Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Vila, G., J. J. Robert, et al. (1997). "Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence: A pedopsychiatric follow-up." 4(7): 615-622.

To assess the type of mental disorders met in the medical follow-up of insulin-dependent diabetic children (IDDM) and adolescents and their relationships with metabolic control (HbAlC) in young IDDM patients who consult in a department of child psychiatry. Population and methods. - Twenty boys and 37 girls (mean age: 14.7 +/- 4.1 years and mean duration of IDDM: 5.6 +/- 4.3 years were followed during 1 year by the same child psychiatrist (mean duration of follow-up: 22 months). They were assessed with several clinical interviews (mean: three by subject); mental disorders were classified according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised (DSM III-R). Results. - The study showed the importance of emotional disorders, 30 patients presenting at least an anxiety disorder and 17 an affective disorder, 11 a major depressive disorder and eight a dysthymic disorder. The most frequent anxiety disorders were phobias and overanxious disorders. Two patients had an anorexia nervosa, one a bulimia nervosa and nine an eating disorder nor otherwise specified. There were ten diagnoses of disruptive behaviour disorders, one toxic substance abuse and II adaptation disorders. Seven subjects had a reading and writing learning disorder, three a coordination disorder and three a borderline IQ, Familial factors seemed very important. Nine patients had a parent-child problem, four sibling rivalry disorder and two an attachment disorder. Family problems (conflicts, separations, economical difficulties...) were found in 63% of cases. The mother or the father had mental disorders in 24 cases (42%). The diabetic patients with mental disorders had poor metabolic control (HbAlC = 9.9 +/- 2.4%) and ten subjects (18%) had already somatic complications. Some mental disorders were significantly associated with high HbAlC. The poorer metabolic controls were observed for eating disorders. Somatic complications were associated only with IDDM duration. Conclusions. - This study shows the presence of typical DSM III-R menial disorders in IDDM children and adolescents, principally emotional disorders, and their association with a higher somatic risk, maximum for eating disorders. It shows the interest of collaboration between diabetologist and child psychiatrist. The exact prevalence of these disorders should be assessed by epidemiological studies.
Vittoz, J. P., J. Labarere, et al. (2004). "Effect of a training program for maternity ward professionals on duration of breastfeeding." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 31(4): 302-307.

W.A., F. G. I. J. d. G. C. M. S. v. S. (1998). "Food Choice and Fat Intake of Adolescents and Adults: Associations of Intakes within Social Networks." Preventive Medicine 27(5): 645-656.

Background. Influences of the social environment are important in determining eating behavior. Family influences have been demonstrated by resemblances in intakes within families, but research on resemblance in intake between friends is lacking. We investigated the resemblance in fat and food intake within social networks that included family members and peers.

Methods. Fat consumption was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire in 361 social networks consisting of 15-year-old adolescents (n = 347), their mothers (n = 309), their fathers (n = 270), their friends (n = 240), 79 friends of mothers, and 29 friends of fathers. Ten family interviews and four focus group interviews were carried out in a subsample.

Results. Within the nuclear family, the intake of 76 to 94% of the foods was significantly associated, which resulted in moderate Pearson correlations for fat and fatty acid intake (% of energy intake) between parents (0.30-0.34), between mother and child (0.19-0.38), and between father and child (0.16-0.26). No significant correlations for fat intake were found between friends, but the consumption of specific foods was related.

Conclusions. We found clear resemblance in habitual fat and food intake between parents and their adolescent children and between spouses. Friends do not seem to have a lot of influence on the fat intake of adolescents and adults in this population.


Wærdahl, R. (2005). "‘Maybe I’ll need a pair of Levi’s before junior high?’ Child to Youth Trajectories and Anticipatory Socialization." Childhood 12(2): 201-219.

Changing schools at the age of 12 also represents a change in social age identity. Children prepare for this change of age identity in different ways, and their strategies vary across sociocultural contexts as well as between individuals. In this article, some of these strategies are explored through ethnographic observation and interviews with Norwegian 12- year-olds preparing and anticipating a change of school, making use of Robert Merton’s concept of ‘anticipatory socialization’. Merton’s concept describes the building of personal abilities, alienation from one’s former group and adaptation to new norms as social processes identifying change of social reference group. These terms are employed here to identify social processes initiating children’s orientation to a youth identity. The functions that material possessions fulfil are related to the ability to symbolically communicate both categorically and self-expressively a growing normative awareness and a sense of value.


Wahlqvist, M. L. (2003). "Regional food diversity and human health." 12(3): 304-308.

Regions are significant for the way we understand and strategize food for health and economic development. They generally represent various food cultures and opportunities for food exchange based on proximity, historical linkages and complementarities. The example of North and West Africa represents an intersection of some of the most original of human eating experiences out of Africa and the enrichment of these by Arab traders, through the exchange of products, ideas, observations, beliefs and technologies. All of these will have encouraged diversity in food intake. However food diversity and, with it, biodiversity may not always have been recognized as important, and, therefore, secured and protected. Ultimately, food diversity cannot be sustained unless the food chain and the technologies to support it are environmentally appropriate. Cooking, without renewable energy sources, is a critical example. Additionally, human settlement has always required an adequate, a dependable and a safe water supply, although this same settlement tends to compromise these water characteristics. Water is a major factor in food diversity, whether as a source of aquatic food, or the basis of food production and preparation. The extent to which food diversity for human health is required will depend on the food component (essential nutrient and phytochemical) density of the foods represented. For example, fish, fresh lean meat, eggs and seed foods (grains, pulses, nuts) will reduce the requirement. Regional food diversity can support food diversity at the community level - where otherwise it might be fragile - by shared learning experiences, and by trade. Diversity can also be captured and enshrined in recipes with composite ingredients and by traditional emblematic foods - like soups and pies; and it provides the basis for food culture and cuisine. The evidence for food diversity (or variety) as a major factor in health has grown substantially over the last few years - as integrative indices of health like "maternal nutrition" and "successful pregnancy" (for example, through the inclusion of a variety of food sources of folate, increasing the bioavailability of iron, and the sustainable intakes of quality food protein and essential fatty acids); "adult mortality rates"; other "specific disease incidences" (like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and bone health) for "risk factors for disease" (like hypertension and abdominal fatness); and for "wellbeing" (palatable, enjoying and neurologically relevant food stuffs). Thus, there is an ongoing need to promote and maintain food diversity at the regional level and between communities.


Waisbren, S. E., H. Rokni, et al. (1997). "Social factors and the meaning of food in adherence to medical diets: Results of a maternal phenylketonuria summer camp." 20(1): 21-27.

A Maternal PKU camp provided education and social support for 25 young women with phenylketonuria (PKU). Questionnaires were administered and blood samples were collected on the first and last days of camp to evaluate the psychological and medical impact of the programme. Long-term assessed through telephone interviews 7-14 months later. Knowledge of maternal PKU and the maternal PKU diet increased significantly. There was a significant increase in campers' ratings of the degree to which others supported the use of birth control to prevent late-treated pregnancies, although campers' comfort with contraception did not change, Mean blood phenylalanine concentrations were significantly reduced by 37% during camp and by 20% at follow-up. Ninety-six per cent of campers remained in contact with other campers after the summer. At follow-up, one pregnancy was reported, in which metabolic control was achieved prior to conception. Overall, attitudes about treatment and perceptions about ability to cope with PKU did not change to a significant degree. It is suggested that camps may be most successful in changing both behaviour and attitudes if they actively involve the campers in food preparation, address the psychological meaning of food in our culture, and provide social support.


Wakefield, S. E. L. a. B., P (2005). "Family, friend or foe? Critical reflections on the relevance and role of social capital in health promotion and community development,." Social Science & Medicine 60(2819-2832).

Walker, N. A. (1998). Women's magazines, 1940-1960 : gender roles and the popular press. Boston, Bedford/St. Martin's.

Walker, N. A. (2000). Shaping our mothers' world : American women's magazines. Jackson ; [Great Britain], University Press of Mississippi.

Wall, G. (2001). "Moral constructions of motherhood in breastfeeding discourse." 15(4): 592-610.

Some of the ways in which the experience of mothering is shaped by the moral and cultural constructions surrounding breastfeeding discourse are examined using a critical deconstruction of recent Canadian health education material. Connections between the understandings surrounding breastfeeding and cultural constructions of nature and sexuality are raised, as is the overlap between breast feeding discourse and a number of other social discourses including those surrounding child-centered parenting expertise, the remoralization of pregnancy, and the neoliberal preoccupation with individual responsibility and the cost of social programs. Some of the implications that this understanding poses for mothers are examined.
Wallace, J. and H. Wildy (2004). "Old Questions for New Schools: What Are the Students Doing?" Teachers College Record 106(4): 635-650.

Waller, J. and M. Vaughan-Rees (1987). Women in wartime : the role of women's magazines 1939-1945. London, Macdonald Optima.

Wallerstein, J. S. and S. Blakeslee (1990). Second chances : men, women and children a decade after divorce. London, Corgi.

Walsh, J. and M. Harrigan (2003). "The termination stage in Bowen's family systems theory." Clinical Social Work Journal 31(4): 383-394.

The termination stage has always been recognized as an important aspect of the clinical intervention process. Careful attention to that stage is even more critical in the current practice environment of short-term intervention and demands for measurable outcomes. Bowen's family systems theory, while well established in the field of clinical practice, does not incorporate clear directives for the practitioner about the ending stage of intervention. Still, its major concepts for assessment and intervention suggest a range of termination activities that can affirm and summarize a family's gains. In this article the authors offer a variety of ending strategies for use within family systems theory
Wambach, K., S. H. Campbell, et al. (2005). "Clinical lactation practice: 20 years of evidence." Journal of Human Lactation 21(3): 245-258.

Wambach, K. A. and M. Koehn (2004). "Experiences of infant-feeding decision-making among urban economically disadvantaged pregnant adolescents." Journal of Advanced Nursing 48(4): 361-370.

Wansink, B. (2003). "Profiling nutritional gatekeepers: three methods for differentiating influential cooks." Food Quality and Preference 14(4): 289-297.

While nutritional education often focuses on food consumers, this research focuses on cooks. How can we determine the characteristics that define cooks who are capable of changing the taste preferences and eating habits of their family from those who are less influential? Using in-depth interviews, focus groups, and a survey of 770 North Americans, we examine three suggested domains-cooking behaviors, food usage, and personality- and show that the domain of personality most effectively differentiates between segments of cooks. Furthermore, personality segmentation enables researchers and those in public policy to identify which cooks are likely to be most socially influential, inclined toward healthy behavior, predisposed to new foods, and eager to learn


Warde, A. (1993). "Fragmented Societies - a Sociology of Economic Life Beyond the Market Paradigm - Mingione,E." British Journal of Sociology 44(4): 723-724.

Warde, A. (1993). "Life-Style Shopping - the Subject of Consumption - Shields,R." WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY 7(4): 662-663.

Warde, A. (1993). "Mass Consumption and Personal Identity - Lunt,Pk, Livingstone,Sm." WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY 7(4): 662-663.

Warde, A. (1994). "The Sociology of Food - Eating, Diet and Culture - Mennell,S, Murcott,a, Vanotterloo,Ah." Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association 28(1): 350-351.

Warde, A. (1996). "Acknowledging consumption: A review of new studies - Miller,D." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 44(2): 335-337.

Warde, A. (1997). "Consumption in the age of affluence: The world of food - Fine,B, Heasman,M, Wright,J." British Journal of Sociology 48(2): 328-329.

Warde, A. (1997). "The unmanageable consumer: Contemporary consumption and its fragmentations - Gabriel,Y, Lang,T." Organization 4(3): 444-446.

Warde, A. (1998). "Consuming geographies: We are where we eat." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 46(2): 396-397.

Warde, A. (1998). "Sociology on the menu: An invitation to the study of food and society." British Journal of Sociology 49(2): 327-328.

Warde, A. (1999). "We are what we eat: Ethnic food and the making of Americans." Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(5): 924-925.

Warde, A. (2001). "Food, morals and meaning: the pleasure and anxiety of eating." Sociology of Health & Illness 23(1): 132-133.

Warde, A. (2002). "Changing Chinese foodways in Asia." International Sociology 17(4): 565-567.

Warde, A. (2002). "Food, drink and identity: Cooking, eating and drinking in Europe since the Middle Ages." Sociological Research Online 6(4).

Warde, A. and K. Hetherington (1993). "A Changing Domestic Division-of-Labor - Issues of Measurement and Interpretation." WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY 7(1): 23-45.

This paper is concerned to evaluate recent arguments about changes in the domestic division of labour. To this end it identifies different positions on the issue in the literature and deploys some evidence from a survey in Greater Manchester in 1990 to try to discriminate between competing views. We report findings, regarding couple households, about the sex-stereotyping of domestic tasks and about differences in the domestic labour contributions of wives, husbands and young people living in their parental home. The key determinants of variation among households are isolated. We explore attitudes towards sharing and fairness. The results suggest that, with some qualifications, gender stereotyping of specific domestic tasks and unequal contributions between men and women cannot have shifted much in recent years.
Warde, A. and K. Hetherington (1994). "English Households and Routine Food Practices - a Research Note." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 42(4): 758-778.

This paper reports some findings from a study of households in the region of Greater Manchester. As part of a wider study of divisions of labour within households, information was collected about food preparation, the place of food in domestic routines and aspects of food preferences. The results are compared with Charles and Kerr's (1988) account of British domestic food practices.


Warde, A., L. Martens, et al. (1999). "Consumption and the problem of variety: Cultural omnivorousness, social distinction and dining out." Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association 33(1): 105-127.

In the light of the work of Pierre Bourdieu, this paper begins by reviewing an argument that Western populations no longer recognise any fixed cultural hierarchy and that, instead, individuals seek knowledge of an increasingly wide variety of aesthetically equivalent cultural genres. Contrasting versions of this argument are isolated. Data concerning the frequency of use of different commercial sources of meals and the social characteristics of customers using different types of restaurant in England are examined. An attempt is made to infer the social and symbolic significance of variety of experience and, in particular, of familiarity with diverse ethnic cuisines. The findings are interpreted in terms of the complex role of consumption in personal assurance, communicative competence and social distinction. It is maintained that the pursuit of variety of consumer experience is a feature of particular social groups and that some specific component practices express social distinction.


Warde, A., G. Tampubolon, et al. (2005). "Recreation, informal social networks and social capital." JOURNAL OF LEISURE RESEARCH 37(4): 402-425.

This paper examines the determinants of recreational practices amongst members of three diverse voluntary associations in the North West of England, focusing on being hosts and guests in private homes and eating and drinking outside the home. Using multi-level models analysing a rich data source on the social networks of members, we show how respondents' sociability is affected less by their socio-demographic characteristics than by the nature of their social networks. We show, against expectations, that there is little evidence of homophily in these recreational practices, which indicates that informal social contacts may be especially important in generating "bridging" and "boundary-spanning" types of social capital. We use the evidence to argue the need for a "sociology of companionship" which highlights routine sociability around recreational practices.


Wardle, J., S. Carnell, et al. (2005). "Parental control over feeding and children's fruit and vegetable intake: how are they related?" J Am Diet Assoc 105(2): 227-232.

OBJECTIVES: To replicate the finding of a negative association between parental control and fruit and vegetable consumption in girls. To extend the investigation to boys and examine sex differences. To test the hypothesis that children's food neophobia explains this association. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. MEASURES: The questionnaire included items assessing parents' and children's fruit and vegetable intake, the Parental Control Index, and the Child Food Neophobia Scale. SUBJECTS: Parents of 564 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from 22 London nursery schools. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Relationships between continuous variables were examined with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Sex differences were tested using independent sample t tests, and sex differences in correlations were assessed from their 95% confidence intervals. Parental control and children's food neophobia were entered into a hierarchical multiple regression to test the hypothesis that neophobia explains the association between parental control and children's fruit and vegetable intake. RESULTS: We replicated the finding that parental control was correlated with children's fruit and vegetable consumption and found no significant sex differences. Parental fruit and vegetable consumption and children's food neophobia were also strong predictors of children's fruit and vegetable consumption, and both were associated with parental control, suggesting that they might explain the association between control and intake. Controlling for children's food neophobia and parental intake reduced the association of parental control with children's fruit and vegetable intake to nonsignificance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of systematic research about associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary habits so that dietetics professionals can give parents sound advice.


Wardle, J., C. Guthrie, et al. (2001). "Development of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire." J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. 42(7): 963-970.

Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from the existing literature on eating behaviour in children and adults, and from interviews with parents. They included reponsiveness to food, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness, emotional overeating, emotional undereating, and desire for drinks. A large pool of items covering each of these constructs was developed. The number of items was then successively culled through analysis of responses from three samples of families of young children (N¯131; N¯187; N¯218), to produce a 35-item instrument with eight scales which were internally valid and had good test-retest reliability. Investigation of variations by gender and age revealed only minimal gender differences in any aspect of eating style. Satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating diminished from age 3 to 8. Enjoyment of food and food responsiveness increased over this age range. The CEBQ should provide a useful

measure of eating style for research into the early precursors of obesity or eating disorders. This is especially important in relation to the growing evidence for the heritability of obesity, where good measurement of the associated behavioural phenotype will be crucial in investigating the contribution of inherited variations in eating behaviour to the process of weight gain.
Wardle, J., C. A. Guthrie, et al. (2001). "Development of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire." J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42(7): 963-70.

Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from the existing literature on eating behaviour in children and adults, and from interviews with parents. They included responsiveness to food, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating. fussiness, emotional overeating, emotional undereating. and desire for drinks. A large pool of items covering each of these constructs was developed. The number of items was then successively culled through analysis of responses from three samples of families of young children (N = 131; N = 187; N = 218), to produce a 35-item instrument with eight scales which were internally valid and had good test-retest reliability. Investigation of variations by gender and age revealed only minimal gender differences in any aspect of eating style. Satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating diminished from age 3 to 8. Enjoyment of food and food responsiveness increased over this age range. The CEBQ should provide a useful measure of eating style for research into the early precursors of obesity or eating disorders. This is especially important in relation to the growing evidence for the heritability of obesity, where good measurement of the associated behavioural phenotype will be crucial in investigating the contribution of inherited variations in eating behaviour to the process of weight gain.


Wardle, J., K. Parmenter, et al. (2000). "Nutrition knowledge and food intake." Appetite
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