The purpose of this study was to explore children's perceptions of who controlled the quality and quantity of their food during the week.
Semi structured interviews were carried out with 98 9-yearold children. The children were asked to describe who chose what they ate during a typical week day. They were also asked about who decided how much they ate.
The children thought that adults had a high degree of control over their food. They frequently reported that either they were allowed to choose from a selection provided by an adult, or that an adult chose their food without consultation. Many children reported that adults were very influential in determining how much food they ate.
Although the children thought that adults imposed control upon their food choices, it is argued that children have more choice about their food than at any time in history. The children's perceptions highlight the need for planned dietary change to acknowledge the various influences which can affect choices of children's food.
Robinson, S. (2000). "Children's perceptions of who controls their food." J Hum Nutr Diet 13(3): 163-171.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore children's perceptions of who controlled the quality and quantity of their food during the week. METHODS: Semi structured interviews were carried out with 98 9-year-old children. The children were asked to describe who chose what they ate during a typical week day. They were also asked about who decided how much they ate. RESULTS: The children thought that adults had a high degree of control over their food. They frequently reported that either they were allowed to choose from a selection provided by an adult, or that an adult chose their food without consultation. Many children reported that adults were very influential in determining how much food they ate. CONCLUSIONS: Although the children thought that adults imposed control upon their food choices, it is argued that children have more choice about their food than at any time in history. The children's perceptions highlight the need for planned dietary change to acknowledge the various influences which can affect choices of children's food.
Robinson, S. C. (1996). "Amazed at Our Success : the Langham Place Editors and the Emergence of a Feminist Critical Tradition." Victorian Periodicals Review 29(2): 159-172.
Reviews the history of three pioneering English women's magazines published between 1858 and 1910 by the Langham Place Circle, a reform organization made up mostly of women and led by Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon (1827-91) and Bessie Rayner Parkes (1829-1925). The publications were the English Woman's Journal (1858-64), Victoria Magazine (1863-80), and Englishwoman's Review (1866-1910). The author explores how these publications promoted women's rights and founded, in their review pages, feminist literary criticism.
Robinson, S. M., S. R. Crozier, et al. (2004). "Impact of educational attainment on the quality of young women's diets." 58(8): 1174-1180.
Objective: New findings, that relate poor foetal growth to long-term outcomes, highlight the need to understand more about the nature of women's diets before and during pregnancy. This study examines the influence of sociodemographic and anthropometric factors on the quality of the diets of young women in the UK. Design: Diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. A single diet score was calculated for each woman using the first component defined by principal components analysis. Setting: Southampton, UK. Subjects: A total of 6125 non pregnant women aged 20-34 y. Results: The diets of women with low diet scores were characterised by low intakes of fruit and vegetables, wholemeal bread, rice and pasta, yogurt, and breakfast cereals, but high intakes of chips and roast potatoes, sugar, white bread, red, and processed meat and full-fat dairy products. Educational attainment was the most important factor related to the diet score. In all, 55% (95% CI 50-59%) of women with no educational qualifications had scores in the lowest quarter of the distribution, compared with only 3% (95% CI 2-4%) of those who had a degree. Smoking, watching television, lack of strenuous exercise, and living with children were also associated with lower diet scores. After taking these factors into account, no other factor including social class, the deprivation score of the neighbourhood, or receipt of benefits added more than 1% to the variance in the diet score. Conclusions: Poor achievement at school defines a substantial group of women in the UK who may be vulnerable. Many of these women have poor diets that are not simply a result of the level of deprivation in their neighbourhood, or of living at a level of poverty that entitles them to benefits. We suggest that it is a priority to identify and to address the barriers that prevent these women from improving the quality of their diets. Sponsorship: The study was funded by the Dunhill Medical Trust, the University of Southampton and the Medical Research Council.
Robinson, T. N., M. Kiernan, et al. (2001). "Is parental control over children's eating associated with childhood obesity? Results from a population-based sample of third graders." Obesity Research. 9(5): 306-12.
OBJECTIVE: Identifying parental behaviors that influence childhood obesity is critical for the development of effective prevention and treatment programs. Findings from a prior laboratory study suggest that parents who impose control over their children's eating may interfere with their children's ability to regulate intake, potentially resulting in overweight. These findings have been widely endorsed; however, the direct relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight has not been shown in a generalized sample. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This study surveyed 792 third-grade children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds from 13 public elementary schools. Parental control over children's intake was assessed through telephone interviews using a state-of-the-art instrument, and children were measured for height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. RESULTS: Counter to the hypothesis, parental control over children's intake was inversely associated with overweight in girls, as measured by body mass index, r = -0.12, p < 0.05, and triceps skinfolds, r = -0.11, p < 0.05. This weak relationship became only marginally significant when controlling for parents' perceptions of their own weight, level of household education, and children's age. No relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight was found in boys. DISCUSSION: Previous observations of the influence of parental control over children's intake in middle-class white families did not generalize to 8- to 9-year-olds in families with diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. The present findings reveal a more complex relationship between parental behaviors and children's weight status.
Robinson, V. (2003). "Masculinity studies and feminist theory." JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES 12(3): 239-240.
Robson, J. R. K., Ed. (1980). Food, ecology and culture : readings in the anthropology of dietary practices. London, Gordon and Breach.
Roby, A. L. and K. S. Woodson (2004). "An evaluation of a breast-feeding education intervention among Spanish-speaking families." Social Work in Health Care 40(1): 15-31.
Rocco, P. L., B. Orbitello, et al. (2005). "Effects of pregnancy on eating attitudes and disorders - A prospective study." 59(3): 175-179.
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effects of pregnancy on eating disorders (ED), dietary habits and body image perception. One hundred and fifty pregnant women were interviewed between the period January 2001 and May 2003. Ninety-seven women completed the study and were divided in three subgroups: pregnant women with a positive history of dieting (n=37), pregnant women with a positive history of dieting with a complete diagnosis of a current ED (n=11) and pregnant women with a negative history either of dieting or ED (control group; n=49). Age, education and parity were equally distributed in all three groups. To verify if pregnancy exerts a specific protective effect, a battery of psychometric tests was administered to women at 12 degrees (TO), 22 degrees (T1), and 34 degrees pregnancy weeks (T2), and 2 days (T3) and 4 months (T4) after delivery, respectively. The study showed a quadratic trend for ED, subthreshold ED and body satisfaction, with a general improvement in the middle of pregnancy and a return to previous levels after delivery. Some interesting significant differences came out among the groups. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rojek, C. (2004). "Leisure life: Myth, masculinity and modernity." JOURNAL OF LEISURE RESEARCH 36(1): 128-130.
Rooks, N. M. (2004). Ladies' pages : African American women's magazines and the culture that made them. New Brunswick, N.J. ; London, Rutgers University Press.
Roos, E., E. Lahelma, et al. (1998). "Gender, socioeconomic status and family status as determinants of food behaviour." Social Science and Medicine 46(12): 1519-1529.
Rose, N. (1999). Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge:, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, N. (2000). "Community, Citizenship, and the Third Way,." American Behavioural Scientist 43(9): 1395-1411.
Rose, R. (2000). "How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians,." Social Science & Medicine, 51(1421-1435.).
Rose, V. A., V. O. F. Warrington, et al. (2004). "Factors influencing infant feeding method in an urban community." 96(3): 325-331.
The benefits of breastfeeding are well established. However, despite this fact, rates of breastfeeding continue to be low, falling far below the goals of Healthy People 2010. Rates are even lower among ethnic minority and low-income women. In this study, we attempt to identify the factors that most influence a mother's choice of infant feeding method in an urban predominately African-American population. Phone interviews of 70 women who delivered full-term infants at an urban tertiary care hospital were conducted in order to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breastfeeding of the mothers and that of members of their social support network. Ten mothers (14%) exclusively breastfed. Older, caucasian, and married women were more likely to breastfeed. Breastfeeding mothers reported more partner support as well as more family knowledge about breastfeeding and had more positive attitudes about breastfeeding. Healthcare providers were not directly influential in mother's feeding choice. From this study, we conclude that in this population, the mother's partner and family are most influential in the choice of infant feeding method and, thus, should be included in breastfeeding promotion programs.
Rosengard, C., D. B. Chambers, et al. "Value on Health, Health Concerns and Practices of Women Who Are Homeless."
The fastest growing segment of the homeless population is women, many of whom have inadequately addressed health needs. Descriptive studies have captured the realities of homeless life that these women face from acquiring food & shelter to caring for their health. Few studies have examined the factors that are associated with the health-related behaviors of homeless women. This study adds to the homeless health behavior literature by investigating the importance of competing values in determining health-related practices in 105 homeless women. Health concerns (but not global value on health) were associated with basic health practices & health preventive/protective behaviors (eg, brushing teeth, showering, being up-to-date on Pap smears). Women who reported greater importance attached to health concerns were more likely to report basic health practices & some preventive health behaviors. Implications for intervention & future research are discussed. 4 Tables, 28 References. Adapted from the source document.
Rosie, G. (1977). The warlocks of British publishing. The DC Thomson bumper fun book. P. Harris. Edinburgh, Paul Harris.
Rosilio, M., J. B. Cotton, et al. (1998). "Factors associated with glycemic control - A cross-sectional nationwide study in 2,579 French children with type 1 diabetes." 21(7): 1146-1153.
OBJECTIVE - To determine on a large scale the multiple medical and nonmedical factors that influence glycemic control in the general population of children with diabetes, we performed a nationwide French cross-sectional study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We enrolled 2,579 patients aged 1-19 years with type 1 diabetes of >1 year's duration. The study was center based: 270 centers were identified, 206 agreed to participate, and 147 included at least 90% of their patients. Questionnaires were completed by physicians interviewing patients and family, and HbA(1c), measurements were centralized. To identify explanatory variables for HbA(1c) level and frequency of severe hypoglycemia, we performed multiple regression analysis using all the quantitative variables collected and stepwise logistic regression for the qualitative variables. RESULTS - Mean HbA(1c) value for the whole population was 8.97 +/- 1.98% (normal 4.7 +/- 0.7% [SD]). Only 19 children (0.7%) had ketoacidosis during the 6 months before the study whereas 593 severe hypoglycemia events occurred in 338 children (13.8%). Control was better in university-affiliated hospitals and centers following >50 patients, reflecting the importance of access to experienced diabetologists. Children had a mean of 2.3 injections, allegedly performed 2.8 glucose measurements per day, and were seen an average of 4.6 times per year at the center. In the multiple regression analysis, 94% of the variance of HbA(1c), was explained by our pool of selected variables, with the highest regression coefficient between HbA(1c) and age (R-c = 0.43, P < 0.0001), then with daily insulin dosage per kilogram (R-c = 0.28, P < 0.0001), mother's age (R-c = 0.26, P < 0.0001), frequency of glucose measurements (R-c = 0.21, P < 0.0001), and diabetes duration (R-c = 0.14, P < 0.0001). Logistic regression identified quality of family support and dietary compliance, two related qualitative and possibly subjective variables, as additional explanatory determinants of HbA(1c). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 45 per 100 patient-years and correlated with diabetes duration, but not with HbA(1c) levels or other variables. CONCLUSIONS - Although overall results remain unsatisfactory, 33% of studied French children with type 1 diabetes had HbA(1c) <8%, the value obtained in Diabetes Control and Complications Trial adolescents treated intensively. Diabetes management in specialized centers should be encouraged.
Ross, S. (X1995). ""Do I really have to eat that?": a qualitative study of schoolchildren's food choices and preferences." Health Education Journal 54(3): 312-21.
This study, conducted in l994, set out to explore food preferences, eating behaviour and food choice with Primary 7 children (mean age 11 years) in a small primary school in Edinburgh. A qualitative methodological approach was adopted, utilising focus groups and observational techniques. Analysis of the data indicated food choice was not determined by the health attributes of food but rather that values of preference, play, socialisation and convenience were given a higher priority than health by the children when making food choices. "Healthy" foods were found to be associated with the concept of a proper meal and homemade foods. A different classification of foods based on like and dislike was proposed to explain children's food choice.
Rothbaum, F., K. Rosen, et al. (2002). "Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture." Family Process 41(3): 328-350.
Roy, K., C. Tubbs, et al. (2004). "Don't Have No Time: Daily Rhythms and the Organization of Time for Low Income Families." Family Relations 53(2): 168-178.
Using ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A ThreeCity Study, we examined time obligations and resource coordination of lowincome mothers. Longitudinal data from 75 African American, Hispanic, and nonHispanic White families residing in Chicago, including information on daily routines, perceptions of time, and access to resources, were gathered via participant observation and intensive semistructured interviews over 4 years. Results indicated that families constantly improvised daily rhythms to obtain and sustain resources, including child care, transportation, and social services. Participants were proactive in identifying and coordinating resources to transition from welfare to work or to maintain paid employment. Strategies used to coordinate resources and the cost associated with the inability to do so are discussed. Policy and social service recommendations are offered.
Rukszto, K. (1999). "Women's Magazines as Spaces for Dissent: Restructuring in Poland." Resources for Feminist Research 27(3-4): 83-95.
Compares the Polish magazines Kobieta i Zycie [Woman and life] and Przyja Ciolka [Woman friend] as forums for women's voices during and after the Communist era, 1952-94. Women in the post-Communist period wanted control over their lives and the periodicals responded by printing more private advertising and advice and less government news.
Russell, H. (1984). "Canadian Ways : an Introduction to Comparative Studies of Housework, Stoves, and Diet in Great Britain and Canada." Material History Bulletin(19): 1-12.
Looks at Canadian-sponsored programs established in Great Britain for the purpose of training women for domestic labor in Canada, and compares British and Canadian cooking technology, diet, and housework.
Russell, P. (2003). Narrative Constructions of British Culinary Culture. Geography. Sheffield, University of Sheffield: 267.
Ruxton, S. and H. National Children's (1992). "What's he doing at the family centre?" : the dilemmas of men who care for children. London, NCH.
Ryan, M. (2005). Have family meals gone out of fashion? BBC News.
As the government plans a national tour to promote its Respect Agenda, published last month, the BBC News website examines the importance of the family meal for fostering respect.
Saadeh, R. and J. Akre (1996). "Ten steps to successful breastfeeding: A summary of the rationale and scientific evidence." 23(3): 154-160.
Ample evidence is available on the impact of health care practices and hospital routines and procedures on breastfeeding. Good practices enhance successful initiation mid establishment of breastfeeding and contribute to increased duration, just as inappropriate practices, and failure to support and encourage mothers, have the opposite effect. In 1991 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) jointly launched the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, which aims to give every baby the best start in life by ensuring a health care environment where breastfeeding is the norm. The initiative is based on the principles summarized in a joint statement issued by the two organizations in 1989 on the role of maternity services in protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding. To become truly baby-friendly, hospitals and maternity wards around the world are giving practical effect to the principles described in the joint WHO/UNICEF statement that have been synthesized into Ten Steps To Successful Breastfeeding. This summary of the rationale and scientific basis for the Ten Steps is presented in the light of cumulative experience demonstrating the crucial importance of these principles for the successful initiation and establishment of breastfeeding.
Saarikangas, K. (2006). "Displays of the Everyday: Relations between gender and the visibility of domestic work in the modern Finnish kitchen from the 1930s to the 1950s." Gender, Place and Culture 13(2): 161-172.
Saelens, B. E., M. M. Ernst, et al. (2000). "Maternal child feeding practices and obesity: a discordant sibling analysis." International Journal of Eating Disorders 27(4): 459-63.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between maternal feeding practices and weight status of 7-12 year-old obese and nonobese siblings was evaluated in 18 families using a discordant sibling design. METHOD: Mothers completed measures of concern and perception of children's weight and eating behavior, their control over child feeding, and maternal eating behavior. RESULTS: Intraclass correlations suggested similarity between obese and nonobese siblings in maternal control over feeding. Mothers perceived differences between their obese and nonobese children's eating regulation. Mothers' weight status was positively associated with disinhibition of their own eating as well as concern about both their obese and nonobese children's weight and health. DISCUSSION: These findings fail to support the hypothesis that maternal control over child feeding is related to childhood obesity, but highlight the impact of maternal weight history and eating habits on her impression of children's future weight and health independent of the child's weight status. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sakashita, R., N. Inoue, et al. (2004). "From milk to solids: a reference standard for the transitional eating process in infants and preschool children in Japan." 58(4): 643-653.
Objective: This paper aims to establish a potential reference standard for the process of transition from milk to solid food in infants and preschool children in Japan, using the transitional food process (TFP) scale described by Sakashita et al. The background for variation and delay in the process are also discussed. Design: A randomized sample survey covering entire Japan. Setting: Mailing self-completion of questionnaires. Subjects: Randomized sample of 14 000 children aged 0-6 y and their family from 13 prefectures in Japan, namely Hokkaido, Aomori, Iwate, Niigata, Tokyo, Saitama, Fukui, Nagano, Nagoya, Hyogo, Yamaguchi, Kagoshima, and Okinawa. Methodology: Questionnaires requesting the TFP scale and background factors were sent to 14 000 children and families. The percentile ages were calculated. An eating ability index (EAI: number of accepted foods/total number of foods) x 100) was calculated. Regression analysis by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; SPSS, 1997) was used to determine the influence of background factors on EAI. Results: From the 6747 (48.2%) effective answers received, percentile curves of the acceptability of each food on the scale were drawn, and used as initial reference standards. The 50 percentile age range of these 20 standard foods covers from 5 to 42 months after birth. The sensitive period for increasing the acceptance of foods in children was between 6 months and 21 2 y of age. ANCOVA regression model (R-2 = 0.605) showed that EAI was mostly influenced by age (P = 0.000), followed by feeding style (P = 0.000), infant food preparation (P = 0.000), information source (P = 0.000), and birth order (P = 0.003). The dominant cause of digestive system problems was shown to be infection, not too-hard food. It seems that breast feeding, bottle feeding with chewing-type nipples, and the manner of preparing infant foods from the family table promote the progress in acceptance. Children whose mothers followed the information given in books or magazines showed a slower progress. Conclusions: It seems appropriate to use this reference standard in the study of the transitional process from milk to solid food in infants and preschool children in Japan. Sponsorship: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Project No. 07838030.
Salsberry, P. J. and P. B. Reagan (2005). "Dynamics of early childhood overweight."