Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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38(2): 172-179.

Ovid. "Metamorphoses Book 1." Internet Classics Archive, from http://classics.mit.edu/Ovid/metam.1.first.html.

Pac, S., K. McMahon, et al. (2004). "Development of the start healthy feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(3): 455-467.

Pain, R., C. Bailey, et al. (2001). "Infant feeding in North East England: contested spaces of reproduction." Area 33(3): 261-272.

Palda, V. A., J. M. Guise, et al. (2004). "Interventions to promote breast-feeding: applying the evidence in clinical practice." Canadian Medical Association Journal 170(6): 976-978.

Palmer, G. (1998). The Politics of Breast Feeding. London, Pandora Press.

Palmer, S. and T. A. Glass (2003). "Family function and stroke recovery: A review." Rehabilitation Psychology 48(4): 255-265.

Objective: Literature on family function in stroke rehabilitation is reviewed in 3 areas: the impact of family function on recovery from stroke, the impact of stroke on family function, and, psychosocial intervention in stroke. Study Design: Literature review. Results: Family function influences stroke rehabilitation. Family-based interventions are emerging but have not been proven effective. Health system changes have expanded the family's role in stroke care, increasing the need for psychosocial intervention research. Conclusions: Family function appears to influence stroke outcomes; a family-systems perspective promotes understanding of psychosocial outcomes in stroke; research has focused mainly on individual rather than family-systems models; tools to evaluate family process after stroke are inadequate; and more research is needed to develop and test optimal family intervention strategies


Paquette, M. (2005). "Perceptions of healthy eating: state of knowledge and research gaps." Canadian Journal of Public Health 9(47 ref): S15-S19.

To effectively promote and support healthy eating among Canadians, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviours. Perceptions of healthy eating can be considered as one of the many factors influencing people's eating habits. For this review, "perceptions of healthy eating" are defined as the public's and health professionals' meanings, understandings, views, attitudes and beliefs about healthy eating, eating for health, and healthy foods. This article's aim is to review and summarize the literature on the perceptions of healthy eating and to identify the current state of knowledge and key knowledge gaps. Databases, the worldwide web, selected journals and reference lists were searched for relevant papers from the last 20 years. Reviewed articles suggest relative homogeneity in the perceptions of healthy eating despite the studies being conducted in different countries and involving different age groups, sexes and socio-economic status. Perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on food choice. Fruits and vegetables were consistently recognized as part of healthy eating. Characteristics of food such as naturalness, and fat, sugar and salt contents were also important in people's perceptions of healthy eating. Concepts related to healthy eating, such as balance, variety and moderation, were often mentioned, but they were found to be polysemous, conveying multiple meanings. The main gap identified in this review concerns the lack of knowledge available on perceptions of healthy eating. More data are needed on the perceptions of healthy eating in general, on the influence on perceptions of messages from diverse sources such as food companies, and, most important, on the role of perceptions of healthy eating as a determinant of food choice.


Parasecoli, F. (2005). "Feeding Hard Bodies: food and Masculinities in Men's Fitness Magazines." Food and Foodways 13: 17-37.

Park, R. J., A. Lee, et al. (2003). "Children's representation of family mealtime in the context of maternal eating disorders." 29(2): 111-119.

Background Recent research provides evidence for specific disturbance in feeding and growth in children of mothers with eating disorders. Aim To investigate the impact of maternal eating disorders during the post-natal year on the internal world of children, as expressed in children's representations of self and their mother in pretend mealtime play at 5 years of age. Methods Children of mothers with eating disorders (n = 33) and a comparison group (n = 24) were videotaped enacting a family mealtime in pretend play. Specific classes of children's play representations were coded blind to group membership. Univariate analyses compared the groups on representations of mother and self. Logistic regression explored factors predicting pretend play representations. Results Positive representations of the mother expressed as feeding, eating or body shape themes were more frequent in the index group. There were no other significant group differences in representations. In a logistic regression analysis, current maternal eating psychopathology was the principal predictor of these positive maternal representations. Marital criticism was associated with negative representations of the mother. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal eating disorders may influence the development of a child's internal world, such that they are more preoccupied with maternal eating concerns. However, more extensive research on larger samples is required to replicate these preliminary findings.
Parkinson, K. N., C. M. Wright, et al. (2004). "Mealtime energy intake and feeding behaviour in children who fail to thrive: a population-based case-control study." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45(5): 1030-1035.

Parmenter, K. and J. Wardle (1999). "Development of a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire for adults." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 53(4): 298-308.

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development of a reliable and valid questionnaire to provide a comprehensive measure of the nutritional knowledge of UK adults. The instrument will help to identify areas of weakness in people's understanding of healthy eating and will also provide useful data for examining the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour which, up until now, has been far from clear. DESIGN: Items were generated paying particular attention to content validity. The initial version of the questionnaire was piloted and assessed on psychometric criteria. Items which did not reach acceptable validity were excluded, and the final 50 item version was administered to two groups differing in nutritional expertise on two occasions to assess the construct validity and test-retest reliability. SETTING: The questionnaire was developed in 1994 in the UK. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and ninety-one members of the general public, recruited via their places of work, completed the questionnaire at the piloting stage. The final version was administered to 168 dietetics and computer science students following a university lecture. RESULTS: The internal consistency of each section was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.97) and the test-retest reliability was also well above the minimum requirement of 0.7. Nutrition experts scored significantly better than computer experts [F(1167) = 200.5, P<0.001], suggesting good construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that the instrument meets psychometric criteria for reliability and construct validity. It should provide a useful scale with which to reassess the relationship between knowledge and dietary behaviour.
Parmenter, K. and J. Wardle (1999). "Development of a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire for adults." Eur J Clin Nutr 53(4): 298-308.

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development of a reliable and valid questionnaire to provide a comprehensive measure of the nutritional knowledge of UK adults. The instrument will help to identify areas of weakness in people's understanding of healthy eating and will also provide useful data for examining the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour which, up until now, has been far from clear. DESIGN: Items were generated paying particular attention to content validity. The initial version of the questionnaire was piloted and assessed on psychometric criteria. Items which did not reach acceptable validity were excluded, and the final 50 item version was administered to two groups differing in nutritional expertise on two occasions to assess the construct validity and test-retest reliability. SETTING: The questionnaire was developed in 1994 in the UK. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and ninety-one members of the general public, recruited via their places of work, completed the questionnaire at the piloting stage. The final version was administered to 168 dietetics and computer science students following a university lecture. RESULTS: The internal consistency of each section was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.97) and the test-retest reliability was also well above the minimum requirement of 0.7. Nutrition experts scored significantly better than computer experts [F(1167) = 200.5, P<0.001], suggesting good construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that the instrument meets psychometric criteria for reliability and construct validity. It should provide a useful scale with which to reassess the relationship between knowledge and dietary behaviour.


Partington, S. and S. Nitzke (1998). "Indicators of Poorer Nutritional Status Associated with Homelessness in a Sample of Children Participating in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children in Wisconsin." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98(9, Supplement 1): A59.

Currently homeless, previously homeless and never homeless children were identified through screening at 15 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) sites in southeastern Wisconsin. Two hundred twenty one currently or previously homeless children were identified and age and sex matched to never homeless WIC participants. Height, weight, hemoglobin and socioeconomic and health history data were recorded from WIC records.The currently homeless were significantly shorter than the never homeless children. Regression analysis indicated that current homelessness, large family size and presence of chronic health problems were negatively associated with height for age. Higher birth weight, Hispanic ethnicity and prior WIC participation were positively associated with height for age. Currently homeless children under the age of 2 had significantly lower hemoglobin levels when compared with both never homeless and previously homeless children. In this study, homeless children exhibited poorer nutritional status than either their never homeless or previously homeless counterparts.


Pascale, C.-M. "There's No Place Like Home: The Discursive Creation of Homelessness."

In this article, the author examines the cultural production of homelessness in the United States, with particular concern for the intimate connection between discursive practices & material conditions. Drawing from poststructural discourse analysis, the author traces the discursive development of homelessness & homeless people between 1982 & 1996 in The New York Times, The Washington Post, & Los Angeles Times. The author explores changes in discursive practices & demonstrates how these changes produce, transform, & stabilize public knowledge about people who cannot afford housing. In conjunction, the author deconstructs current discursive practices in newspapers & examines the relationship of these practices to local political responses to homelessness. The author then discusses how discursive practices regarding poverty create particular problems, deliberations, & interventions while precluding others. Finally, the author considers the implications of the findings for class politics & social change. 84 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright 2005.].


Patel, P., J. Lee, et al. (2005). "Concerns about body shape and weight in the postpartum period and their relation to women's self-identification." 23(4): 347-364.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how three groups of women, with different levels of eating disorder psychopathology, perceived and coped with changes in eating and body shape and weight following pregnancy and the birth of a baby. Furthermore, we aimed to find out how such changes influenced their identity as mothers. Twenty-one mothers were selected from a large survey of women's eating habits and attitudes in the postnatal period: mothers with an eating disorder (n = 6), mothers who were at risk for eating disorder (n = 9) and a comparison group without such concerns (n = 6). They were interviewed in detail about their eating habits and attitudes to body shape and weight and a variety of related issues. Thematic analyses of the transcripts identified five themes: (i) loss of the pre-pregnancy self; (ii) life transitions; (iii) feeding relationship with infant; (iv) new relationship with family members; and ( v) role within wider society. Differences were identified between the groups. For example, mothers with eating disorders tended to perceive the external world as more negative and critical about their new maternal selves. Mothers in the comparison group seemed better able to 'prioritize' and tolerate their baby's dependency on their bodies, discussing breastfeeding in relation to infant needs rather than their own body needs. Comparison mothers were also more able to reflect on the implications of the changes in shape ( and loss of their former slim selves). The findings suggest that the postnatal period may be a vulnerable time for mothers with eating difficulties. Previous life transitions seemed to be relevant to this life-changing transition.


Paterakis, S. E. and M. Nelson (2003). "A comparison between the National Food Survey and the Family Expenditure Survey food expenditure data." Public Health Nutrition 6(6): 571-580.

Patrick, H. and T. A. Nicklas (X2005). "A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality." Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 24(2): 83-92.

With the growing problem of childhood obesity, recent research has begun to focus on family and social influences on children's eating patterns. Research has demonstrated that children's eating patterns are strongly influenced by characteristics of both the physical and social environment. With regard to the physical environment, children are more likely to eat foods that are available and easily accessible, and they tend to eat greater quantities when larger portions are provided. Additionally, characteristics of the social environment, including various socioeconomic and sociocultural factors such as parents' education, time constraints, and ethnicity influence the types of foods children eat. Mealtime structure is also an important factor related to children's eating patterns. Mealtime structure includes social and physical characteristics of mealtimes including whether families eat together, TV-viewing during meals, and the source of foods (e.g., restaurants, schools). Parents also play a direct role in children's eating patterns through their behaviors, attitudes, and feeding styles. Interventions aimed at improving children's nutrition need to address the variety of social and physical factors that influence children's eating patterns. [References: 139]
Patrick, H., T. A. Nicklas, et al. (2005). "The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns." Appetite 44(2): 243-249.

This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Paulus, I. L. E. (1974). The search for pure food : a sociology of legislation in Britain. London, Robertson.

Pease, B. (2000). Recreating men : postmodern masculinity politics. London, SAGE.

Pennant, R. (2001). Embodied identities : geographies of food, exercise and racialised masculinities.

Perez-Escamilla, R., D. Himmelgreen, et al. (1998). "Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with breast-feeding initiation among inner-city Puerto Rican women." 98(6): 657-663.

Objective To identify factors associated with the initiation of breast-feeding in a predominantly Puerto Rican population living in inner-city Hartford, Conn. Design Retrospective study of 144 Latino women (mean+/- standard deviation age=26.3+/-5.7 years) with children at least 1 year old but younger than 6 years old (mean+/-standard deviation age=3.0+/-1.2 years) at the time of the survey. Women were recruited from agencies sponsoring health programs for mothers and children. They were interviewed in their homes (69%) or at the Hispanic Health Council, Hartford, Conn (31%). Subjects/setting Low-income Latino women who had at least 1 preschooler at the time of the interview. The women lived in inner-city Hartford, and the overwhelming majority were Puerto Rican and received welfare assistance and food stamps. Seventy-eight percent of the women chose to be interviewed in Spanish; the other 22% were interviewed in English. Statistical analyses Explanatory variables that related to breast-feeding initiation (P less than or equal to.2) in bivariate chi(2) analyses were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model that was reduced using backward stepwise elimination procedures. Results Multivariate analyses indicated that breast-feeding the previous child, shorter length of maternal residence in the United States, not receiving prenatal bottle-feeding advice, more recent birth, and higher birth weight were positively associated with breast-feeding initiation. A major reason for choosing not to breast-feed was that women felt socially uncomfortable doing it. Applications Breast-feeding initiation was more likely in Latino women who received prenatal breast-feeding counseling and postpartum support. Mothers of low-birth-weight infants and women breast-feeding for the first time may need additional help. These findings can be used by programs like the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children to increase breast-feeding initiation.
Perkins, M. M., M. M. Ball, et al. (2004). "Managing the Care Needs of Low-Income Board-and-Care Home Residents: A Process of Negotiating Risks

10.1177/1049732303262619." Qual Health Res 14(4): 478-495.

Small, low-income board-and-care homes play a critical role in the long-term care system, serving a variety of at-risk groups, including chronically mentally ill individuals, frail elders, and developmentally disabled adults. Unfortunately, the supply of homes available to serve these populations is decreasing. The purpose of this study, based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of one small (13-bed) African American-owned and -operated home in metropolitan Atlanta, was to understand how and why some homes continue to operate despite significant challenges. Grounded theory analysis showed that the survival of this home and residents' ability to remain in it involved a basic social process conceptualized as Negotiating Risks. This survival process often put participants at risk of losing their means of subsistence. Community support emerged as an important protective factor. Findings have implications for community interventions to increase these homes' survival and improve resident care.
Perry, H., J. W. G. Muita, et al. (1996). "Dietary habits, pregnancy weight gain and birthweights in a highland population of Kenya." 73(7): 424-426.

In a prospective study of the effects of micro-nutrient supplementation during pregnancy in a cohort of healthy, non-anaemic antenatal outpatients of a small hospital in highland Kenya, research was also carried out on dietary habits, weight gain and birth-weights, Participants were enrolled at a mean gestation of 29 weeks (s.d.2.37), Special consideration was given to the dietary intake of the micronutrients most important to erythropoiesis, namely iron, folate and vitamin C (the main promotor of iron absorption), It was found that 74% consumed an inferior diet with regard to these micronutrients, The mean birth-weight of infants born to participants was 3178 grams (s.d. 398 grams). Only two variables were found to be significantly associated with birth-weight; mothers' weight gain on enrolment and mothers' weight gain during one month of the last trimester (p<0.05). It appears that the dietary intake during pregnancy in this population was lacking in important micronutrients, and it is recommended that antenatal clinics prioritise nutrition education during pregnancy.


Persinger, M. A. (2001). "Shifting gustatory thresholds and food cravings during pregnancy as expanding uterine-induced steady potential shifts within the insula: An hypothesis." 92(1): 50-52.

A logical extrapolation from the principle that structure dictates function is that transient or anomalous experiences are consequences of simultaneous stimulations of proximal brain regions not typically co-activated. In this paper the occasional shifts in gustatory threshold during the menstrual cycle, the craving for unusual tastes experienced by some during pregnancies, and, the reports by postmenopausal women of the "burning mouth syndrome" are hypothesized to be artifacts of the proximity of gustatory and uterine representations within the female insula. Transient (menstrual) or tonic (pregnancy) stimulation within the uterus might shift the locus of neuronal activity within the insula to include adjacent gustatory neurons and consequently alter taste experiences. Specific tests of this hypothesis are-suggested.


Pesa, J. A. and M. M. Shelton (1999). "Health-enhancing behaviors correlated with breastfeeding among a national sample of mothers." 16(2): 120-124.

Participation in health-enhancing behaviors not only influences the health of the mother, but of the newborn child as well. Characteristics of the mother, especially with regard to the practice of health-enhancing behaviors, have typically been excluded from studies examining breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to identify health-enhancing behaviors correlated with breastfeeding among a national sample of mothers. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) provided the sample for this study. All mothers between the ages of 17 and 45 (n = 578) with children aged 3 or younger at the time of the interview, who breastfed, were included. Seven health-enhancing behaviors served as the independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the estimated regression coefficients, and comparison of proportions were made using Pearson chi-square tests of homogeneity. Smoking less than 100 cigarettes in a lifetime, consuming five or more fruits and/or vegetables daily, and visiting a dentist annually were significantly associated with breastfeeding among the mothers in this sample. The results of this study point to a connection between the health-enhancing behaviors of the mother and breastfeeding. This information can be used to help professionals and practitioners gain a clearer picture of the breastfeeding mother. Multicomponent education programs targeted at new mothers can use this information to guide program development. Breastfeeding mothers may have better overall health as compared to mothers who do not breastfeed, therefore, they may serve as role models in peer-structured activities.


Petersen, A. R. (1998). Unmasking the masculine : 'men' and 'identity' in a sceptical age. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London, Sage.

Pettersson, A., U. Olsson, et al. (2004). "Family life in grocery stores - a study of interaction between adults and children." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(4): 317-328.

Pettersson, A., U. Olsson, et al. (2004). "Family life in grocery stores – a study of interaction between adults and children." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(4): 317-328.

"Today the family is seen as a unit for food choice and consumption. The influence of family members on food choice comprises several stages that can be carried out both in the private home and in the public sphere, such as the grocery store. This makes the grocery store a context in which ordinary family life can be observed. The aim was to study families and the interaction between children and adults in the grocery store, focusing on young people’s involvement in food shopping. Hidden observation and family interview methods were used. A total of 338 people were observed in seven different grocery stores in Stockholm during the summer and autumn of 2003. Seven family interviews, involving a total of 29 persons, were conducted in Uppsala in the spring of 2003. In the interviews, parents reported avoiding shopping for food together with children as they experienced it as stressful and exhausting. The observations showed that family life in the grocery store comprises not only the food purchase, but also bringing up children and consumer education. Young people’s involvement in the food purchase varied depending on their age and the specific product. The different behaviour observed may be interpreted as reflecting the variation in ways of bringing up children at home. Another conclusion is that a public place such the grocery store facilitates pedagogical situations and can work as a tool for informal education."


Phegley, J. (2000). "Clearing Away the Briars and Brambles : the Education and Professionalization of the Cornhill Magazine's Women Readers, 1860-65." Victorian Periodicals Review 33(1): 22-43.

During the 1850's and 1860's family-oriented magazines in England serialized popular fiction. At the same time, critics interested in women's education expressed the need to establish a more pragmatic and nonfictional tone in these publications. The Cornhill Magazine responded to these calls by publishing a wide range of educational pieces not only for women but also for the entire English family. It also advocated extending formal education to all women.


Phegley, J. (2004). Educating the proper woman reader : Victorian family literary magazines and the cultural health of the nation. Columbus, Ohio State University Press.

Philip, K. L., K. Backett-Milburn, et al. (2003). "Practising what we preach? A practical approach to bringing research, policy and practice together in relation to children and health inequalities." Health Education Research 18(5): 568-579.

This paper explores the need for better links between research and practice in relation to work with children and health inequalities. Despite continuing discussion about the need to improve dissemination of research activity in general, study of this area remains largely neglected. As a result, despite the rhetoric, the research and practice gap continues to exist. An attempt to remedy this was undertaken through the support of a user fellowship as part of the UK Economic and Social Research Council Health Variations Programme. The paper describes a number of activities that were undertaken during the fellowship, and discusses the implications of these for improving connections and minimizing the research and practice 'gap'. It argues that a need exists for researchers to develop innovative dissemination strategies and suggests that potential exists for an interactive model of dissemination. Such a model implies a more active role for users of research in the shaping of research agendas.
Philipp, B. L. and A. Radford (2006). "Baby-Friendly: snappy slogan or standard of care?" 91(2): F145-F149.

Breastfeeding offers significant protection against illness for the infant and numerous health benefits for the mother, including a decreased risk of breast cancer. In 1991, UNICEF and WHO launched the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative with the aim of increasing rates of breastfeeding. '' Baby-Friendly '' is a designation a maternity site can receive by demonstrating to external assessors compliance with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The Ten Steps are a series of best practice standards describing a pattern of care where commonly found practices harmful to breastfeeding are replaced with evidence based practices proven to increase breastfeeding outcome. Currently, approximately 19250 hospitals worldwide have achieved Baby-Friendly status, less than 500 of which are found in industrialised nations. The Baby-Friendly initiative has increased breastfeeding rates, reduced complications, and improved mothers' health care experiences.


Pisacane, A. and P. Continisio (2004). "Breastfeeding and perceived changes in the appearance of the breasts: a retrospective study." 93(10): 1346-1348.

Aim: To investigate the association between breastfeeding and the perception that women have of changes in the appearance of their breasts. Methods: Four hundred and ninety-six Italian women were interviewed in three health centres 18 mo (SD 3.4 mo, range 12.6-23.1 mo) after the birth of their first baby in May 2002. Information was collected on pregnancy, infant feeding and bra cup size before pregnancy. The main outcome measures were self-reported changes in the appearance of the breasts (enlargement or reduction in breast size and loss of firmness) and bra cup size at the time of the interview. Results: Seventy-three percent of the mothers reported that their breasts were different compared with before pregnancy; enlargement and loss of firmness representing the most common changes. The prevalence of changes among the mothers who had and had not breastfed was 75% and 69%, respectively (relative risk: 1.09, 95% Cl: 0.96-1.23). Bra cup size before pregnancy was neither associated with the frequency of breastfeeding nor with the occurrence of changes in the appearance of the breasts. Conclusions: In Italy, mothers frequently report that the size and the shape of their breasts have changed after childbirth, but these changes do not seem to be associated with breastfeeding.


Pliner P, P. M. (1986). "Similarities in food preferences between children and their siblings and parents." Appetite 7(4): 333-342.

Fifty-five Canadian women completed questionnaires about the food likes and dislikes of members of their families. Each family consisted of a mother, a father, a "target" child (24-83 months old) and the child's nearest-age sibling. The likes and dislikes of the target children were cross-tabulated with those of their mothers, fathers, and siblings, and phi-statistics were computed for the child-mother, child-father and child-sibling pairs as measures of similarity in food preferences. The results revealed that the target children resembled all three members of their families in their food preferences and that this resemblance was especially pronounced in the case of siblings.


Pobocik, R. S., J. C. Benavente, et al. (2000). "Effect of a breastfeeding education and support program on breastfeeding initiation and duration in a culturally diverse group of adolescents." 32(3): 139-145.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the Early Experiences and Counseling for Effective Lactation (EXCEL) program on breastfeeding initiation and duration among adolescents on Guam. There were 244 intervention and 163 comparison subjects. Intervention mothers had higher (p < .01) rates of breastfeeding initiation (77.9%), were approximately twice as likely to initiate breastfeeding (p < .05), and more (p < .05) were breastfeeding at 2 months than comparison mothers. For each additional lesson attended, the odds for breastfeeding initiation increased by 1.098. EXCEL is a culturally sensitive intervention based on social learning theory.


Polegrato, R. Z., JL (1994). "Family Food Shopping - Strategies Used by Husbands and Wives." Journal of Consumer Affairs 28(2): 278-299.

Pollitt, C. (1993). Managerialism and the Public Sector. Oxford:, Basil Blackwell.

Pomerleau, C. S., R. J. N. Brouwer, et al. (2000). "Weight concerns in women smokers during pregnancy and postpartum." 25(5): 759-767.

When women smokers become pregnant, they are asked to control weight gain and at the same time to relinquish an addictive drug with weight suppressing effects. For women with serious body image concerns or a history of unhealthful eating patterns, smoking cessation may be particularly problematic. To investigate the relationship of weight concerns with smoking and weight gain during pregnancy and postpartum weight loss strategies, we conducted a retrospective study of women who had given birth to their first child within the past 10 pears and were smokers when they became pregnant. We observed that women smokers with high weight and body image concerns (HC) gained significantly more weight during pregnancy-in amounts that far exceeded maximum recommended weight gain-than did women with low concerns (LC). HC were more likely to adopt smoking as a weight-control strategy and to be receptive to multiple weight-control strategies. Although they lost significantly more weight in the first month postpartum than did LC, they had also gained significantly more during pregnancy; the net result was that weight loss as a percentage of weight gained did not differ significantly between groups. HC were significantly less likely to experience food cravings in the first trimester and marginally less likely to vomit than LC. We conclude that early identification of high-risk women, coordination of prenatal care with smoking cessation counseling, and development of effective relapse prevention strategies that specifically address weight issues both during and after pregnancy will be needed if efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy and postpartum are to be optimized. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.


Poole, L. ((2000)). Health Care: New Labour's NHS, in. New Managerialism. New Welfare. S. G. E. M. E. J. Clarke. London:, Sage.

Popkin, B. M., K. Duffey, et al. (2005). "Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity and energy balance." Physiology and Behaviour 86: 603-613.

Potoczniak, M. J., J. E. Mourot, et al. (2003). "Legal and psychological perspectives on same-sex domestic violence: A multisystemic approach." Journal of Family Psychology 17(2): 252-259.

This article presents the legal and psychological aspects of same-sex domestic violence (SSDV) in a multisystemic model that encompasses family systems, friends and the gay-lesbian- bisexual communities, legal systems, and mental and physical health systems, encouraging family psychologists to be the leaders of reform. The current status of relevant laws is integrated into the literature on SSDV, which includes prevalence, myths regarding SSDV, help-seeking behavior of victims, and similarities and differences between SSDV and opposite-sex domestic violence. Recommendations for change in all of the overlapping systems and in the public policies of the larger society are included


Pozo, J. M. (2004). "A response to: 'Infant feeding attitudes of expectant parents: breastfeeding and formula feeding' by I. Shaker, J. A. Scott and M. Reid (2004) Journal of Advanced Nursing 45 (3), 260-268, from Janel Pozo." Journal of Advanced Nursing 47(3): 340-341.

Pratt, J., Gordon, P. and Plamping, D. ((1999)). Working Whole Systems: Putting Theory into Practice in Organisations. London, King's Fund.

Pridham, K. F., M. Schroeder, et al. (2001). "The relationship of a mother's working model of feeding to her feeding behaviour." 35(5): 741-750.

Aims of the study. This study aimed to examine the difference the attunement of a mother's working model of feeding to her infant makes for her positive feeding affect and behaviour, accounting for infant and mother conditions. Background/rationale. The concept of a mother's working model of feeding is derived from attachment theory. Caregiving, including feeding, is a component of this theory. The conditions that may influence the attunement of a mother's working model of feeding to her infant include infant birth maturity status (premature, fullterm), age at assessment, and robustness, indexed by weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mother conditions include symptoms of depression and feeding practice (breast feeding or exclusive bottle feeding). Design/methods. Participants in this longitudinal study were 99 mothers and their infants (47 full-term, 52 premature, very low birth weight). After written informed consent was given, home assessments were made when infants were approximately 1, 4, 8 and 12 months old (adjusted age for premature infants). Working model attunement was assessed with a video-assisted interview. A mother's positive affect and behaviour, including sensitivity and responsiveness, were rated from videotaped feeding interaction. Results/findings. Repeated measures analysis with a general linear mixed model showed a significant positive relationship with positive affect and behaviour for both working model attunement and the WAZ score and a significant negative relationship for symptoms of depression. Neither birth maturity status, infant age, nor feeding practice had a significant effect on mother's positive affect and behaviour during feeding. Conclusions. Nurses' efforts to enhance the attunement of a mother's working model of feeding may help mothers feed with greater positive affect and behaviour. Further study of how the attunement of a mother's feeding expectations and intentions are related to her symptoms of depression and with what she makes of the infant's growth and well-being is needed. The theoretical model needs testing with infants from the entire premature Population.


Pringle, K. (1995). Men, masculinities and social welfare. London, UCL Press.

Prochaska, F. (1989). "A Mother's Country: Mothers' Meetings and Family Welfare in Britain, 1850-1950." History 74(242): 379-399.

Mothers' meetings, sometimes called mothers' classes or maternal associations, were established by various religious and charitable groups in rural areas and city slums throughout Great Britain in the mid-Victorian years. Led by middle-class women with a sense of social responsibility, they were a peculiarly female response to the problems and opportunities associated with economic and religious change. The meetings provided a form of discount fabric shopping in a convivial religious atmosphere, an opportunity to escape from domestic drudgery and a chance to sew while listening to a reading or picking up tips on child care, cooking, sanitation, or political issues. Although some survived until mid-century, mother's meetings deteriorated after 1900 with the decline in religious faith, the drop in the birth rate, opportunities for employment outside the home, and the creation of the welfare state.
Procida, M. (2003). "Feeding the Imperial Appetite: Imperial Knowledge and Anglo-Indian Domesticity." Journal of Women's History 15(2): 123-149.

Examines cookbooks and household management guides written specifically for British women in India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These texts were aimed at the lower classes in Anglo-Indian society, the wives of British soldiers, and constructed a new approach to imperial domesticity. These women, who may have been servants themselves in England, often oversaw two or three servants in India. Cooking was almost always the responsibility of the servants, reflecting a distanced approach to housekeeping. British women were advised to check on their servants' activities only once per day, enabling them to devote their attentions to learning about the local environment and their place in the empire.


Putnam, R. D. (1995). "Bowling Alone: America's declining social capital,." Journal of Democracy 6(65-78).

Pyke, K. (2005). ""Generational Deserters" and "Black Sheep". Acculturative Differences Among Siblings in Asian Immigrant Families,." Journal of Family Issues 26(4): 491-517.

Qumachigui, A. (2002). "Prepregnancy and pregnancy nutrition and its impact on women's health." 60(5): S64-S67.

The overall nutrition status of females remains deficient. Among female school children 13-18 years of age, calorie consumption ranged from 65-90% of the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), protein consumption from 60-71% of RDA, and vitamin A intake was 50% of RDA. Prevalence of anemia ranged from 72-98% and that of intestinal parasitic infection ranged from 17-62%. Gender bias may adversely affect the nutrition of the female child. An adolescent is likely to begin pregnancy with a negative nutrition balance. In a multicentric study, 93,356 married women, aged 15-45 years, were interviewed at home in a community-based survey from 23 districts in India. Forty to eighty percent were married before 18 years of age, and the incidence of teenage pregnancy was 66%. The magnitude of the problem and the adverse effects malnutrition may have in later life requires well-designed studies in order to find solutions. (C) 2002 International Life Sciences Institute.


Raikkonen, K., A. K. Pesonen, et al. (2004). "Sweet babies: chocolate consumption during pregnancy and infant temperament at six months." 76(2): 139-145.

Background: Chocolate contains several biologically active components potentially having behavioral and psychological consequences. Aims: We tested whether chocolate consumption and stress experiences during pregnancy predict mother-rated infant temperament at 6 months. Design and subjects: Prenatal frequency of chocolate consumption and intensity of psychological stress experience of the mothers, and temperament characteristics of the infants 6 months postpartum were evaluated in 305 consecutive, healthy mother-infant dyads. Results: Mothers who reported daily consumption of chocolate rated more positively the temperament of their infants at 6 months. Maternal prenatal stress predicted more negatively tuned ratings of the infant temperament, particularly among those who reported never/seldom chocolate consumption. However, this effect was not observed among the mothers reporting weekly or daily chocolate consumption. Conclusions: In addition to producing subjective feelings of psychological well being, chocolate may have effects at multiple environmental and psychological levels. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Raine, P. (2003). "Promoting breast-feeding in a deprived area: the influence of a peer support initiative." Health & Social Care in the Community 11(6): 463-469.

Raisler, J. (2000). "Against the odds: Breastfeeding experiences of low income mothers." 45(3): 253-263.

This qualitative study asked low income mothers about their experiences of breastfeeding care in the health system and about integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives. Focus group interviews were conducted with urban and rural nursing mothers who participated in the WIC Program and were supported by breastfeeding peer counselors. Mothers said that helpful breastfeeding care providers knew correct information, established supportive personal relationships, referred women to breastfeeding specialists for problems, showed enthusiasm for nursing, and facilitated breastfeeding through concrete actions during the prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Unhelpful providers missed opportunities to discuss breastfeeding, gave misinformation, encouraged formula supplementation, provided perfunctory or routine breastfeeding care, and were hard to contact when problems arose. Women valued their breastfeeding peer counselors for responding promptly to distress calls, making home visits, being knowledgeable about breastfeeding, providing hands-on assistance, and acting personal and caring. Incorporatings breastfeeding into daily activities was a challenge for many mothers. Ambivalence about the physical bond of nursing, personal modesty, and getting on with life at home, work, or school were identified as important issues. Listening to the thoughts and experiences of low income nursing mothers can help health workers to provide more culturally sensitive, effective breastfeeding care to this population. (C) 2000 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Rake, J. P., G. Visser, et al. (2002). "Glycogen storage disease type I: diagnosis, management, clinical course and outcome. Results of the European Study on Glycogen Storage Disease Type I (ESGSD I)." 161: S20-S34.

Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I) is a relatively rare metabolic disease and therefore, no metabolic centre has experience of large numbers of patients. To document outcome, to develop guidelines about (long-term) management and follow-up, and to develop therapeutic strategies, the collaborative European Study on GSD I (ESGSD I) was initiated. This paper is an descriptive analysis of data obtained from the retrospective part of the ESGSD I. Included were 231 GSD la and 57 GSD Ib patients. Median age of data collection was 10.4 years (range 0.4-45.4 years) for la and 7.1 years (0.4-30.6 years) for Ib patients. Data on dietary treatment, pharmacological treatment, and outcome including mental development, hyperlipidaemia and its complications, hyperuricaemia and its complications, bleeding tendency, anaemia, osteopenia, hepatomegaly, liver adenomas and carcinomas, progressive renal disease, height and adult height, pubertal development and bone maturation, school type, employment, and pregnancies are presented. Data on neutropenia, neutrophil dysfunction, infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are presented elsewhere (Visser et al. 2000, J Pediatr 137:187-191; Visser et al. 2002, Eur J Pediatr DOI 10.1007/s00431-002-1010-0). Conclusion: there is still wide variation in methods of dietary and pharmacological treatment of glycogen storage disease type I. Intensive dietary treatment will improve, but not correct completely, clinical and biochemical status and fewer patients will die as a direct consequence of acute metabolic derangement. With ageing, more and more complications will develop of which progressive renal disease and the complications related to liver adenomas are likely to be two major causes of morbidity and mortality.


Ramakrishnan, U. and R. Yip (2002). "Experiences and challenges in industrialized countries: Control of iron deficiency in industrialized countries." 132(4): 820S-824S.

This paper provides a synopsis of the experience in combating iron deficiency in industrialized countries and identifies the reasons for the considerable success and future challenges. Significant progress has been made over the last century in reducing and even eliminating iron deficiency in many industrialized countries. Current estimates are that the prevalence of iron deficiency has declined to <20% in many of these countries, even among women and young children, compared with 30 to 70% in many developing countries. The reasons for this success cannot be attributed solely to a single approach but rather to a range of factors that have occurred over time as a result of both economic development and the implementation of specific policies. Several factors have contributed to improving both iron intakes and reducing iron losses; these include fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification and public health measures. For example, the decline in anemia in infants can be attributed to the introduction of iron-fortified formula and complementary foods in the 1960s to 1970s. Similarly, the enrichment and fortification of cereals with iron that began during World War II in North America and Europe is a result of effective public-private partnerships. Despite these successes, iron deficiency remains a public health concern in industrialized countries for selected subgroups such as women of reproductive age with excess menstrual losses and pregnant women who cannot meet increased requirements from the diet alone. Constant vigilance and innovative approaches for screening and combating this problem are thus still required even in developed countries.


Rampersaud, G. C., M. A. Pereira, et al. (2005). "Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: 743-760.

Rassin, D. K., K. S. Markides, et al. (1994). "Acculturation and the Initiation of Breast-Feeding." 47(7): 739-746.

Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p <0.001) or the successful initiation of breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Marital status (p = 0.014) and education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors.
Raulio, S., E. Roos, et al. (2005). "Twenty-year trends of workplace lunches in Finland." Food Service Technology 5(2-4): 57-66.

Raven, S. (2006). Gardeners' World Special. Gardeners' World. UK, BBC2.

Rea, M. F., S. I. Venancio, et al. (1997). "Possibilities and limitations of breast-feeding among women in formal employment." 31(2): 149-156.

Introduction Studies carried out on breastfeeding and working women are difficult to compare. Breastfeeding practices among formally employed women in Brazil have not been much studied, despite important changes in public policies such as the extension of maternity leave to 120 days. Objectives Conclusion A description of breastfeeding patterns among women employed in factories and the constraints and opportunities involved in conciliating breastfeeding and work. Material and Method An exploratory study was carried out in 13 factories in S. Paulo city in 1994, where all women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy were interviewed (76), and re-interviewed (69) when they,vent back to work (around 5,4 months after delivery;). Results Breastfeeding initiation was found in 97% of women and the median duration was 150 days. The exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding rates were, respectively, 10 and 70 days of median duration. Higher socio-economic status and nursery facilities and the existence of a place in which to extract and score The mother's milk at the,workplace were factors associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Other factors such as flex-time and work out of the production-line also showed a significant relation to longer duration of breastfeeding in the factories studied Conclusion Maternity leave is widely taken advantage of and highly benefitial for the majority of working,women as regards breastfeeding, but other factors are important in maintaining lactation, such as circunstances which permit closer mother-child contact and/or the extraction of human milk during the working day.


Read, J. ((2000)). Disability, the Family and Society. Listening to Mothers. Buckingham:, Open University Press.

Reich, G. (2005). "Family relationships and family therapy of eating disorders." 54(4): 318-336.

A multitude of empirical studies clearly demonstrates that the origin and course of eating disorders is closely linked to family factors. The influence is exerted in a direct way by conveying attitudes towards food, eating, weight, shape and appearance within the family and in a more indirect way by the family relationships. Families of bulimics differ from those of anorexics by a higher degree of conflict, impulsivity, expressiveness and by lower affective resonance and cohesion. Family therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of eating disorders. A sketch of a family therapy describes the conflict oriented approach which includes behavioral elements in oder to stabilize the eating behavior and the weight.
Reid, A. (2002). "Infant feeding and post-neonatal mortality in Derbyshire, England, in the early twentieth century." Population Studies-a Journal of Demography 56(2): 151-166.

Reilly, J. J., J. Armstrong, et al. (2005). "Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study." British Medical Journal 330(7504): 1357-1359.

Rempel, L. A. and G. T. Fong (2005). "Why Breastfeed? A longitudinal test of the reasons model among first-time mothers." 20(4): 443-466.

Rempel, L. A. and J. K. Rempel (2004). "Partner influence on health behavior decision-making: increasing breastfeeding duration." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 21(1): 92-111.

This longitudinal study examined how male partners affect the breastfeeding decisions and behavior of first-time mothers. Based on the reasons model by Meichenbaum and Fong (1993), the breastfeeding reasons, intentions, and behavior of 317 first-time mothers were assessed prenatally and at six time points in the first year postpartum. In a prenatal assessment, men indicated their prescriptive beliefs about whether their partner should breastfeed at the same six time points. Men's prescriptive breastfeeding beliefs predicted the strength of their partners' breastfeeding intentions, over and above the women's own breastfeeding reasons, and they predicted breastfeeding behavior over and above the women's intentions. These results demonstrate the influence wielded by intimate partners and highlight the importance of focusing on partners' beliefs when predicting and intervening in health behavior decisions. (Original abstract)
Reyes, H., R. Perez-Cuevas, et al. (2004). "The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study." Bmc Public Health 4.

Rhodes, P. (2003). "Behavioural and family systems interventions in developmental disability: towards a contemporary and integrative approach." Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 28(1): 51-64.

While behavioural intervention is effective in the treatment of challenging behaviour, in developmental disability it can have significant limitations in the family setting. Families can sometimes find it difficult to make lifecycle transitions or respond to other stressful life events and become stuck in patterns of interaction that include the presenting behaviour. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical and working model of intervention that integrates more contemporary behavioural and systemic orientations. Four stages for intervention are provided, each consisting of practical guidelines for the clinician. Three detailed case studies are also included
Richardson, L. and E. A. S. Pierre (2005). Writing: A Method of Inquiry. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. California; London; New Dehli, Sage.

Ricke, L. A., N. J. Baker, et al. (2005). "Newborn tongue-tie: Prevalence and effect on breast-feeding." 18(1): 1-7.

Objective: The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether breast-fed infants with tongue-tie have decreased rates of breast-feeding at 1 week and 1 month of age, (2) to determine the prevalence of tongue-tie, and (3) to test the usefulness of the Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF) in assessing the severity of tongue-tie in breast-feeding newborns. Methods: A case-control design was used. All infants in the Regions Hospital newborn nursery were examined for tongue-tie. Tongue-tied babies were examined using the ATLFF. Two breast-feeding babies with normal tongues were identified and matched for each case. Mothers were interviewed when the babies were 1 week and 1 month old. Results: The prevalence of tongue-tie was 4.2%. Forty-nine tongue-tied and 98 control infants were enrolled. Tongue-tied babies were 3 times as likely as control babies to be bottle fed only at 1 week [risk ratio (RR), 3.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21, 8.03) By 1 month, tongue-tied babies were as likely as controls to be bottle fed only. (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.55, 1.82) Twelve of the tongue-tied infants had ATLFF scores of "Perfect," none had scores of " Acceptable," and 6 had scores of " Function Impaired." The remaining 31 infants had scores that fell into none of these categories. Conclusions: Tongue-tie is a relatively common condition in newborns. Affected infants are significantly more likely to be exclusively bottle-fed by 1 week of age. The ATLFF was not a useful tool to identify which tongue-tied infants are at risk for breast-feeding problems.
Riley, M. (1997). "Teaching French in a School for Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties." British Journal of Special Education 24(2`): 66-70.

Ristovski-Slijepcevic, S. and G. E. Chapman (2005). "Integration and individuality in healthy eating: meanings, values, and approaches of childless, dual earner couples." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 18(4): 301-309.

Abstract: Introduction and objectives Although considered to be an important component of food choice, perceptions and practices regarding healthy eating vary between people and change over the life-course. The purpose of this paper is to examine integration and individuality in healthy eating meanings, values, and approaches of individuals in childless, dual earner couples.

Materials and methods Fourteen participants (from seven couples) were recruited using notices and snowball sampling. Food journals and individual interviews were used to explore the nature of and negotiations between partners' healthy eating values and approaches. Data were analysed through iterative procedures that included coding, thematic analysis and memo writing.


Results Participants presented individual healthy eating values and approaches based on their own experiences with food over time. Cohabitation resulted in a continuum of healthy eating negotiation outcomes, including congruent values and approaches, congruent values but divergent approaches, and divergent values and approaches. In combination with other salient factors, cohabitation provides an opportunity for improving healthy eating approaches.
Discussion Cohabitation has the potential to lead to positive changes in healthy eating approaches. Practitioners need to tailor messages for clients' specific needs and encourage change in the direction of the partner with the healthier eating approach.
Ritchie, L. D., G. Welk, et al. (2005). "Family environment and pediatric overweight: what is a parent to do?" Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: S70-S79.

Ritzer, G. (2001). Explorations in the sociology of consumption : fast food, credit cards and casinos. London, Sage.

Robb, G. (2004). "The three-piece suit and modern masculinity: England, 1550-1850." JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY 76(4): 947-948.

Robb, M. (2001). The Changing Experience of Childhood. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 18-25.

Robinson, L. M., L. McIntyre, et al. (2005). "Welfare babies: poor children's experiences informing healthy peer relationships in Canada." 20(4): 342-350.

Positive peer relationships among children living in poverty are important for their well-being, resiliency and mental and physical health. This paper explicates the 'felt experience' of children living in poverty, and the implications of these experiences for healthy peer relationships, from a re-analysis of two qualitative research studies in Canada examining children living in food insecure circumstances. Poor children feel deprived, part of the 'poor group', embarrassed, hurt, picked on, inadequate and responsible. Poor children internalize their own lack of social resources in feelings of deprivation. They experience negative feelings relative to their peers-inadequacy, embarrassment and hurt. Children do identify group membership but it is not used as a social resource, as it could be, but rather as a symbol of social segregation. Children also feel responsible for ameliorating some of the effects of their poverty and this seems to strengthen their relationship with their mothers. This could equally be translated into peer-related support, such as standing up to poor bashing, or engaging constructively with higher social class peers. Health promotion strategies that seek to foster positive peer relationships and enhance children's sense of belonging should offer novel social environments in which poor children can engage a variety of peers.


Robinson, S. (2000). "Children's perceptions of who controls their food." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 13(3): 163-171.

Robinson, S. (2000). "Children's perceptions of who controls their food." Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics 13: 163-171.


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