Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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6(3): 185-187.

Thomson, R. and J. Holland (2003). "Hindsight, foresight and insight: the challenges of longitudinal qualitative research." International Journal of Social Research Methodology 6(3): 233-244.

Thoyre, S. M. and R. L. Brown (2004). "Factors contributing to preterm infant engagement during bottle-feeding." 53(5): 304-313.

Background: Preterm infants have difficulty maintaining engagement throughout early oral feedings, which can lead to less efficient feeding and prolonged feeding skill development. Objective: To examine contributions of the infant, mother, and feeding context to infant engagement during bottle-feeding. Methods: Bottle-feedings of very-low-birthweight infants (n = 22) by their mothers were observed. Infant and maternal behaviors were coded and synchronized with physiologic measures, At completion of the feeding, the mothers were interviewed, and their working model of feeding coregulation was scored. Feedings were subdivided into feeding episodes (n = 114). Using multilevel linear regression analyses, four dyadic characteristics (working model of the caregiver's role as coregulator, birthweight, postconceptional age, baseline oxygen saturation) and five episode characteristics (readiness at episode onset, episode baseline oxygen saturation, mean oxygen saturation during the episode, maternal feeding behavior, and phase of feeding) were examined as potential predictors of feeding episode engagement. Results: Conditions observed during the feeding observation explained most of the variation in engagement. Engagement was more likely to occur during the early phase of feeding (p < .05), during feeding episodes that began with infant readiness (p < .05), and during feeding episodes with higher mean oxygen saturation during the episode (p < .05). Feeding episodes with less jiggling of the nipple had a significantly greater amount of engagement (p < .05). Conclusions: The ability of the preterm infant to maintain engagement during bottle-feeding cannot be explained by characteristics of the infant or by the prefeeding condition of the infant alone. Rather, engagement is coregulated by the caregiver and the infant throughout the feeding. Strategies to assist infants in maintaining physiologic stability during bottle-feeding and further study of effective and contingent caregiver feeding behaviors are needed.

Tiggermann, M. (2004). "Body image across the adult life span: stability and change." Body Image 1: 29-41.

Tinkler, P. Constructing Girlhood: Popular Magazines for Girls Growing Up in England, 1920-50 (Gender & Society S.: Feminist Perspectives on the Past & Present)

Tinkler, P. (2001). "Rebellion, Modernity, and Romance: Smoking as a Gendered Practice in Popular Young Women's Magazines, Britain 1918-1939." Women's Studies International Forum 24(1): 111-122.

In Britain, the feminization of the cigarette is a 20th-century phenomenon. Prior to 1900 few women smoked, but during the 1920's and 1930's smoking among women increased dramatically. Set in the context of the increased prevalence of smoking among women during the interwar years and negotiations around the meanings of gender and gender relations in this period, this article examines some of the ways in which popular young women's magazines represented smoking as a gendered practice. A study of the fiction and illustrations featured in popular magazines, as well as articles and advertisements, reveals that representations of women smoking were employed in the interwar years to convey and develop key gender issues: rebellion, modernity, and heterosexual intimacy.

Tinkler, P. (2001). "Red Tips for Hot Lips : Advertising Cigarettes for Young Women in Britain, 1920-70." Women's History Review 10(2): 249-272.

The girl or woman smoker is a 20th-century phenomenon. In 1900, smoking was invariably associated with sexually deviant womanhood. Today, smoking is firmly, if contentiously, established as a feminine practice in British society. This article examines one aspect of the 20th-century feminization of smoking in Britain, namely, the ways in which smoking practices have been presented as appropriate for young women in the period 1920-70. Advertisements featured in magazines for young women aged 15-29 years have been chosen as a particularly apt medium through which to explore some of the ways in which cigarettes and smoking practices have been delineated and infused with meaning. These advertisements constituted a discourse for the circulation of messages about the relationship of women to cigarettes. Findings reveal a number of shifts in cigarette advertisements featured in women's magazines from 1920 to 1970. First, during the 1930's and early 1940's, advertisements were, in contrast to later counterparts, preoccupied with establishing smoking as a feminine practice. Key to processes by which smoking was feminized were various mechanisms whereby the cigarette was depicted as part of the presentation of a heterosexual identity and where smoking practices were embedded in heterosexual relations and rituals. Second, there was a discernible shift in the way women were addressed by advertisements, from potential women smokers in the 1930's to more general consumers in the 1960's. Third and relatedly, the significance attached to women smoking changed between 1920 and 1970. In the 1930's, smoking was utilized to signify that women were "modern"; in the period 1960-70, smoking served to indicate that women were recognized, and accorded status, as consumers.

Tinkler, P. (2003). "Refinement and Respectable Consumption: the Acceptable Face of Women's Smoking in Britain, 1918-1970." Gender & History 15(2): 342-360.

After World War I, cigarette smoking became a defining feature of modernity for middle-class and upper-working-class young women in England. By the late 1930's, smoking had become more widespread among working-class women, for whom it initially had been associated with prostitution. In women's magazines, the clothing and body type of the woman smoker identified her as respectable or not.

Toerien, M. and K. Durrheim (2001). "Power Through Knowledge: Ignorance and the 'Real Man'." Feminism and Psychology 11(1): 35-54.

Tolson, A. (1977). The limits of masculinity. London, Tavistock Publications.

Toma, T. S. and C. A. Monteiro (2001). "Assessment of the promotion of breastfeeding in public and private maternities, Brazil." 35(5): 409-414.

Objective The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) carried out a study to compare and evaluate the practices of protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in public and private hospitals using the "ten steps" of the Hospital Initiative (BFHI) as it reference parameter Methods Forty-five hospitals of the municipality of Sao Paulo participated in the study. Data on the practices of infant feeding were collected by interviewing nurseries' supervisors of all public, hospitals (26). it random sample of private hospitals (19), corresponding to a third of the total, during the Years 1996-1997. Results More than a quarter of the public hospitals and more than one third of the private hospitals did not comply, with any of the BFHI steps. Seven of the "ten steps " were observed in only two public hospitals. In general. practices of protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding were seen at a higher frequency in public hospitals. Conclusions The present study, shows that practices considered detrimental to the onset and progressing of breastfeeding - unnecessary separation of the mother and her newborn, restrictions regarding the length of time and frequency breastfeeding, use of pre-lacteal foods and supplements - are still quite frequently observed in public and private hospitals within the city of Sao Paulo, Given the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother's and their children's health, and the important role maternities play for an it is paramount that the BFHI patterns be adopted by hospitals within th municipality Sao Paulo.

Tomanovic, S. (2004). "Family Habitus as the Cultural Context for Childhood." Childhood 11(3): 339-360.

The article is based on a longitudinal qualitative study carried out by the author on children and their families in two areas of Belgrade (Serbia) in

1993–4 and 2000. Its goal is to provide an insight into how everyday life is structured and constructed for children by their family habitus. There are significant distinctions in how families from different social strata use their resources and thereby provide different cultural contexts for children. The main conclusion is that family habitus has a strong influence on allocation, distribution and the use of family resources and thereby structures the everyday life of children. At the same time, it activates different kinds of capital for (and by) children and thereby constructs different childhood practices.
Tosh, J. (1994). What should historians do with masculinity? : reflections on nineteenth-century Britain.

Touchette, E., D. Petit, et al. (2005). "Factors associated with fragmented sleep at night across early childhood." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 159(3): 242-249.

Traustadottir, R. (1991). "Mothers Who Care. Gender, Disability, and Family Life,." Journal of Family Issues 12(2): 211-228.

Tronto, J. (1993). Moral Boundaries:. London, Routledge.

Tubbs, C. Y., K. M. Roy, et al. (2005). "Family Ties: Constructing Family Time in Low-Income Families."

"Family time" is reflected in the process of building & fortifying family relationships. Whereas such time, free of obligatory work, school, & family maintenance activities, is purchased by many families using discretionary income, we explore how low-income mothers make time for & give meaning to focused engagement & relationship development with their children within time constraints idiosyncratic to being poor & relying on welfare. Longitudinal ethnographic data from 61 low-income African American, European American, & Latina American mothers were analyzed to understand how mothers construct family time during daily activities such as talking, play, & meals. We also identify unique cultural factors that shape family time for low-income families, such as changing temporal orientations, centrality of television time, & emotional burdens due to poverty. Implications for family therapy are also discussed. 61 References. Adapted from the source document.

Turnbull, A. (1994). "An Isolated Missionary: the Domestic Subjects Teacher in England, 1870-1914." Women's History Review 3(1): 81-100.

Establishment of the National Training School for Cookery in 1873 was part of a campaign to raise the status of women's skills such as cooking that were taken for granted. Northern cooking schools formed the Northern Union of Schools of Cookery, later the National Union for the Technical Education of Women in the Domestic Sciences (1899), after the Ministry of Education rebuffed proposals to set standards for the training of domestic subjects teachers and school facilities for teaching. Without recognition by the ministry similar to that elementary school teachers received, domestic subjects teachers, though often of middle-class background, had less status and lower wages than working-class elementary teachers.

Turrell, G., B. Hewitt, et al. (2002). "Socioeconomic differences in food purchasing and suggested implications for diet-related helth promotion." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 15: 355-364.

Ukwuani, F. A., C. M. Suchindran, et al. (2001). "Influences of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to media on breast-feeding patterns: Experience of Nigeria and Uganda." 48(1-2): 1-20.

This study uses data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1990 and the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1995 to examine the implications of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to the media for breast-feeding patterns (exclusivity and intensity) in Nigeria and Uganda. Nigeria and Uganda present an interesting contrast because Nigeria is more modernized and economically developed than Uganda, thus providing a good indication of the influence of modernization on breast-feeding patterns. Mother's work status is defined by considering whether mothers earned cash from work and took their children to work, hence emphasizing the compatibility of work with child care. Work least compatible with child care had a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Nigeria. The negative effect of mother's work on exclusive breast-feeding (that is, if the mothers used formula or milk instead) observed for some working mothers in Nigeria and Uganda was partly confounded by urban residence, exposure to media, and other socioeconomic factors. Mother's work did not have a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Uganda. The relationship between mother's work, urban residence, media exposure, and breast-feeding practice seems to be stronger in Nigeria than Uganda.
Valentine, G. (1997). "'My Son's a Bit Dizzy.' 'My Wife's a Bit Soft': gender, children and cultures of parenting." Gender, Place and Culture 4(1): 37-62.

Valentine, G. (1999). "A corporeal geography of consumption." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 17(3): 329-351.

In this paper I outline a corporeal geography of consumption. By using the example of food I explore how our bodies are linked to wider consumption spaces and the ways that they are inflected by these socio-spatial relations. Although discourses around eating in western cultures tend to privilege self-discipline, there are other meanings around food that emphasise its pleasurable qualities. Because our bodies are a product of the complex interaction of different discourses, social relations, and practices constituted in relation to wider locations, including other bodies, the home, and the workplace, these constellations of relationships do not always serve to produce our bodies in a coherent way. I therefore explore some of the tensions and conflicts individuals experience between different discourses around food, bodily ideals, and sets of regulatory practices in different locations. In doing so I consider the extent to which individuals produce the space of their bodies in accordance with the disciplinary gaze of others rather than their own desires. I suggest that close spatial proximity to others can result in the erosion of individuals' body boundaries, and argue that the lack of corporeal freedom experienced by those interviewed highlights the limitations of public information and discourses about healthy eating, which are usually targeted at individuals and assume individualised patterns of consumption, rather than recognising the way that food consumption is often a shared activity and that bodily practices are therefore inflected by wider socio-spatial relations.
Valentine, G. (1999). "Doing household research: interviewing couples together and apart." Area 31(1): 67-74.

The question of whether household members should be interviewed together or apart is hotly debated in 'family' studies. In this paper, I use my own experiences of both methods of interviewing in order to explore some of the practical problems, ethical issues and power dynamics of conducting household research, and to demonstrate how a household focus can contribute to the understanding of gender relations.

Valentine, G. (1999). "Eating in: home, consumption and identity." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 47(3): 491-524.

Food is perhaps one of the most mundane and taken for granted parts of our everyday life, yet the ways we think about shopping, cooking and eating are actually intensively reflexive. This paper uses the example of food to explore questions of identity in relation to the specific cultural location of 'the home'. Using case study examples the paper illustrates some of the complex ways in which identities, throughout the lifecourse, are produced, articulated and contested through food consumption and the spatial dynamics of cooking and eating. In doing so the paper demonstrates that households, rather than being single units of food consumption, can be sites of multiple and sometimes contradictory consumption practices and that it is necessary to understand how patterns of eating are negotiated and contested within households in order to understand how the home functions as a 'consumption site'

Valentine, G. (1999). "Eating in: home, consumption and identity." The Sociological Review 47(3): 491-524.

Valentine, G. (1999). "Eating in: home, consumption and identity." The Sociological Review: 491-525.

Valentine, G. (2000). "Exploring children and young people's narratives of identity." Geoforum 31(2): 257-267.

In this paper I begin by considering the way that children are located in narratives of identity not of their own making. Specifically, I argue that in twentieth century Britain, children have been defined in opposition to adults. This compartmentalisation of childhood as a separate category from adulthood is reinforced by the contemporary process of familialisation. I then go on to consider the way that children are also increasingly being located within narratives of individualisation, being confronted with many of the same choices as adults while also facing similar risks of marginalisation through their choices. Using the example of adult-child relationships at school break time, I examine how as a result of this process of individualisation the category child/youth is dissolving into adulthood and erasing relationships between childhood and adulthood based purely on hierarchy and deference. In producing their own narrative of the self, I argue that young people increasingly have to learn to negotiate this ambiguity if they are to position themselves correctly within adult and peer cultures. In particular, it is within the context of peer group culture that young people have to learn how to articulate their individuality while at the same time conforming with peer group identities which are highly embodied and are predicated on adult notions of heterosexualised gender identities.

Valentine, G. and B. Longstaff (1998). "Doing porridge - Food and social relations in a male prison." Journal of Material Culture 3(2): 131-152.

This article explores the meanings and use of food in the institutional setting of a male prison. In an environment where men have limited access to money or material goods, food assumes immense value. It has important symbolic associations for inmates in terms of 'home' and 'identity' while particular foodstuffs can be reworked to be employed in diverse ways within prison gym cultures, drug cultures and so on. Thus because food is a meaningful and useful commodity within the prison it has important exchange value, being traded both in its own right but also as a currency to purchase other more precious commodities. This in turn means that it is a source of conflict between individuals and between groups of inmates within prisons. The article therefore concludes by focusing on the role of food in the complex negotiation of power relations between inmates and staff, and between individuals and groups of inmates.

Van Esterik, P. (1989). Motherpower and Infant feeding. London, Zed Books.

Van Esterik, P. (2002). "Contemporary trends in infant feeding research." Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 257-278.

VanEvery, J. (1997). "Understanding Gendered Inequality: Reconceptualizing Housework." Women's Studies International Forum 20(3): 411-420.

Vannotti, M. and C. Morier-Genoud (2003). "Domestic violence: a family systemic approach." Medecine et Hygiene 61(2457): 2154-2158.

Domestic violence is a major problem in society because of its frequency. A family systems approach tries to explain the complex genesis of violent behaviours in families. It underlines relational particularities in the emergence of a violent behaviour towards minors and intimate partners. One can make these behaviour interpretations by referring either to a circular logic or a linear logic. The authors aim at showing that the interactive aspect of violent behaviours does not reduce in any way the responsibility of the author of violence, who transgresses the law and denies the humanity of his victim. Following this perspective, the understanding of the complex nature of the phenomenon can help the physician to detect, prevent and protect the victims of violence. Finally, the authors stress the medical responsibility in relation to domestic violence
Vannuchi, M. T. O., C. A. Monteiro, et al. (2004). "The baby-friendly hospital initiative and breastfeeding in a neonatal unit." Revista De Saude Publica 38(3): 422-428.

Variyam, J. N. and J. Blaylock (1998). "Unlocking the mystery between nutrition knowledge and diet quality." Food Review May-August: 21-28.

Variyam, J. N., J. Blaylock, et al. (1999). "Mother's nutrition knowledge and children's dietary intakes." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81: 373-384.

Varty, A. (1999). Eve's century : a sourcebook of writings on women and journalism 1895-1950. London, Routledge.

Vereecken, C., Maes, L (2003). "A Belgian study on the reliability and relative validity of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children food-frequency questionnaire." PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 6(6): 581-588.

Objective: In the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, the frequency of consumption of a limited number of food items - focusing on fibre, calcium and less healthy items - is queried using a 15-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The present study was conducted to assess the reliability and relative validity of the HBSC FFQ among school pupils in Belgium.

Design and subjects: To assess the reliability of the FFQ, 207 pupils aged 11 - 12 years and 560 pupils aged 13-14 years completed the questionnaire twice, with a test-retest interval of 6 to 15 days. To assess the relative validity of the FFQ, in a first study data were collected as part of the Flemish HBSC 2000 survey: 7072 pupils (11-18 years) completed the FFQ and a 24-hour food behaviour checklist (FBC). In a second study, 101 pupils (11-12 years) completed the FFQ and a 7-day food diary (FD).

Results: Reliability - weighted kappa values between test and retest ranged from 0.43 to 0.70, percentage agreement from 37 to 87%, and Spearman correlations from 0.52 to 0.82. Relative validity - comparison of the FBC with the percentage of respondents who should have consumed the food items on a random day, computed from the FFQ showed good agreement between the FFQ and the FBC for most items. Only for cereals, diet soft drinks and other milk products were considerably higher food frequencies than expected found from the FBC. Comparison of the FFQ with the FD showed overestimation for all but three food items (cheese, soft drinks and chips). Spearman correlations ranged between 0.10 for crisps and 0.65 for semi-skimmed milk.

Conclusion: The HBSC FFQ is a reliable questionnaire that can be used for ranking subjects for most food items, although one must consider the overestimation when the FFQ is used for estimating prevalences.
Vickers, M. H., B. H. Breier, et al. (2003). "Sedentary behavior during postnatal life is determined by the prenatal environment and exacerbated by postnatal hypercaloric nutrition." 285(1): R271-R273.

The discovery of a link between in utero experience and later metabolic and cardiovascular disease is one of the most important advances in epidemiology research of recent years. There is now increasing evidence that alterations in the fetal environment have long-term consequences on metabolic and endocrine pathophysiology in adult life. This process has been termed "fetal programming," and we have shown that undernutrition of the mother during gestation leads to obesity, hypertension, hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in offspring. Using this model of maternal undernutrition throughout pregnancy, we investigated whether prenatal influences may lead to alterations in postnatal locomotor behavior, independent of postnatal nutrition. Virgin Wistar rats were time mated and randomly assigned to receive food either ad libitum (ad libitum group) or at 30% of ad libitum intake (undernourished group). Offspring from UN mothers were significantly smaller at birth than AD offspring. At weaning, offspring were assigned to one of two diets [ control or hypercaloric (30% fat)]. At ages of 35 days, 145 days, and 420 days, voluntary locomotor activity was assessed. At all ages studied, offspring from undernourished mothers were significantly less active than offspring born of normal birth weight for all parameters measured, independent of postnatal nutrition. Sedentary behavior in programmed offspring was exacerbated by postnatal hypercaloric nutrition. This work is the first to clearly separate prenatal from postnatal effects and shows that lifestyle choices themselves may have a prenatal origin. We have shown that predispositions to obesity, altered eating behavior, and sedentary activity are linked and occur independently of postnatal hypercaloric nutrition. Moreover, the prenatal influence may be permanent as offspring of undernourished mothers were still significantly less active compared with normal offspring at an advanced adult age, even in the presence of a healthy diet throughout postnatal life.

Videon, T. M. and C. K. Manning (2003). "Influences on adolescent eating patterns: the importance of family meals." Journal of Adolescent Health
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