Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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43(3): 193-212.

A recent survey in northern Mexico found that 52.8% of adult Tarahumara women were overweight. A process of "de-Indianization" of their diet was hypothesized. The present study aimed at exploring food and body shape perceptions as dimensions contributing to the role that Western acculturation could be playing in increasing overweight in this isolated indigenous population. Data were obtained from structured interviews of a type commonly used in cognitive anthropology. Partial rank ordering of photographic series' depicting dishes, food preparation methods and drinks, and constrained pile sorting of photographs portraying Tarahumara women arranged from the thinnest to the fattest were used to assess food shape perceptions, respectively. Data analytic techniques employed included cultural consensus, tabu search clustering, and multidimensional scaling. Respondents judged mestizo and Western foods as tastier than traditional foods. Spanish language capacity was linked to preferences for mestizo and Western foods and for fatter body shapes as ideals for beauty, health, and motherhood. Thin-normal women were considered the most industrious. Speaking Spanish emerged as the only clear element of acculturation that could be defined.

Moore, M., J. Sixsmith, et al. (1996). Children’s Reflections on Family Life. London, The Falmer Press.

Morgan, D., J. (1996). Family Connections: An introduction to Family Studies. Cambridge, Polity Press.

Morgan, D., H, J. (1999). Risk and Family Practices: Accounting for Change and Fluidity in Family Life. The New Family? E. B. Silva and C. Smart. London, Sage: 13-30.

Morgan, D. (2003). "The masculinity studies reader." JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES 12(2): 146-147.

Morgan, D. H. J. (1992). Discovering men. London, Routledge.

Morgan, D. H. J. (1996). Family Connections Cambridge, Polity Press.

Morgan, D. K., Kenneth (2001). "Children in Poverty Do State Policies Matter." Social Science Quarterly 82(3).

Objective. Variations in childhood poverty are primarily responsive to changes in family structure and economic conditions. Some research also suggests that federal and state programs may help alleviate poverty among children. This research incorporates measures of family characteristics, economic conditions, and policy variables in estimating changes in childhood poverty among the U.S. states.

Methods. The research design is a pooled time series for all 50 states for the years 1987-1996.

Results. Economic and family circumstances indeed are the major forces affecting children in poverty among the states. The unemployment rate for females, the percentage births to unmarried mothers, and the percentage of single-parent families are especially useful estimators. Public policies are important as well: the state or federal minimum wage, Aid to Families with Dependent Children/food stamp payments, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and two measures of state child support effort.

Conclusions. Although at times controversial, actions by the states and federal government can help reduce childhood poverty among U.S. states.
Morrell, R. (2005). "So what's a boy? - Addressing issues of masculinity and schooling." EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 57(2): 264-266.

Morris, A. B., N. (2001). Social movements and oppositional consciousness. Oppositional consciousness. I. J. M. A. M. E. . Chicago, Universtity of Chicago Press.

Morrow, A. L., M. L. Guerrero, et al. (1999). "Efficacy of home-based peer counselling to promote exclusive breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial." 353(9160): 1226-1231.

Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended worldwide but not commonly practised. We undertook a randomised controlled study of the efficacy of home-based peer counselling to increase the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers and infants residing in periurban Mexico City. Methods Two intervention groups with different counselling frequencies, six visits (44) and three visits (52), were compared with a control group (34) that had no intervention. From March, 1995, to September, 1996, 170 pregnant women were identified by census and invited to participate in the study. Home visits were made during pregnancy and early post partum by peer counsellors recruited from the same community and trained by La Leche League. Data were collected by independent interview. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined by WHO criteria. Findings 130 women participated in the study. Only 12 women refused participation. Study groups did not differ in baseline factors. At 3 months post partum, exclusive breastfeeding was practised by 67% of six-visit, 50% of three-visit, and 12% of control mothers (intervention groups vs controls, p<0.001; six-visit vs three-visit, p=0.02). Duration of breastfeeding was significantly (p=0.02) longer in intervention groups than in controls, and fewer-intervention than control infants had an episode of diarrhoea (12% vs 26%, p=0.03). Interpretation This is the first reported community-based randomised trial of breastfeeding promotion. Early and repeated contact with peer counsellors was associated with a significant increase in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. The two-fold decrease in diarrhoea demonstrates the importance of breastfeeding promotion to infant health.

Morrow, V. (2001). "

Young people's explanations and experiences of social exclusion: retrieving Bourdieu's concept of social capital,." International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 21((4/5/6):): 37-63.

Morrow, V. (2006). "Understanding Gender Differences in Context: Implications for Young Children’s Everyday Lives." children and society 20(2): 92-104.

Mort, F. (1996). Cultures of consumption : masculinities and social space in late twentieth-century Britain. London ; New York, Routledge.

Mosley, J. and L. Tiehen. "The Food Safety Net after Welfare Reform: Use of Private and Public Food Assistance in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area."

This study documents reliance on the private & public food safety net in the Kansas City metropolitan area. While the use of food pantries is widespread, the frequency of food pantry use is low compared to food stamp use. However, almost 60% of food pantry recipients also received food stamps at some time during the studied period. Between 1998 & 2001, just over one-third of food stamp clients also visited a pantry. The data suggest that households are not substituting one form of assistance for the other but rather are accessing multiple types of assistance when necessary. 2 Tables, 4 Figures, 38 References. Adapted from the source document.

Moynihan, P. J. and R. D. Holt (1996). "The national diet and nutrition survey of 1.5 to 4.5 year old children: Summary of the findings of the dental survey." 181(9): 328-332.

A dental health survey was included as part of a large scale study of nutrition in preschool children. The survey was carried out in 1992/93 and was published in spring 1995. Information on dental hearth status and on dietary intake was gathered from a total of 1658 children from 100 geographical sectors in the United Kingdom. This article summarises the main findings and highlights some of the most important findings regarding dental health and its relationship to dietary factors. Seventeen per cent of children had some caries experience and in 83% of cases this was untreated. Dental decay was most strongly related to social background, The factors most strongly related to caries prevalence were: receipt of income benefits, in the 1.5-2.5-year-old children; the educational status of the mother in the 2.5-3.5-year-old children and social class of the head of household in the 3.5-4.5-year-old children. Consumption of sugary drinks at bedtime, children being left to brush their teeth themselves, household expenditure on confectionery and geographical region were also strongly associated with caries prevalence.

Mueller, M. M. and G. H. Elder (2003). "Family contingencies across the generations: Grandparent- grandchild relationships in holistic perspective." Journal of Marriage and the Family 65(2): 404-417.

Family relationships do not occur in isolation but rather are embedded within greater systems of family ties. In recognition of the need to study families holistically, we explore how relations between grandparents and grandchildren are contingent upon a matrix of intergenerational relationships. Using data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, our analyses focus on person-centered types of grandparent-grandchild relationships and the legacy of social ties across the generations, as mediated by other family relationships. We find multiple dimensions of grandparents' involvement with their grandchildren to be associated with (a) whether the grandparents knew their own grandparents when they were young, (b) the grandparent's perceptions of contact and closeness with the target grandchild, and (c) nuances in the relationships of grandparents with the parent generation

Mullaney, L. and J. Walsh (2005). "Psychological factors influencing infant breast-feeding in first-time mothers: An application of a modified version of the theory of planned behaviour." Psychology & Health 20: 184-185.

Munro, E. (2004). "The Impact of Audit on Social Work Practice,." British Journal of Social Work 34,(1075-1095).

Muntaner, C., Lynch, H. & Smith, G. D. (2000). "Social capital and the third way in public health',." Critical Public Health 10(92): 107-124.

Muntaner, C., Lynch, J. Smith, G.D. (2001). "Social capital, disorganised communities, and the third way: understanding the retreat from structural inequalities in epidemiology and public health,." International Journal of Health Services 31: 213-237.

Murcott, A. Sociological and social anthropological approaches to food and eating.

Murcott, A. (1982). "Menus, Meals and Platefuls: Observations on Advice about Diet in Pregnancy." The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 2(4): 1-11.

In this time of renewed effort to promote policies that will persuade people to eat a healthy diet, pregnancy is identified as a particularly important period for proper nutrition. Twelve items of "popular" antenatal education literature & data collected during a study of food concepts among expectant mothers (10 of whom completed card-sorting tasks of familiar food items) are analyzed, & the data categorized under 5 headings: nutritional, culinary, reaction, attributes, & social context. The literature presents diet information in predominantly nutritional terms, eg, of food groups, or with reference to nutritional composition. The Ss' responses were more spontaneous, discussing food in terms of meals & their social context. The tentative conclusion is that the social organization of family & household may furnish conceptions of food & drink more salient than conceptions in nutritional/medical terms. This should be taken into account for nutrition education to be effective. 4 Tables. Modified AA.
Murcott, A. (1982). "On the Social Significance of the "cooked dinner" in South Wales." Social Science Information 21(4-5): 677-95.

Murcott, A. (1982). "On the social significance of the 'cooked dinner' in South Wales." Social Science Information/ Anthropology of Food 21(4/5): 677-696.

Murcott, A. (1983). Cooking and the cooked: a note on the domestic preparation of meals. The Sociology of Food and Eating. A. Murcott. Aldershot, Gower.

Murcott, A. (1983). "It's a pleasure to cook for him": food, mealtimes and gender in some South Wales households. The Public and the Private. E. Gamarnikow, D. Morgan, J. Purvis and D. Taylorson. London, Heinemann: 78-90.

Murcott, A., Ed. (1983). The Sociology of Food and Eating. Aldershot, Gower.

Murcott, A. (1983). The Sociology of food and eating : essays on the sociological significance of food. Aldershot, Hants, England, Gower Publishing.

Murcott, A. (1987). Conception of food : a sociological analysis.

Murcott, A. (1987). "Feeding the Children." Journal of Education Policy 2(3): 245-52.

Murcott, A. (1988). "Sociological and Social Anthropological Approaches to Food and Eating." World Review of Nutrition and Diet 55: 1-40.

Murcott, A. (1998). The Nation's Diet. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Pearson Education.

Murcott, A., Ed. (1998). The Nation's Diet: The Social Science of Food Choice. Harlow, Addison Wesley Longman.

Murcott, A., Economic, et al. (1998). The nation's diet : the social science of food choice. London ; New York, Addison Wesley Longman.

Murcott, A. and A. v. Otterloo (1995). "Historical and social perspectives on food." Appetite 25(1): 97-98.

Murphy, C. F. (1995). Beyond feminism : toward a dialogue on difference. Washington, D.C., Catholic University of America Press.

Murphy, E., Parker, S., & Phipps, C. (1998). Food choices for babies. The Nation's Diet: The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd: 250-267.

Murphy, E. (1999). "'Breast is best': Infant feeding decisions and maternal deviance." 21(2): 187-208.

The insistence that breast feeding confers unique and significant benefits upon children underpins both health policy and professional practice and is part of the context in which women decide how to feed their babies and, in turn, how they display and defend their decisions. This paper applies a framework, drawn from the sociology of deviance, to the accounts which women give of their infant feeding intentions. It draws upon data from a longitudinal qualitative interview study of the food choices made by mothers on behalf of their infants and young children, to show how such choices are irreducibly moral and that the ways in which women can be judged, or indeed judge themselves, to be deviant are legion. However mothers decide to feed their babies, infant feeding is a highly accountable matter. Whether they intend to breast feed or formula feed, women face considerable interactional challenges as they seek to establish that they are not only good mothers but also good partners and good women.
Murphy, E. (2000). "Risk, responsibility, and rhetoric in infant feeding." 29(3): 291-325.

This article considers the way in which discourses around risk intersect with the ideology of motherhood in advanced liberal societies. Neoliberal citizens are urged to exercise prudence in the light of expert advice about minimizing risk through behavioral choices. The "good mother" is one who maximizes physical and psychological outcomes for her child, regardless of personal cost, Drawing on data from a longitudinal interview study of first-time mothers' feeding practices, the moral context that arises at the intersection of these two discourses is explored Experts advise mothers to breast-feed and warn of the short-, medium-, and long-term risks associated with formula feeding. Most mothers accept the validity of these expert claims and most initiate breastfeeding. However many abandon breastfeeding long before experts recommend This article considers how mothers deal with the threat to their identities as good, neoliberal citizens and mothers that arises from such feeding practices.

Murphy, E. (2003). "Expertise and forms of knowledge in the government of families." The Sociological Review 51(4): 433-462.

'This paper examines the relationship between the state and the individual in relation to an aspect of mundane family life - the feeding of babies and young children. The nutritional status of children has long been a matter of national concern and infant feeding is an aspect of family life that has been subjected to substantial state intervention. It exemplifies the imposition upon women the 'biologico-moral responsibility' for the welfare of children (Foucault 1991b).

The state's attempts to influence mothers' feeding practices operate largely through education and persuasion. Through an elaborate state-sponsored apparatus, a strongly medicalised expert discourse is disseminated to mothers. This discourse warns mothers of the risks of certain feeding practices and the benefits of others. It constrains mothers through a series of 'quiet coercions' (Foucault, 1991c) which seek to render them self-regulating subjects. Using data from a longitudinal interview study, this paper explores how mothers who are made responsible in these medical discourses around child nutrition, engage with, and resist and refuse expert advice. It examines, in particular, the rhetorical strategies which mothers use to defend themselves against the charges of maternal irresponsibility that arise when their practices do not conform to expert medical recommendations'.
Murphy, E. (2004). "Anticipatory accounts." Symbolic Interaction 27(2): 129-154.

Murray, J. "Soup Kitchens as Subversion: Circumventing Barriers to Feed the Hungry."

In New Orleans, the act of feeding the homeless is considered subversion. Advocacy groups have been met with threats, fines, penalties, lawsuits, & other legal entanglements. In a downtown neighborhood, three nights a week, more than 100 hungry & homeless people are discreetly fed a hot, home-cooked meal. While food programs in the form of food pantries & soup kitchens are common nationwide, the local political climate has necessitated one organization to respond to hunger in innovative ways by conducting a 'mobile soup kitchen.' The mobile meal service that is the focus of the paper has no institutional affiliation, no formal organization, no program, no authoritarian hierarchy, & no objective other than to feed the hungry. Nothing is asked of & no restrictions are placed on those served. In the tradition of the early settlement house movement, local residents are 'good neighbors' & simply invite the hungry & the homeless to dinner. A description of this simple but unique local response to hunger is provided along with some ideas about why it works.
Murray, L., M. Woolgar, et al. (2003). "Self-exclusion from health care in women at high risk for postpartum depression." Journal of Public Health Medicine 25(2): 131-137.

Nagy, E., H. Orvos, et al. (2001). "Breastfeeding duration and previous breastfeeding experience." 90(1): 51-56.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of duration of earlier breastfeeding on the duration of breastfeeding with subsequent births. Medical records of 327 women who had had at least two deliveries were analysed; 89 of these women had had three deliveries. The average duration of breastfeeding increased from 6.01 mo to 6.85 mo with the second baby, but did not increase significantly with the third. A significant negative correlation was found between duration of first breastfeeding and change of breastfeeding duration at the second breastfeeding. Mothers who breastfed their first child for 0-7 mo significantly increased the duration of breastfeeding with the second child, whereas mothers who breastfed their firstborn for 8 mo or longer significantly reduced breastfeeding with the second baby. Conclusion: Results support earlier studies showing that duration of breastfeeding of the second child is significantly related to previous breastfeeding experience. Results also suggest that previous breastfeeding experience may lead mothers to regulate duration of subsequent breastfeeding toward a level that is optimal for them. The results are interpreted with respect to societal changes in breastfeeding patterns, as well as the role of material learning in breastfeeding behaviour.
National-Family-and-Parenting-Institute. (2005). "Food Guide." from http://www.e-parents.org/data/food_guide/index.htm.

Nayga, R. (1996). "Socio-demographic effects on the importance of nutrition in food shopping." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78(5): 1402.

Nenadic, S. (2000). "Leah Leneman (1944-1999)." Scottish Economic and Social History 20(1): 1-2.

Obituary for Leah Leneman (1944-99), whose first career was as a stage actress in New York. She later moved to London where she worked first in the airline industry and then as an editor and author of cooking books. A visit to Scotland sparked her interest in Scottish history and led to her taking a degree at the University of Edinburgh. After completing her Ph.D. she embarked on a career as an independent researcher, lecturer, and writer. She had a particular interest in the relationship between men and women and published numerous books and articles on this subject. She became a popular and highly respected historian before her death from breast cancer in 1999.

Nestor, P. A. (1982). "A New Departure in Women's Publishing: the English Woman's Journal and the Victoria Magazine." Victorian Periodicals Review 15(3): 93-106.

Discusses changes in the structure and aims of two successful women's magazines concerned with women's rights, 1850-70.

Neumark-Sztainer, D., M. Wall, et al. (2004). "Are family meal patterns associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents?" 35(5): 350-359.

Purpose: To examine associations between family meal patterns (frequency, priority, atmosphere, and structure of family meals) and disordered eating (unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, and chronic dieting) in adolescent girls and boys. Methods: Survey and anthropometric data were collected from 4746 ethnically diverse adolescents from public middle and senior high schools who participated in the Project EAT study (Eating Among Teens). Variables of interest included family meal patterns and disordered eating behaviors. Logistic regressions were performed to examine associations between family meal patterns and disordered eating behaviors adjusting for body mass index, sociodemographic characteristics, family connectedness, and weight pressures within the home. Results: In general, adolescents who reported more frequent family meals, high priority for family meals, a positive atmosphere at family meals, and a more structured family meal environment were less likely to engage in disordered eating. For example, 18.1% of girls who reported 1-2 family meals/week engaged in extreme weight control behaviors compared with 8.8% of girls who reported 3-4 family meals/week. Making family meals a priority, in spite of scheduling difficulties, emerged as the most consistent protective factor for disordered eating. Associations between family meal patterns and disordered eating behaviors tended to be stronger among girls than among boys. Family meal patterns were more consistently associated with unhealthy weight control behaviors than with chronic dieting and binge eating. Although associations between family meals and disordered eating were weakened after adjusting for more global familial factors, including family connectedness and weight-specific pressures within the home, a number of the associations remained statistically significant, suggesting an independent relationship between family meals and disordered eating. Conclusion: Family meals have the potential to play an important role in the prevention of unhealthy weight control behaviors among youth. Findings suggest that attention needs to be directed toward increasing family meal frequency and creating a positive environment for family meals. (C) Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2004.

Neumark-Sztainer D, H. P., Story M, Croll J, Perry C. (2003). "Family meal patterns: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103(3): 317-322.

OBJECTIVE: To examine family meal patterns and associations with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake in adolescents. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Adolescents completed the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and the Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire within their schools. Subjects/setting The study population included 4,746 middle and high school students from Minneapolis/St. Paul public schools with diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Statistical analyses Associations were examined using cross tabulations, log-linear modeling, and linear regressions. RESULTS: There was a wide distribution in the frequency of family meals during the previous week: never (14.0%), 1 or 2 times (19.1%), 3 to 6 times (40.1%), and 7 or more times (24.8%). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with more frequent family meals included gender (boys), school level (middle school), race (Asian American), mother's employment status (not employed), and socioeconomic status (high). Frequency of family meals was positively associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, and calcium-rich foods and negatively associated with soft drink consumption. Positive associations were also seen between frequency of family meals and energy; protein (percentage of total calories); calcium; iron; folate; fiber; and vitamins A, C, E, and B-6. CONCLUSIONS: Family meals appear to play an important role in promoting positive dietary intake among adolescents. Feasible ways to increase the frequency of family meals should be explored with adolescents and their families.

Neumark-Sztainer D, W., M, Perry, C, and Story, M. (2003). "Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. Findings from Project EAT." Preventive Medicine
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