Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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97(5): 496-504.

Objective To determine the nutrient and food intakes of healthy, white infants from families of middle and upper socioeconomic status and to compare intakes to current recommendations. Design Using an incomplete random block design, we interviewed 98 mother-infant pairs longitudinally when infants were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months old. Data obtained included 24-hour dietary recalls, usual food intake, and food likes and dislikes. Setting Interviews were conducted in the mother's home by registered dietitians. Subjects resided in two urban areas of Tennessee. Subjects Of the original 98 subjects, 94 completed the 2-year study. Results Mean energy and nutrient intakes generally met or exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Exceptions were zinc and vitamin D, which were each below 100% of the RDA at 9 of the 10 data points, and vitamin E, which was below the RDA in the infants' second year. Fat intake decreased from more than 40% of energy in the first 6 months to 30% to 32% from 10 to 24 months. One third of the infants drank reduced-fat milks at 12 months and more than half drank them at 24 months. Although infants ate a variety of foods, vegetables often were the least favorite foods. A variety of dairy products provided calcium for the infant but lacked vitamin D. Conclusions Several nutritional issues about infant feeding before 2 years of age arose. Low intakes of zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin E were observed. In the second year, low fat intake, use of reduced-fat milks, and dislike of vegetables were areas of concern.


Smart, C. (2005). "Textures of family life: Further thoughts on change and commitment." Journal of Social Policy 34: 541-556.

This article attempts to account for the existence of parallel systems of values in families where grandparents condemn divorce, yet act to support their adult children when they face relationship breakdown. The article seeks to understand the context in which values are formed and how they can gradually become more complex and contradictory as social and personal contexts change. The article explores change across two generations of family relationships in order to add to the debate on whether commitments within families are in decline. It also addresses the question of how policies on families can be formulated given the complexity, and contradictory nature, of the values that family members hold.


Smart, C. (2006). "Children's narratives of post-divorce family life: from individual experience to an ethical disposition." Sociological Review 54(1): 155-170.

This article draws on interviews with 60 children and young people to explore how they construct narrative accounts of post-divorce family life. Rather than seeking to describe children's experiences as if their accounts are simple factual recollections, the focus of the article is on how young people position themselves in their narratives and the ways in which they construct their past experiences. It is argued that these narratives are multi-layered, often revealing ambivalence and contradictions. The conclusion turns to the question of whether these individual accounts can give rise to what might be referred to as an ethical disposition in which children's experiences can inform a broader social ethos on how to divorce 'in the proper manner'.


Smith, G. D. (1998). "Negotiating space: alternative masculinities at the work/home boundary." Australian Geographer 29(3): 327-339.

Smith, J. W. and M. R. Tully (2001). "Midwifery management of breastfeeding: Using the evidence." Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health 46(6): 423-438.

Smith, M. M., M. Durkin, et al. (2003). "Initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of very low birth weight infants." 111(6): 1337-1342.

Objective. To examine factors that predict the initiation of expressed milk feedings and the transition to direct breastfeedings among mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods. The sample consists of 361 mother-infant pairs enrolled in a follow-up study of children aged 6 to 8 years who were born weighing <1501 g in 1 of 5 hospitals between 1991-1993. Chart review at birth provided data on neonatal characteristics and demographic factors at delivery were obtained by postpartum maternal interview. Information regarding infant feeding practices was obtained at follow-up. Results. In this study, 60% of mothers initiated expressed milk feedings for their VLBW infants. However, the duration of these feedings was brief with 52% of infants receiving 1 to 3 months or less of human milk feedings. Greater educational attainment, private insurance, and breastfeeding experience were each independently associated with the decision to provide expressed milk feedings. Only 27% of mothers reported directly breastfeeding their VLBW infants. The transition from expressed milk feedings to direct breastfeedings was positively associated with sociodemographic factors including maternal age, insurance status, and breastfeeding experience as well as the length of hospitalization, an indicator of infant health. Conclusions. Sociodemographic factors were associated with both the decision to initiate expressed milk feedings and the transition to direct breastfeedings. However, factors relating to infant health only influenced the transition to direct breastfeedings. Intervention programs need to consider the sociodemographic factors that influence infant feeding decisions as well as specific challenges encountered by mothers of VLBW infants.


Smith, P. E. (1995). Women's magazines : 1995 market report, Key Note.

Sobal, J. (2005). "Men, Meat, and Marriage: Models of Masculinity." Food and Foodways 13: 135-158.

Sohn, A. (2002). "A man's place. Masculinity and the middle class home in Victorian England." MOUVEMENT SOCIAL(198): 158-161.

Sorensen, E. (1999). Obligating Dads: helping low-income non-custodial fathers do more for heir children. Washington, US, The Urban Institute.

Too few poor children who live apart from their fathers can count on their financial support. In 1996, only 30 percent of poor children who lived apart from their dads received child support. That year, welfare reform addressed this hard fact, stepping up efforts to collect child support. But increased child support alone will not be enough; further support, economic incentives, and revised child support policies are needed to enable low income non-custodial fathers to take financial responsibility for their children.
Sosin, M. R. "Homeless and Vulnerable Meal Program Users: A Comparison Study."

It is generally accepted that individuals become homeless after living in an impoverished but domiciled vulnerable state. Here, individual determinants of the decline from vulnerability are explored using data obtained in 1986 via interviews with a sample of 535 homeless & domiciled men & women receiving free food from programs in Chicago, Ill, to test whether the groups can be differentiated on 3 sets of deficits: alienation, disabilities, & occupational. Also examined is whether the loss of a domicile reflects a lack of access to support offered by social institutions. Results indicate that variables representing lack of access are the best predictors of homelessness, but certain deficits have limited importance in specific subsamples. It is suggested that the generally limited role of deficits may occur because the most problem-ridden adults are protected from homelessness & from vulnerability. Differentials across gender as well as previous homeless history are also noted & explained. 6 Tables, 1 Appendix, 52 References. Adapted from the source document.


Sothern, M. S. (2004). "Obesity prevention in children: physical activity and nutrition." Nutrition 20: 704-708.

Sothern, M. S. (2004). "Obesity prevention in children: physical activity and nutrition." 20(7-8): 704-708.

The current environmental experience of young children includes few opportunities for physical activity and an overabundance of high calorie foods. Sedentary lifestyles and poor nutrition challenge children who are predisposed to metabolic disorders. Obesity is a logical response to this challenge. To prevent clinically significant obesity and later metabolic disease in predisposed youth, all sectors of society must work together to support strategies to change public opinion and behavior across the life span. Parental education in all medical settings is strongly recommended, especially if the parent(s) are obese, beginning with the first pregnancy visit to the physician. Schools should be primary targets for efforts to educate parents concerning the reduction of TV, computer games, and unhealthy snacks. Schools should be encouraged to adopt vending machine policies that promote healthy drinks and food in appropriate portion sizes and discouraged from providing unhealthy food as rewards for positive behavior or academic accomplishment. Schools should provide daily physical education and frequent periods of unstructured play in young children. Clinical treatment should be both encouraged and financially supported in children who are already overweight. Community wide efforts to increase awareness and promote environments that encourage physical activity and healthy nutrition are needed.
Spatz, D. L. (2004). "Ten steps for promoting and protecting breastfeeding for vulnerable infants." Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing 18(4): 385-396.

Spear, B. A. (2006). "The need for family meals." 106(2): 218-219.

Spruijt-Metz, D., C. Li, et al. (2006). "Longitudinal influence of mother's child-feeding practices on adiposity in children." Journal of Pediatrics 148: 314-320.

Spruijt-Metz, D., C. H. Lindquist, et al. (2002). "Relation between mothers' child-feeding practices and children's adiposity." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 75(3): 581-6.

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in American children is currently estimated to be 25%. Poor nutritional habits during childhood have been directly related to pediatric obesity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the relation between mothers' child-feeding practices and children's adiposity in a sample of boys and girls from 2 ethnic groups. DESIGN: A total of 74 white (25 boys and 49 girls) and 46 African American (22 boys and 24 girls) children ( plus minus SD age: 11 plus minus 1.7 y) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mothers' child-feeding practices were assessed with the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Dietary intake data were based on three 24-h dietary recalls conducted by use of the multiple-pass technique. RESULTS: Two subscales of the Child Feeding Questionnaire, pressure to eat and concern for child's weight, explained 15% of the variance in total fat mass in both African American and white boys and girls (P < 0.001) after correction for total lean mass and energy intake (which explained 5% of the variance in total fat mass). Ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status did not contribute significantly to variance in total fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: Child-feeding practices are key behavioral variables that explain more of the variance in total fat mass than does energy intake in a biethnic population of boys and girls. These findings have important implications for the prevention of obesity in children because they suggest that prevention programs need to focus on the feeding behaviors of parents in addition to the macronutrient and energy intakes of children.
Sreenivas, M. (2003). "Emotion, Identity, and the Female Subject: Tamil Women's Magazines in Colonial India, 1890-1940." Journal of Women's History 14(4): 59-82.

Reports on an examination of periodicals written, some in Tamil and some in English, for a female audience in the Madras area of India between 1890 and 1940. Over time, these women's magazines changed from a focus on educating females to a concentration on helping women to be effective wives and still later to articles which dealt with such emotional issues as romance, love, and widows' rights to pleasure and remarriage. A parallel is drawn between India asserting its right to be free of colonialism and women asserting their right to be free of oppression within marriage.


Stacey, J. (1990). Brave New Families:stories of domestic upheaval in the late twentieth century America New York, Basic Books.

Stacey, J. (1996). Brave New Families. New York, Basic Books.

Stainton Rogers, W. (2001). Constructing Childhood, Constructing Child Concern. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 26-33.

Standish, P. (2005). "Towards an economy of higher education,." Critical Quarterly, 47 47(1-2): 53-71.

Stang, J., J. Rehorst, et al. (2004). "Parental feeding practices and risk of childhood overweight in girls: implications for dietetics practice." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(7): 1076-1079.

Stanley, A. C. (2004). "Hearth, Home, and Steering Wheel: Gender and Modernity in France after the Great War." Historian 66(2): 233-253.

Examines advertisements that depicted women in domestic situations in post-World War I France. Faced with a population decline, French society endorsed a policy that returned women to home and hearth. This discursive view of gender can be seen in advertisements for food products, vacuum cleaners, cameras, cars, and other products. The advertisements stressed the importance of women's maternal and domestic roles while minimizing the "modern" woman's place in postwar France.
Steel, J. M. and F. D. Johnstone (1996). "Guidelines for the management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in pregnancy." 52(1): 60-70.

The infant of an insulin-dependent diabetic mother is at increased risk of perinatal death, neonatal problems and major congenital malformations. Many of these problems are preventable. All young women with diabetes should receive contraceptive advice and information about pregnancy. The objects of pre-pregnancy care are to assess suitability for pregnancy, to optimise control in early pregnancy and to improve pregnancy outcome through the provision of individualised education and information. Pre-pregnancy care can reduce the congenital malformation rate to approximately that of the nondiabetic. In each area there should be one designated diabetologist and one designated obstetrician who, together with their team, should see all pregnant women in a combined clinic in a hospital with an intensive care baby unit. All pregnant women with diabetes should have 24-hour access to the specialist team. Tight glycaemic control during pregnancy can reduce complications of pregnancy greatly, improving infant mortality and morbidity. Insulin requirements usually change during pregnancy. Education about hypoglycaemia and avoidance of ketoacidosis is essential. Women should have regular examination of the fundi and renal function. They should have ultrasound scanning to assess gestation, to look for abnormalities and to assess fetal growth. Fetal monitoring should be used, particularly for those at high risk. Women with good diabetic control and no complications of diabetes or pregnancy may be delivered at 39 to 40 weeks but those at high risk earlier. During labour or caesarean section blood glucose should be normalised using intravenous glucose and insulin supervised by a specialist team. An experienced paediatrician should be available. Breast feeding should be encouraged.


Stein, A. and C. G. Fairburn (1996). "Eating habits and attitudes in the postpartum period." 58(4): 321-325.

The object of this study was to examine the changes in women's eating habits and attitudes in the 6 months after childbirth, focusing particularly on eating-disorder psychopathology. A general population sample of 97 primigravid women originally studied during pregnancy were followed for 6 months postpartum to describe their changes in eating and weight after childbirth with particular reference to the behaviors and attitudes characteristic of clinical eating disorders. Assessment was by standardized interview. It was found that eating disorder symptoms increased markedly in the 3 months postpartum and then plateaued over the next 6 months. This overall plateauing masked substantial variation in different domains; in particular, weight concern continued to increase to the 6-month assessment, although shape concern decreased. Concern about residual weight gain after the birth of a child was described by many mothers as particularly distressing and seemed to precipitate a clinical eating disorder in a few cases. Many women would have welcomed educational advice about how to deal with changes in eating, weight, and shape after pregnancy, It was concluded, therefore, that overall, there is evidence of an increase in eating-disorder psychopathology in the 6 months after childbirth, It is argued that education about how to deal with the changes in weight and shape after pregnancy might decrease the risk of developing frank eating disorder psychopathology.


Stein, A., H. Woolley, et al. (1994). "An Observational Study of Mothers with Eating Disorders and Their Infants." 35(4): 733-748.

Two groups of primiparous mothers and their infants were observed at home during play and at a mealtime when the infants were 12-14 months old. The index group consisted of mothers who had experienced an eating disorder during the postnatal year while the control group had been free from such psychopathology. The main findings were that, when compared to controls, the index mothers were more intrusive with their infants during both mealtimes and play; and that they expressed more negative emotion towards their infants during mealtimes but not during play. There were, however, no differences between the groups in their positive expressed emotion. The index infants' emotional tone was generally more negative and their mealtimes more conflictual compared to controls. Furthermore, the index infants tended to be lighter than controls and infant weight was found to be independently and inversely related to both the amount of conflict during mealtimes and the extent of the mother's concern about her own body shape.


Stein, M. T. (2002). "Failure to thrive in a four-month-old nursing infant." Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 23(4).

Steptoe, A., T. M. Pollard, et al. (1995). "Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire." Appetite 25(3): 267-84.

A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.
Stevens, L. M. R. (2002). The joy of text : women's experiential consumption of magazines. Coleraine, University of Ulster

University of Ulster: 1 v.; 31 cm.

Stewart-Knox, B., K. Gardiner, et al. (2003). "What is the problem with breast-feeding? A qualitative analysis of infant feeding perceptions." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 16(4): 265-273.

St-Onge, M., K. L. Keller, et al. (2003). "Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78: 1068-1073.

Stratton, P. and K. Bromley (1999). "Families' accounts of the causal processes in food choice." Appetite 33: 89-108.

Stratton, P. and K. Bromley (1999). "Families’ Accounts of the Causal Processes in Food Choice." Appetite 33(1): 89-108.

Much of the previous research into the processes involved in food choice has made use of methodologies that neglect the social and familial context in which such decisions are made. The study reported here used a different approach to gather qualitative data from family members regarding their decision processes in the form of naturally expressed social explanations or attributions. Interviews were conducted with 149 family members from a total of 83 British families from four locations. The participants were encouraged to discuss their own personal experience of food choice, including their dietary decisions and behaviours and the factors involved in the process, using systemic interviewing techniques. The 52 h of interview material obtained were subjected to attributional analysis using the Leeds Attributional Coding System (LACS), a qualitative research tool designed for work with families. The data, in the form of 7062 fully coded belief statements or attributions, provided some preliminary observations of the way that families understand and socially explain their food-based decisions. The approach offers a different perspective on family food choice to those provided through more traditional experimental research and surveys.
Studdert, H. (1996). "Her Puddings Bored Her Husband : Advertising and the Construction of Gender in Australian Women's Magazines, 1920-1939." Melbourne Historical Journal 24: 67-86.

Discusses the notions of gendered behavior and concepts of gender difference expressed in advertisements in women's magazines in Australia between 1920 and 1939.


Studdert, H. G. (1998). "`You're a 100% Feminine if . . .': Gender Constructions in Australian Women's Magazines, 1920-1969." DAI 59(2): 633-A.

Sturken, M. (2002). "Masculinity, courage, and sacrifice." SIGNS 28(1): 444-445.

Sulimani, R., M. Anani, et al. (1998). "Should diabetic pregnant mothers fast during Ramadan?" 19(1): 50-51.

Objectives: To study the effects of Ramadan fasting on the control of diabetes in different groups of pregnant diabetic mothers, Design: Prospective study. Setting: Hospital setting, gestational diabetic clinic. Subjects: Forty three Saudi pregnant diabetic mothers were studied. Twenty three patients were on diabetic diet (Group I), 11 patients on 2 injections of regular insulin per day ( Group II) and 12 patients managed with 3 injections of insulin per day (Group III). Measures: Fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels were compared in the patients studied before and during Ramadan. Results: No significant changes occurred in blood glucose levels during Ramadan, In group I post prandial blood glucose levels did actually improve significantly (p< 0.05). None of the patients experienced clinically significant hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting may be allowed for some pregnant diabetic mothers including those on diet of simple insulin regimens.


Sullenger, T. E. (1960). Neglected Areas in Family Living. Boston, MA, The Christopher Publishing House.

A reader in 10 Chpts on the neglected areas of family living. After an (1) Introduction, the content is: (2) Criteria of Marital Happiness, (3) Family Rituals, (4) The Family Meal, (5) Household Pets, (6) Family Intra-Communication [conversation, family talks, etc], (7) Family Councils, (8) Role Changing [role conflicts of Coll educated women, culture lag & housewifemanship, etc], (9) Meeting Life Situations - Family Emotional Security [how to live with a woman, should men marry older women? interfaith marriage, Sch-age marriage, etc], & (10) Catastrophic Changes in the Family Cycle. An Index.


Sullivan, G., A. Burnam, et al. "Quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness: results from the course-of-homelessness study."

OBJECTIVE: The quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness was compared with that of homeless persons without mental illness. METHODS: Subjective and objective quality-of-life ratings were obtained in face-to-face interviews with 1,533 homeless adults in Los Angeles, who were identified using probability sampling of people on the streets and at shelters and meal facilities; 520 subjects were tracked for 15 months. Ratings of homeless persons with and without mental illness were compared using chi square tests and regression analyses. RESULTS: Mentally ill homeless persons were significantly more likely than those without mental illness to receive Supplemental Security Income, Social Security Disability Insurance, Veterans Affairs disability benefits, or Medicaid. However, those with mental illness still fared significantly worse in terms of physical health, level of subsistence needs met, victimization, and subjective quality of life. Differences between groups in the subjective quality-of-life ratings were accounted for by modifiable factors such as income and symptoms rather than by nonmodifiable demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions most likely to improve the quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness include those that stress maintenance of stable housing and provision of food and clothing and that address physical health problems and train individuals to minimize their risk of victimization. Interventions that decrease depressive symptoms might also improve subjective quality of life.


Sullivan, G., A. Burnam, et al. (2000). "Quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness: results from the course-of-homelessness study." Psychiatric services
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