatric illness. Multivariate regression analyses examined the effect of child hunger on physical and mental health outcomes. Results. The average family size for both preschoolers and school-aged children was 3; about one third of both groups were white and 40% Puerto Rican. The average income of families was approximately $11 000. Among the school-aged children, on average 10 years old, 50% experienced moderate child hunger and 16% severe child hunger. Compared with those with no hunger, school-aged children with severe hunger were more likely to be homeless (56% vs 29%), have low birth weights (23% vs 6%), and have more stressful life events (9 vs 6) when compared with those with no hunger. School-aged children with severe hunger scores had parent-reported anxiety scores that were more than double the scores for children with no hunger and significantly higher chronic illness counts (3.4 vs 1.8) and internalizing behavior problems when compared with children with no hunger. There was no relationship between hunger and academic achievement. Among preschool-aged children, who averaged 4 years of age, 51% experienced moderate child hunger and 8% severe child hunger. For preschoolers, compared with children with no hunger, severe hunger was associated with homelessness (75% vs 48%), more traumatic life events (8.5 vs 6), low birth weight (23% vs 6%), and higher levels of chronic illness and internalizing behavior problems. Mothers of both preschoolers and school-aged children who reported severe hunger were more likely to have a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. For school-aged children, severe hunger was a significant predictor of chronic illness after controlling for housing status, mother's distress, low birth weight, and child live events. For preschoolers, moderate hunger was a significant predictor of health conditions while controlling for potential explanatory factors. For both preschoolers and school-aged children, severe child hunger was associated with higher levels of internalizing behavior problems. After controlling for housing status, mother's distress, and stressful life events, severe child hunger was also associated with higher reported anxiety/depression among school-aged children. Conclusion. This study goes beyond previous research and highlights the independent relationship between severe child hunger and adverse physical health and mental health outcomes among low-income children. Study findings underscore the importance of clinical recognition of child hunger and its outcomes, allowing for preventive interventions and efforts to increase access to food-related resources for families.
Weis, L. (2003). "Gender, masculinity and the new economy." AUSTRALIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER 30(3): 111-129.

This paper examines the ' remaking' of white working class masculinities in the latter quarter of the twentieth century. It draws on ethnographic data gathered at two points in time in order to interrogate the relation of macro- economic and social relations on individual and group identities; to excavate the social psychological relations ' between' genders and races, as narrated by white working- class men; and to explore the nuanced variations among these men. Addressing theoretical, empirical and methodological issues associated with these studies, I argue that the remaking of the white working class can only be understood in relation to gendered constructions within itself, the construction of relevant ' others', as well as deep shifts in large social formations.


Wells, J. C. K. (2003). "Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life." Quarterly Review of Biology 78(2): 169-202.

Wells, K. J., N. J. Thompson, et al. (2002). "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and intention to breast-feed." American Journal of Health Behavior 26(2): 111-120.

Westenhoefer, J. (2002). "Establishing dietary habits during childhood for long-term weight control." 46: 18-23.

Objective: To review psychosocial research with respect to relevance for the development of nutritional education strategies for optimal weight control during childhood and the longer term. Results: Recent decades have witnessed changes in the social context of eating, with a trend away from family meals towards grazing and eating alone. At the same time, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing amongst both children and adults, with even young children deliberately practising weight control measures, ranging from selective food choice to self-induced vomiting. Such behaviour is motivated by unrealistic perceptions of healthy body weight and shape. Successful long-term management of healthy body weight is supported by flexible control of eating behaviour and long-term educational strategies. Children are interested in learning about a wide range of nutrition topics. However, to be effective, nutrition education should be appropriate to the stage of cognitive development according to the age of the child, and be placed in the context of the direct, perceivable and immediate benefits resulting from good nutrition. Conclusion: Educational strategies should focus on consumption of a balanced diet, coupled with provision of a variety of foods, including a range of nutrient-dense 'healthy' food and encouraging children to taste unfamiliar dishes. They should provide a stable and predictive pattern of social eating occasions to promote the social meaning and importance of eating, and to enable social learning of food preferences. Educational strategies should provide orientation and reassurance regarding the range of healthy and acceptable body weights and shapes. They should also encourage flexible control of eating behaviour to enable children to maintain their weight within this healthy range. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Whelan, A. and P. Lupton (1998). "Promoting successful breast feeding among women with a low income." 14(2): 94-100.

Objective: to identify those factors which promote or discourage successful breast feeding in a sample of women with a low income, Design: qualitative research using in-depth, semi-structured interviews, Sample: all women with a low income who were identified as having breast fed their latest baby at least once and who had delivered at a district general hospital in the south west of England from 17 September 1996 to 5 February 1997, Findings: three behavioural areas which determined whether or not women with a low income continued to breast feed were identified: individual and social environmental, baby and midwifery practice factors. In terms of individual and social environmental factors those women who continued to breast feed were more likely to have: positive attitudes; realistic expectations; greater levels of self-esteem; a supportive mother/friend; a partner who was not against breast feeding; and the ability to cope with the perceived temporary social isolation. In terms of baby factors those women who continued to breast feed had babies who were move likely to: have three- or four-hourly feeds; be perceived as a contented baby; and have gained weight. And finally, in terms of midwifery practice factors, those women who continued to breast feed were more likely to have: not been separated from their baby; not been given supplementary or complementary feeds; received good advice, especially with regard to positioning the baby at the breast; had greater continuity of midwifery input; had sufficient quality time with a midwife; and had the opportunity to solve problems with a community midwife's help, Implications for practice: midwifery practice can be improved to promote successful breast feeding among women with a low income by: 1) creating realistic expectations and increasing women's confidence/desire to succeed in breast feeding; 2) providing good quality advice and support to mothers of newborn babies, particularly with regard to positioning the baby at the breast; 3) improving social-support networks available to breast-feeding mothers, perhaps through educating grandmothers (or partners) in breastfeeding matters.


Whelan, A. W., N Warm, D Cannings, E (2002). "Life in a 'food desert'." Urban Studies
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