Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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116(6): 1329-1338.

Objective. To study the dynamic processes that drive development of childhood overweight by examining the effects of prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding (breastfeeding versus bottle feeding) on weight states through age 7 years. We test a model to determine whether prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding influence the development of a persistent early tendency toward overweight and/or whether prenatal characteristics and early-life feeding factors influence the likelihood that children will change weight states as they get older. Methods. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Child-Mother file were used to implement these analyses. A total of 3022 children were included in this sample. For inclusion in this sample, valid information on height and weight during 3 consecutive interviews when the child was aged 24 to 95 months as well as valid data on prenatal and birth characteristics were needed. The primary outcome measure was childhood overweight (BMI >95th percentile). Multivariate logistic models and first-order Markov models were estimated. Results. Early development of childhood overweight was associated with race, ethnicity, maternal prepregnancy obesity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and later birth years. In later years, the factor that contributed the most to being overweight was having been overweight in the previous observation period. However, with conditioning on the child's having been overweight in the previous observation period, the prenatal factors that contributed to early childhood overweight, except for birth cohort, were also associated with development of overweight among children who had previously been normal weight and perpetuated the persistence of overweight over time. Conclusions. This research suggests that prenatal characteristics, particularly race, ethnicity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal prepregnancy obesity, exert influence on the child's weight states through an early tendency toward overweight, which then is perpetuated as the child ages. These findings are intriguing as they provide additional clues to the genesis of childhood overweight and suggest that overweight prevention may need to begin before pregnancy and in early childhood.


Salt, M. J., C. M. Law, et al. (1994). "Determinants of Breast-Feeding in Salisbury and Durham." 16(3): 291-295.

Background The practice of breastfeeding is related to socio-demographic characteristics: both show marked variation by place within the United Kingdom. This study set out to test the commonly held assumption that geographical variations in breastfeeding practices are explained by socio-demographic differences. Methods The mothers of 326 six-week-old babies living in Salisbury or Durham Health Districts were interviewed to determine attitudes to breeastfeeding practice. Results More mothers in Salisbury breastfed than mothers in Durham, both immediately after birth (Salisbury 79 per cent, Durham 54 per cent) and at six weeks (50 per cent and 26 per cent). Higher rates of breastfeeding after birth were associated with higher level of qualification, encouragement to breastfeed antenatally and the mother having been breastfed herself. Higher rates at six weeks were associated with higher level of qualification, higher parity and willingness to breastfeed away from home. The differences between districts persisted after adjustment for these variables, but were diminished when willingness to breastfeed away from home was taken into account. Conclusion Differences between the two districts in breastfeeding practice cannot be wholly explained by traditional socio-demographic characteristics, and may be related to local culture. Health education is unlikely to change breastfeeding practices unless prevailing cultural attitudes also change.


Salzman, C. (1986). "Continuity and Change in the Culinary History of the Netherlands, 1945-75." Journal of Contemporary History 21(4): 605-628.

Recipes represent ideal meals, and changes in meals reveal a society's development. A study of recipes may therefore disclose the time and purpose of social variations. Two leading women's magazines Margriet and The Hague Cookbook illustrate some of these changes in the post-World War II period: new interest in diet foods, frozen foods, more coffee, carbonated drinks, alcohol, American products, and Chinese-Indonesian dishes.


Samuel, R. and P. Thompson (1990). The Myths We Live By. London, Routledge.

Sanchez, S. and C. Castillo-Duran (2004). "Eating behavior disorders in Chilean infants." International Journal of Eating Disorders 36(3): 348-355.

Santos, L. R. and F. J. V. Leal (2005). "Assessment of expressed emotion in families of patients with eating disorders: using the Camberwell Family Interview on a Spanish sample." 33(6): 359-365.

Introduction. The level of expressed emotion (EE) in the family members has been related to several clinical and outcome realted factors in patients with eating disorders. This study aimed to study the levels of EE in families of patients with eating disorders using the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) in order to determine whether they were similar to those reported in other studies developed outside Spain. Methods. Seventy-one parents of 43 eating disorders patients were evaluated using a Spanish version of the CH. Results. In our sample, 46.5% of the families had EE high levels. There were no significant differences between mothers and fathers in global scores, but mothers tended to have higher emotional overinvolvement with the patient. Conclusions. The percentage of families that had high EE in our sample was lower than that reported for families with a member with schizophrenia and slightly higher than that detected in other studies on eating disorders. Mothers tended to have higher EE levels than fathers.


Sarris, M. (2003). "The masculinity studies reader." JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 9(2): 379-380.

Sarwar, T. (2002). "Infant feeding practices of Pakistani mothers in England and Pakistan." 15(6): 419-428.

Objectives To investigate infant feeding practices followed by Pakistani mothers in Pakistan and in England. To establish if practices conform to current guidelines and to investigate reasons for adherence and nonadherence. Methods Ninety mothers of weaning age children were interviewed; 45 were in England and 45 in Pakistan. A questionnaire available in English and Urdu sought to find out about the methods of milk feeding and weaning used and the advice received, together with general beliefs about weaning. Results Characteristics of the infants in terms of current age, gender distribution, birth order of baby and age of weaning showed no significant differences between the two groups. Thus, differences between the two groups could be attributed to cultural differences rather than any of these factors. Chi-square analysis showed that the initial method of feeding chosen was significantly different ( P < 0.001, d. f. = 2) with 73% of mothers in Pakistan breast-feeding compared with 24% in England. Similar proportions of mothers in both groups commenced weaning between 3 and 4 months. Common weaning foods included rice, cereals and eggs with progression to fruit and vegetables and family food in Pakistan, and fruit, vegetables, meat and convenience foods ( especially sweet options) in England. Both groups of mothers wanted more information about infant feeding practices. Conclusion Mothers in Pakistan demonstrated more confidence in weaning practices than in England because of experiences with other siblings and advice from relatives. More advice from health professionals was requested and is needed by all mothers in order to improve weaning practices of the infants.
Satter, E. (2004). "Children, the feeding relationship, and weight." Maryland Medicine. 5(3): 26-8.

Saukko, P. (2005). Methodologies for Cultural Studies: An Integrative Approach. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. California; London; New Dehli, Sage.

Savage, S. A. H., J. J. Reilly, et al. (1998). "Weaning practice in the Glasgow longitudinal infant growth study." 79(2): 153-156.

Aims-To assess compliance with Department of Health guidelines on weaning practice in a representative sample of 127 infants from Glasgow, and to identify factors influencing timing of weaning. Methods-Questionnaires on feeding and weaning were completed during home visits. Ninety eight mothers completed a further questionnaire on attitudes to weaning Results-Median age at introduction of solid food was 11 weeks (range 4-35 weeks); only 7% of infants had not been weaned before age 4 months. There was no difference in timing of weaning between boys and girls. Younger mothers (< 20 years old), those of lower socioeconomic status, and those who formula fed their infants tended to introduce solids earlier. Infants who were heaviest before weaning were weaned earlier. Seventy three of 98 mothers reported that they weaned their babies because they felt that they required more food. Sources of information influencing time of weaning were previous experience (53/98), books and leaflets (43/98), advice from the health visitor (31/98), and family and friends (15/98). Sixty five of 98 mothers reported receiving formal information on weaning, in most cases (54) this was from the health visitor. Mothers who received formal information tended to wean their infants later. Two per cent of infants had been given cow's milk as a main drink by age 6 months, 17% by 9 months, and 45% by the end of the first year. Conclusion-Compliance with recommendations on timing of weaning (not before 4 months), weaning foods, and cow's milk consumption in Glasgow is poor, although no poorer than in many other areas of the UK as found by Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys. Public health messages in relation to weaning may not be reaching their target audience.


Sayers, G., L. Thornton, et al. (1995). "Influences on Breast-Feeding Initiation and Duration." 164(4): 281-284.

The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of breast feeding at birth, at four and twelve weeks after birth and describe the factors associated with its initiation and duration, The study population consisted of all babies born in May 1993 (n=162) to mothers resident in Kildare, The response rate was 145/162 (89 percent). Mothers were visited within fourteen days of the birth. Breast feeding mothers were re-visited when the baby was four to six weeks old and at twelve to fourteen weeks, Interviews were conducted using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Fifty-five mothers (38%) chose to breast feed at birth. Twelve (8%) had stopped by the first, ten (7%) by the second and fourteen (10%) by the third visit. Higher social class and maternal grandmother having breast fed were significantly associated with initiation (p<0.05 and p<0.0005 respectively), Smokers and non-working mothers were significantly less likely to breast feed and smokers had a significantly shorter duration of breast feeding but these associations disappeared on social class adjustment.


Schafer, E., M. K. Vogel, et al. (1998). "Volunteer peer counselors increase breastfeeding duration among rural low-income women." 25(2): 101-106.

Background: The purpose of this demonstration project was to test the effectiveness of a volunteer peer counseling program for promoting breastfeeding in a community. Methods: The two-year project was conducted in Iowa from September 1994 to September 1996. Both intervention and control groups were rural low-income pregnant and postpartum women who qualified for the Women, Infants and Children's (WIC) nutritional program. The intervention was initiated in two counties with 143 clients, of whom 72 completed the project The control group was drawn from six counties that had received no significant breastfeeding promotion programs during the previous three years. The intervention was the assignment of trained volunteers with previous successful personal experience with breastfeeding as peer counselors to low-income pregnant women. Both before and after the baby was born, the volunteers taught a series of in-home, one-to-one lessons about healthy diet and breastfeeding, and maintained informal contact to answer questions or help with concerns. Results: Women in the intervention group improved dietary intake when compared with the control group. Knowledge of breastfeeding and good nutrition improved slightly. Eighty-two percent of intervention compared with 31 percent of control group women initiated breastfeeding. Mean duration of breastfeeding for intervention and control group women was 5.7 and 2.5 weeks, respectively. At 4 weeks, 56 percent of intervention and 10 percent of control group women were still breastfeeding. Conclusion: A volunteer peer counseling program that provides low-income women with role models, accurate information, support, and encouragement can increase the duration of breastfeeding, and thus contribute to healthier infants.


Schafer, R. B., E. Schafer, et al. (1999). "Marital Food Interaction and Dietary Behavior." Social Science and Medicine 48(6): 787-796.

Considers the role of family food interaction in healthful dietary activity. A theoretical model is proposed in which three sets of determinate variables are specified as leading to interaction in the family on food issues, which, in turn, is predicted to have a positive effect on four indicators of dietary quality. Interview data from 155 married couples in a midwestern state provide clear evidence of the importance of family food interaction for the quality of marital partners' diet. Also, differences found between husbands & wives indicate that wives contribute more to husbands' dietary quality than the reverse, suggesting again the dominant status of wives in family food selection & preparation. 3 Figures, 63 References. Adapted from the source document.


Schiefenhövel, P. W. a. W., Ed. (1996). Food and the status quest: an interdisciplinary perspective. Oxford, Berghahn Books.

Schlickau, J. M. and M. E. Wilson (2005). "Breastfeeding as health-promoting behaviour for Hispanic women: literature review." Journal of Advanced Nursing 52(2): 200-210.

Schmeid, V. and D. Lupton (2001). "Blurring the boundaries: breastfeeding and maternal subjectivity." Sociology of Health and Illness 23(2): 234-250.

Schmidt, A. (2004). "The three-piece suit and modern masculinity: England, 1550-1850." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 37(3): 816-818.

Schmied, V., A. Sheehan, et al. (2001). "Contemporary breast-feeding policy and practice: implications for midwives." 17(1): 44-54.

In this paper, the authors draw upon recent Australian research to provide a critical commentary on the current policies and professional practices surrounding breast feeding. These studies, conducted by the first and second authors, explored aspects of the breast-feeding experience, with the findings highlighting areas for concern in relation to the promotion and support of breast feeding in western societies. Of particular concern to the authors was the number of women in these studies who equated breastfeeding with being a 'good' mother This perception meant that some women maintained a strong commitment to breast feeding despite enormous difficulties. In this paper we firstly overview the findings of these studies and use women's stories to illustrate their perseverance and their intense commitment to breast feeding. In the second part of the paper, we consider the consequences of the strong public rhetoric surrounding breast feeding in Australia and challenge some of the assumptions underlying policies and professional practices related to breast feeding. We examine the consequences of 'professionalising' breast feeding, and make suggestions for away forward in the promotion of breast feeding that encompasses the range of perspectives held by women. In conclusion, the authors highlight the complexity of establishing appropriate breast-feeding policies that guide professional practices in a flexible manner allowing for diversity in individual breast-feeding experiences, (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.


Schneider, Z. (2002). "An Australian study of women's experiences of their first pregnancy." Midwifery 18(3): 238-249.

Schoene-Harwood, B. (2000). Writing men : literary masculinites from Frankenstein to the new man. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.

Scholliers, P. (1996). "Workers' Time for Cooking and Eating in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Western Europe." Food and Foodways 6(3-4): 243-260.

As the amount of time spent earning a living increased for the working class in the 19th century, meal preparation time at home diminished and families became more dependent on food shops. In general, the upper classes in the 19th and 20th centuries spent less time on meal preparation and more time eating than did the working class, with working-class women spending more time preparing food than men.


Schwalbe, M. (2005). "Fatherhood politics in the United States: Masculinity, sexuality, race, and marriage." CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS 34(4): 399-401.

Schwartz, K., H. J. S. D'Arcy, et al. (2002). "Factors associated with weaning in the first 3 months postpartum." Journal of Family Practice 51(5): 439-444.

Schwartz, L. B. (2001). "Family systems discourse: Conversations with clients concerning the impact of family legacies upon sexual desire." Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 27(5): 603-606.

This article illuminates the benefits of using a feminist informed family systems approach (Bowen, 1978; Berman & Hof 1986; Carter & McGoldrick, 1999; Berman, 1999) to working with clients who present with concerns about low sexual desire. Often missed by evaluation questions based exclusively, on a medical model, a feminist informed family systems evaluation provides an opportunity to engage with the client in an expansive dialog about sexual functioning. The evaluation process often becomes a tool for clarifying (myth)perceptions about female sexuality


Scott, J. A., M. C. G. Landers, et al. (2001). "Factors associated with breastfeeding at discharge and duration of breastfeeding." Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 37(3): 254-261.

Scott, J. A., I. Shaker, et al. (2004). "Parental attitudes toward breastfeeding: Their association with feeding outcome at hospital discharge." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 31(2): 125-131.

Segal, L. (1990). Slow motion : changing masculinities, changing men. London, Virago.

Seguin, L., Q. Xu, et al. (2005). "Understanding the dimensions of socioeconomic status that influence toddlers' health: unique impact of lack of money for basic needs in Quebec's birth cohort." 59(1): 42-48.

Study objectives: To examine the unique impact of financial difficulties as measured by a lack of money for basic needs on the occurrence of health problems between the ages of 17 and 29 months, controlling for mother's level of education and neonatal health problems. Design and participants: Analyses were performed on the 29 month data of the Quebec longitudinal study of child development. This longitudinal study followed up a birth cohort annually. Interviews were conducted in the home with the mother in 98.8% of cases. This information was supplemented with data from birth records. At 29 months, the response rate was 94.2% of the initial sample (n = 1946). The main outcome measures were mothers' report of acute health problems, asthma episodes, and hospitalisation as well as growth delay and a composite index of health problems (acute problems, asthma attack, growth delay). Main results: Children raised in a family experiencing a serious lack of money for basic needs during the preceding year were more likely to be reported by their mothers as presenting acute health problems, a growth delay, two or more health problems, and to have been hospitalised for the first time within the past few months as compared with babies living in a family not experiencing a lack of money for basic needs regardless of the mother's level of education and of neonatal health problems. Conclusion: Financial difficulties as measured by a lack of money for basic needs have a significant and unique impact on toddlers' health.
Seguin, L., Q. Xu, et al. (2003). "Effects of low income on infant health." 168(12): 1533-1538.

Background: Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. Methods: We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mothers smoking status. Results: Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were. more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not significantly affect the likelihood of an infant having chronic health problems. Interpretation: Less than sufficient household incomes are associated with poorer overall health and higher hospital admission rates among infants in the first 5 months of life, even after adjustment for factors known to affect infant health, including the mother's level of education.


Seidler, V. J. (1989). Rediscovering masculinity : reason, language and sexuality. London, Routledge.

Seidler, V. J. (1991). Recreating sexual politics : men, feminism and politics : Victor J. Seidler. London ; New York, Routledge.

Seidler, V. J. (1994). Unreasonable men : masculinity and social theory. London ; New York, Routledge.

Seidler, V. J. (1997). Man enough : embodying masculinities. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif., SAGE Publications.

Seltzer, V. J. and M. R. Seltzer (2002). "A cultural anthropological approach to family therapy: Myths and magic." Voprosy Psikhologii(6): 93-+.

The article describes a therapeutical approach to cultural models of a family. Methods leading to cultural changes in <> family systems are analyzed in terms of anthropologically interpreted notions of the material and ideal cultural planes, magic and ritual interference. As an example the authors describe four cases from their practice analyzing the rituals used and the transformations enacted. The article concludes with a summary of theoretical implications and practical uses of a cultural approach to family therapy


Senior, R., J. Barnes, et al. (2005). "Early experiences and their relationship to maternal eating disorder symptoms, both lifetime and during pregnancy."
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