Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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37(198-208).

Background. This study aims to identify correlates of fruits and vegetables from within the domains of personal factors (taste preferences, health/nutrition attitudes, weight/body concerns, and self-efficacy), behavioral factors (meal frequency, fast food intake, and weight control behaviors), and socio-environmental factors (social support for healthy eating, family meal patterns, food security, socio-economic status, and home availability of fruits/vegetables). This study further aims to identify correlates of home availability and taste preferences for fruits/vegetables, and to explore patterns of interaction between availability and taste preferences.

Methods. The population included 3957 adolescents from 31 public middle and high schools in Minnesota. Structural equation modelling was used for model testing.

Results. The strongest correlates of fruit/vegetable intake were home availability of fruits/vegetables and taste preferences of fruits/vegetables. The final model explained 13% of the variance in fruit/vegetable intake, 45% of the variance in home availability, and 28% of the variance in taste preferences. Correlates of home availability included social support for healthy eating, family meal patterns, family food security, and socioeconomic status. Correlates of taste preferences included health/nutrition attitudes and home availability of fruits/vegetables. A test of interaction effects indicated that when home availability of fruits/vegetables was low, intake patterns did not differ, regardless of taste preferences. In contrast, even when taste preferences for fruits/vegetables were low, if fruits/vegetables were available, intake increased.

Conclusions. Interventions to increase fruit/vegetable intake in adolescents need to target socio-environmental factors such as greater availability of fruits/vegetables.
Newholm, T. (2005). Case Studying Ethical Consumers' Projects and Strategies. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage: 107-124.

Newman, J. ( 2000). Beyond the New Public Management? Modernising Public Services. New Managerialism New Welfare. S. G. J. Clarke, S. & E. McLaughlin (Eds). London, Sage.

NHS, D. (2002). The National School Fruit Scheme - Healthy Schools.

NICE (2003). Antenatal care: Routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. NHS, National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guideline 6.

NICE (2003). Routine antenatal care for healthy pregnant women: Understanding NICE guidance - information for pregnant women, their families and the public. NHS.

NICE (2004). Type 1 diabetes in adults - Understanding NICE guidelines - information for adults with type 1 diabetes, their families and carers, and the public. NHS, National Institute for Clinical Excellence: 1-61.

Nickerson, K. (2006). "Environmental contaminants in breast milk." Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health 51(1): 26-34.

Nicklaus, S., V. Boggio, et al. (2004). "A prospective study of food preferences in childhood." 15(7-8): 805-818.

This study has evaluated the impact of food choices at 2-3 years old on food preferences later in life, by following up the same subjects. Early preferences were estimated through recordings of food choices conducted in a nursery canteen in children aged 2-3, from 1982 to 1999. The children were free to choose the composition of their lunch from among a varied offering of eight dishes. The same subjects (n = 341) were contacted in 2001-2002 and so their ages varied from 17-22 (n = 91), 13-16 (n = 68), 8-12 (n = 99) to 4-7 (n = 83). Their present preference for the 80 foods most frequently presented at the nursery canteen was assessed through a questionnaire. Five food categories were studied: vegetables, animal products, cheeses, starchy foods and combined foods. The ranking of preference for the different food categories changed especially after puberty. However, regressions performed by food category indicated that for most categories, individual present preference was highly linked to individual preference at 2-3 years old. The link was the stronger for cheeses, followed to a lesser extent by animal products and vegetables. Present preferences increased with age for vegetables and they decreased with age for animal products only in females (to a lesser extent, they decreased with age for starchy foods and cheeses). Analyses by specific foods confirmed the global analysis. Individual present preference was linked to individual early preference for all mature cheeses and for 50% of the foods for other categories: most of these items were strongly flavoured. This study showed that preferences were stable from 2- to 3-year-old until young adulthood and that some changes in preference occurred during adolescence.
Noble, L., I. Hand, et al. (2003). "Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding among urban women." American Journal of Perinatology 20(8): 477-483.

Noorani, S. (2005). "Food in Schools: Update." Nutrition Bulletin 30(3): 278-281.

Nordin, S., D. A. Broman, et al. (2004). "A longitudinal descriptive study of self-reported abnormal smell and taste perception in pregnant women." 29(5): 391-402.

Self-reported abnormal sensitivity, qualitative distortions and phantom sensations with respect to smell and taste was assessed with a longitudinal design, based on questions referring to gestational weeks 13-16 and 31-34 of pregnancy in comparison with 9-12 weeks post partum and with non-pregnant women with corresponding time durations and intervals. The results show that abnormal smell and/or taste perception was reported by 76% of the pregnant women, typically believed to be caused by their pregnancy. Increased smell sensitivity was found to be very common at the early stage of pregnancy (67% of all pregnant respondents) and occasionally accompanied by qualitative smell distortions (17%) and phantom smells (14%). The smell abnormalities were less common at the late pregnancy stage and almost absent post partum. Abnormal taste sensitivity was fairly commonly reported (26%), often described as increased bitter sensitivity and decreased salt sensitivity. These results, suggesting that abnormal smell and/or taste perception is experienced by a large majority of pregnant women, imply that further research is needed to understand to what extent these chemosensory changes may underlie food aversions and craving with implications for food intake during pregnancy.


Norris, F. J., M. S. Larkin, et al. (2002). "Factors affecting the introduction of complementary foods in the preterm infant." 56(5): 448-454.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify current infant feeding practices among carers of preterm infants. Design: Structured interviews on milk and complementary feeding practices were conducted with mothers of preterm infants at intervals until infants were 12 months corrected age. Setting: Recruitment took place in three local Surrey hospitals over a 2y period. Subjects: Two-hundred and fifty-three preterm infants (139 male, 114 female) including 33 sets of twins and three sets of triplets were recruited. Results: Forty-nine percent of the preterm infant group received first solid foods (the commencement of 'weaning') before the current Department of Health (DoH) guideline. The mean +/- s.e.m. weaning age from birth was 17.1 +/- 0.23 weeks. Ninety-five percent of the infants were weaned before the DoH guideline when the data was examined from term (mean 11.5 +/- s.e.m. 0.21 weeks). Twenty-one percent were weaned before the DoH guideline for preterm infants which is that 'the infant weighs at least 5 kg' (mean 5.61 +/- s.e.m. 0.01 kg). Human milk-fed infants were significantly lighter at weaning than combined milk-fed infants (5.32 +/- 0.12 vs 5.72 +/- 0.01 kg; P < 0.05) even though they were weaned at a similar age. Infant formula-fed infants (mean weaning age from term 10.2 +/- 0.47 weeks) were weaned significantly earlier than both human milk-fed (11.9 +/- 0.49 weeks; P < 0.05) and combined milk-fed (11.9 +/- 0.25 weeks; P < 0.005) infants. Conclusions: The introduction of complementary foods varied widely between carers of preterm infants and compliance with DoH guidelines was poor. Further studies on preterm infants are necessary to see if weaning practices affect long-term growth and morbidity and to provide a basis for the development of appropriate recommendations.


Northstone, K., P. Emmett, et al. (2001). "The effect of age of introduction to lumpy solids on foods eaten and reported feeding difficulties at 6 and 15 months." 14(1): 43-54.

Aim The study aimed to document the dietary patterns of infants and determine the development of feeding difficulties as perceived by the mother according to the age at which lumpy solids were introduced into the diet. Study design Information was collected from a geographically representative population of 9360 mothers of infants born in 1991/92, part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). Self-completion questionnaires enquiring about the foods and drinks consumed by the infant and any difficulties experienced by the mothers in feeding her child at both 6 months and 15 months of age were collected. Methods Infants were divided into three groups based on the age at which they were first introduced to 'lumpy' solids: 10.7% were introduced before 6 months of age, 71.7% were introduced between 6 and 9 months and 17.6% were introduced after 10 months of age. The foods eaten by those introduced before 6 months and after 10 months were compared to those introduced between 6 and 9 months. Behaviours and problems as reported by the mother were also assessed. Results Those infants who were introduced to lumpy solids at the earliest ages consumed a greater variety of family foods at the age of 6 months, while those introduced at 10 months or later had been given fewer solids of all types by 6 months of age and at 15 months were significantly less likely to be having family foods when compared to those introduced between 6 and 9 months. At each age, those introduced late (10 months or older) to lumps were more difficult to feed and had more definite likes and dislikes. Conclusions A significant difference was observed in the variety of foods given to infants at both 6 and 15 months according to the age at which they began to have lumps in their food, and feeding difficulties were more likely to occur when lumps were introduced at or after 10 months of age.


Norwood, H., E. A. Lacey, et al. (2005). Factors affecting food culture choice in three generations of people in Barnsley, Fit for the Future.

Nucci, L. and J. G. Smetana (1996). "Mothers' concepts of young children's areas of personal freedom." 67(4): 1870-1886.

White suburban working- to upper-middle-class mothers (N = 40) of children ages 5 and 7 were interviewed regarding their concepts of children's areas of personal discretion, autonomy, and individuality. Mothers treated standardized moral, conventional, and prudential items as issues that mothers should control, while standardized personal items were treated as up to the child. In open-ended interviews, mothers reported setting limits around issues of safety, family conventions, and daily routines but permitted children to make decisions about food, recreational activities, clothes, and playmates. Mothers viewed mother-child conflict as occurring over these same issues and viewed children's choices as helping them to develop autonomy and competence. Mothers viewed their roles as educators and nurturers and valued the development of individuality in their children, which was thought to emerge in infancy or toddlerhood. Few age differences were observed, but gender differences were found in the ways mothers characterized boys and girls' resistances to parental authority and in the content of mother-child disputes. Results were interpreted in terms of the emergence of the personal domain in children.
Nwakeze, P. C., S. Magura, et al. "Homelessness, substance misuse, and access to public entitlements in a soup kitchen population."

The study examined the effects of homelessness on access to public entitlements (Medicaid and food stamp programs) in a soup kitchen population. Data were collected between 1997 and 1999 from a sample of 343 adults at two soup kitchen sites in New York City. Five hypotheses, focusing on the effects of housing status (literal homelessness, unstable housing, and domiciled), frequency of drug/heavy alcohol use, drug/alcohol-user treatment history and childcare responsibilities on access to Medicaid and food stamp programs were tested. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that both literal homelessness and unstable housing were associated with less access to Medicaid and food stamps. Other significant findings were: current drug/alcohol-user treatment experience was associated with greater access to both Medicaid and food stamps, frequency of drug/heavy alcohol use was associated with less access to Medicaid only, and caring for children was associated with greater access to food stamps only. These findings support the crucial role of housing status in mediating access to entitlements, and the importance of drug/alcohol-user treatment involvement as a cue to seeking entitlements. The need to reduce health disparities through active and sustained outreach programs designed to enhance homeless persons' access to Medicaid and food stamp programs was discussed.


Nwakeze, P. C., S. Magura, et al. "Homelessness, substance misuse, and access to public entitlements in a soup kitchen population."

The study examined the effects of homelessness on access to public entitlements (Medicaid and food stamp programs) in a soup kitchen population. Data were collected between 1997 and 1999 from a sample of 343 adults at two soup kitchen sites in New York City. Five hypotheses, focusing on the effects of housing status (literal homelessness, unstable housing, and domiciled), frequency of drug/heavy alcohol use, drug/alcohol-user treatment history and childcare responsibilities on access to Medicaid and food stamp programs were tested. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that both literal homelessness and unstable housing were associated with less access to Medicaid and food stamps. Other significant findings were: current drug/alcohol-user treatment experience was associated with greater access to both Medicaid and food stamps, frequency of drug/heavy alcohol use was associated with less access to Medicaid only, and caring for children was associated with greater access to food stamps only. These findings support the crucial role of housing status in mediating access to entitlements, and the importance of drug/alcohol-user treatment involvement as a cue to seeking entitlements. The need to reduce health disparities through active and sustained outreach programs designed to enhance homeless persons' access to Medicaid and food stamp programs was discussed.


Nye, R. (2005). "Locating masculinity: Some recent work on men." SIGNS 30(3): 1937-1962.

Nyqvist, K. H. and U. Ewald (1999). "Infant and maternal factors in the development of breastfeeding behaviour and breastfeeding outcome in preterm infants." 88(11): 1194-1203.

A wide range in incidence of breastfeeding has been reported in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of infant and maternal factors on the development of preterm infants' breastfeeding behaviour and breastfeeding outcome. The sample consisted of 71 preterm infants born after a gestation of 26-35 wk. A descriptive, prospective design was used, with direct behavioural observation as data collection method, based on mothers' assessments according to the Preterm infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale (PIBBS), in which higher scores indicate higher competence. Multiple regression analyses revealed that variables associated with efficient infant performance included higher birthweight, less need of ventilator and oxygen treatment, higher haemoglobin level, absence of bottle-feeding, no need of apnoea treatment with Theophylline, and no suspicion of infection. A short gestation was associated with high PIBBS scores during weeks 32-37. Maternal characteristics associated with higher infant competence were breastfeeding experience and low educational level. Fifty-seven infants were discharged with full breastfeeding and 10 infants with partial breastfeeding. Infants with a short gestation period achieved full breastfeeding at low postmenstrual and high postnatal age. Infants with Theophylline treatment, low haemoglobin level, and a longer period of separation from their mothers established full breastfeeding at higher postmenstrual and postnatal age. In conclusion, low gestational age at birth was associated with early emergence of efficient breastfeeding behaviour and a high incidence of full breastfeeding.
Oates, C. J. (1997). Rereading women's magazines : the feminist identity of Best, Bella and Take a Break, University of Sheffield.

Obrien, B. and S. Naber (1992). "Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy - Effects on the Quality of Womens Lives." 19(3): 138-143.

More than 70 percent of all pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, and 28 percent report that symptoms cause them to change their usual activities. We investigated the magnitude of problems that nausea and vomiting impose on the lifestyle of pregnant women and their families. Twenty-seven women who were experiencing different degrees of nausea and vomiting were selected from 147 pregnant women and asked to participate in semistructured telephone interviews. All participants reported changes in family, social, or occupational functioning as a result of these symptoms. Nausea and vomiting can impose substantial lifestyle limitations on pregnant women that can have short- and long-term consequences for them and their families. Both the duration and severity of symptoms were greater for many participants than is generally believed. All participants reported that recumbent rest or dietary alterations provided relief. Caregivers should recognize and validate the need for pregnant women to make changes in lifestyle that will enable them to achieve comfort.
O'Connor, P., A. Haynes, et al. (2004). "Relational Discourses - Social ties with family and friends." Childhood 11(3): 361-382.

This article presents quantitative and qualitative

accounts of relational discourses in a random

sample of approximately 4100 texts written by Irish

young people (aged 10–12 and 14–17 years). The

existence of such discourses is indicated by

references to family and friends. The article shows

that although the majority refer to such ties in their

texts, less than one-third mention best friends. It

also shows that references to such relational

discourses were affected by age and gender. A

continuum of relatedness can be identified: with 10-

to 12-year-old girls at one end of the continuum and

14- to 17-year-old boys at the other end. The

implications of such trends are briefly discussed.
O'Donnell, M. and S. Sharpe (2000). Uncertain masculinities : youth, ethnicity and class in contemporary Britain. New York ; London, Routledge.

Office, H. (1998). Supporting Families. London:, HMSO.

Oftung, K. (2004). "Flexible fathers. Masculinity, work, welfare state." TIDSSKRIFT FOR SAMFUNNSFORSKNING 45(4): 694-697.

Ogle, J. P. and M. L. Damhorst (2003). "Mothers and daughters - Interpersonal approaches to body and dieting." 24(4): 448-487.

The interpretive study reported in this article focused on the process by which mothers and daughters interact about body and dieting. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 mothers and their adolescent daughters. Constant comparison analysis of data revealed four patterns of mother-daughter interaction about body and dieting: (a) the direct verbal approach. including encouragement/facilitation, dissuasion, and fault-finding messages; (b) the avoidance/guardedness approach; (c) the modeling approach; and (d) the laissez-faire approach. These four patterns of communication varied in terms of content and were used in different contexts and combinations. These mother-daughter interactions (a) were shaped by mothers' and daughters' thoughts about the self, the other, and the mother-daughter relationship; (b) were used by mothers and daughters to plan future interactions with one another; and (c) served to guide lines of personal action with respect to dieting, especially in the case of daughters.
O'Keefe, E. a. H., C. (1999). "'Public Participation and Citizenship and Marginalised Groups: The Community Development Model',." Health Expectations 2: 245-254.

Okon, D. M., A. L. Greene, et al. (2003). "Family interactions predict intraindividual symptom variation for adolescents with bulimia." International Journal of Eating Disorders 34(4): 450-457.

Objective: Following family systems and stress theories, this study considered predictors of symptom variation experienced by adolescents with bulimia. Methods: Using experience sampling methodology, 20 girls clinically diagnosed with bulimia nervosa completed questionnaires about hassles and bulimic symptoms for 1 week, eight times daily, whenever they were contacted by pager. Perceived family environment was defined by the Family Environment Scale and the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Regression analyses found that potent family hassles were positive predictors of bulimic symptoms later that day for girls who perceived their family as having high levels of conflict or low levels of emotional expressiveness. This was not found when girls perceived their family environment as more normal. Discussion: Within the context of a perceived dysfunctional family environment, potent family hassles can predict interindividual and intraindividual bulimic symptom variation for adolescent girls. (C) 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Olin Lauritzen, S. (1997). "Notions of child health:mothers' accounts of health in their young babies." Sociology of Health and Illness 19(4): 436-456.

Olson, C. M., M. S. Strawderman, et al. (2003). "Gestational weight gain and postpartum behaviors associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1y postpartum." 27(1): 117-127.

OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe the relative importance of gestational weight gain, postpartum exercise, food intake and breastfeeding to weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum; and (2) to identify subgroups of women at greatest risk for major weight gain surrounding childbearing. Design: A prospective cohort study of women who registered for obstetrical care in a hospital and primary care clinic system serving a 10 county area of upstate New York. Subjects: A total of 540 healthy adult women who gave birth to full-term singleton infants. MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, exercise, food-related behaviors and breastfeeding were assessed using the medical record and a mailed questionnaire. Body weight was measured at prenatal visits and 1 y postpartum. Weight retained and major weight gain (4.55 kg) at 1 y postpartum were the main outcomes. ANALYSIS: Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Women were on average 1.51 5.95 kg heavier at 1 y postpartum than they were in early pregnancy. Nearly 25% of women experienced a major weight gain of 4.55 kg or more at I y postpartum. Gestational weight gain, exercise frequency, change in food intake and breastfeeding were each significantly related to postpartum weight retention. With the exception of breastfeeding, all of these factors were also associated with major weight gain. Women under 20 y or over 40 y at delivery and single women retained significantly more weight. Lower income women with gestational weight gains above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) range retained 3.73 kg more than lower income women who gained within the range. They were also 4.7 times more likely to experience major weight gain with childbearing. The impact of exceeding the IOM gestational weight gain guidelines was three times greater in lower income women than it was in higher income women. CONCLUSION: Gestational weight gain, postpartum exercise frequency, and food intake are significantly associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum and major weight gain with childbearing. Lower income women who gain more weight in pregnancy than the IOM recommends are at high risk for major weight gain with childbearing.
Ophir, O. "[Homeless-disabled people--medical, moral and social problem]."

Many factors contribute to homelessness, including extreme poverty, extended periods of unemployment, disruption of regular sources of income and employment, deinstitutionalization and substance abuse. As a result, the needs of the homeless are both broad and complex. This assessment is based on literature reviews and reviews of local documents and reports. For homeless people, healthcare competes with more immediate needs, such as obtaining adequate food and shelter and it is our duty as a society to help.


Ophir, O. "[Homeless-disabled people--medical, moral and social problem]."

Many factors contribute to homelessness, including extreme poverty, extended periods of unemployment, disruption of regular sources of income and employment, deinstitutionalization and substance abuse. As a result, the needs of the homeless are both broad and complex. This assessment is based on literature reviews and reviews of local documents and reports. For homeless people, healthcare competes with more immediate needs, such as obtaining adequate food and shelter and it is our duty as a society to help.


Orwin, R. G., C. K. Scott, et al. "Transitions through homelessness and factors that predict them: three-year treatment outcomes."

The course of homelessness was examined among adults entering treatment in the Chicago Target Cities sample, which was aimed at improving the service delivery system in large metropolitan areas across the U.S. The objectives of the present study were: (1) Examine transitions in and out of homelessness over 3 years post entry into treatment; and (2) Determine the treatment and non-treatment factors that predict achieving and sustaining residential stability. Sixty-one percent of initially homeless participants were stably housed at 36 months. By contrast, only 14% of initially housed participants were homeless at 36 months. Sample-wide, homelessness was reduced by 43% over 3 years. In conditional logistic regression models, the most consistent and persistent predictors were crack as the primary problem substance, which appears to be a risk factor for becoming and remaining homeless, and whether or not others were dependent on the participant for food/shelter, which appears to be a protective factor for achieving housing and preventing homelessness. In general, specific treatment factors did not predict outcomes. Limitations and implications for treatment are discussed.


Orwin, R. G., C. K. Scott, et al. "Transitions through homelessness and factors that predict them: three-year treatment outcomes."

The course of homelessness was examined among adults entering treatment in the Chicago Target Cities sample, which was aimed at improving the service delivery system in large metropolitan areas across the U.S. The objectives of the present study were: (1) Examine transitions in and out of homelessness over 3 years post entry into treatment; and (2) Determine the treatment and non-treatment factors that predict achieving and sustaining residential stability. Sixty-one percent of initially homeless participants were stably housed at 36 months. By contrast, only 14% of initially housed participants were homeless at 36 months. Sample-wide, homelessness was reduced by 43% over 3 years. In conditional logistic regression models, the most consistent and persistent predictors were crack as the primary problem substance, which appears to be a risk factor for becoming and remaining homeless, and whether or not others were dependent on the participant for food/shelter, which appears to be a protective factor for achieving housing and preventing homelessness. In general, specific treatment factors did not predict outcomes. Limitations and implications for treatment are discussed.


Osis, M. J. D., G. A. Duarte, et al. (2004). "Exclusive breastfeeding among working women with free daycare available at workplace." Revista De Saude Publica
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