Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Mellin, A. E., D. Neumark-Sztainer, et al. (2004). "Unhealthy weight management behavior among adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus: The role of familial eating patterns and weight-related concerns." 35(4): 278-289.

Purpose: To explore familial eating patterns and weight-related concerns among families of adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to examine associations with disordered eating behaviors among the girls. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 30 adolescent girls (ages 13-20 years), who had DM for at least 1 year, and separately with their parents. Eighty-four percent of the girls were Caucasian, 13% were African-American, and 3% were Hispanic. The sample included 15 girls who reported (on a questionnaire) engaging in disordered eating behaviors (DE) and a matched comparison group of girls who reported no disordered eating (Non-DE). The semi-structured interview questions focused on adolescent and parent perceptions of the impact of DM on family roles, relationships, and routines, as well as who does what in managing the DM. A content analysis of the interviews identified themes regarding family meal patterns and weight-related issues. Results: Although variation was found, more than one-half (57%) of the families were classified as having a high level of meal structure (e.g., frequent family meals). Families with DE girls were more likely to be classified as having a low level of meal structure (e.g., infrequent family meals) than families with Non-DE girls. Weight concerns (e.g., at least one member having a high desire to lose weight). The prevalence of families with a parent engaging in behaviors to lose weight and/or making negative comments about eating or weight was higher in families of DE girls than Non-DE girls. The combination of low family meal structure and high familial weight concerns was much more prevalent in families with DE girls (58%) than in families of non-DE girls (7%). Conclusions: Interactions around food and weight appear common in many families of adolescent girls with DM. Whereas frequent family meals may help to defend against disordered eating in youth with DM, family weight concerns and behaviors appear to be risk factors for disordered eating. (C) Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2004.
Mennell, S. (1987). "On the Civilising of Appetite." Theory, Culture and Society 4(3-4): 373-403.

Mennell, S., A. Murcott, et al. (1992). The sociology of food : eating, diet and culture. London ; Newbury Park, Calif., Sage.

Mennell, S., A. Murcott, et al. (1992). The Sociology of Food. London, Sage.

Mennell, S. J. (1996). All manners of food : eating and taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to the present. Urbana, University of Illinois Press.

Mennell, S. M., Anne; Otterloo, Anneke H. van (1992). The sociology of food: eating, diet and culture. London, Sage.

Mennella, J. A. and G. K. Beauchamp (1997). "Mothers' milk enhances the acceptance of cereal during weaning." 41(2): 188-192.

Although baby food manufacturers and child care manuals often advise parents to prepare their infant's cereal with water or either mother's milk or formula, depending on the feeding regimen of the infant, little is known about the infant's acceptance of differently flavored cereals. The present study demonstrates that breast-fed infants, who had been fed cereal for approximately 2 wk but had experienced cereal prepared only with water, consumed more of the cereal-mother's milk mixture compared with cereal-water mixture and displayed a series of behaviors signaling their preferences for the former. Moreover, the infants' willingness to accept the flavored cereal is correlated with their mothers' reported willingness to try novel foods and flavors.
Mennella, J. A. and G. K. Beauchamp (2002). "Flavor experiences during formula feeding are related to preferences during childhood." Early Human Development 68(2): 71-82.

Mennella, J. A., C. E. Griffin, et al. (2004). "Flavor programming during infancy." Pediatrics 113(4): 840-845.

Mennella, J. A., C. P. Jagnow, et al. (2001). "Prenatal and postnatal flavor learning by human infants." 107(6): art. no.-e88.

Background. Flavors from the mother's diet during pregnancy are transmitted to amniotic fluid and swallowed by the fetus. Consequently, the types of food eaten by women during pregnancy and, hence, the flavor principles of their culture may be experienced by the infants before their first exposure to solid foods. Some of these same flavors will later be experienced by infants in breast milk, a liquid that, like amniotic fluid, comprises flavors that directly reflect the foods, spices, and beverages eaten by the mother. The present study tested the hypothesis that experience with a flavor in amniotic fluid or breast milk modifies the infants' acceptance and enjoyment of similarly flavored foods at weaning. Methods. Pregnant women who planned on breastfeeding their infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. The women consumed either 300 mL of carrot juice or water for 4 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks during the last trimester of pregnancy and then again during the first 2 months of lactation. The mothers in 1 group drank carrot juice during pregnancy and water during lactation; mothers in a second group drank water during pregnancy and carrot juice during lactation, whereas those in the control group drank water during both pregnancy and lactation. Approximately 4 weeks after the mothers began complementing their infants' diet with cereal and before the infants had ever been fed foods or juices containing the flavor of carrots, the infants were videotaped as they fed, in counterbalanced order, cereal prepared with water during 1 test session and cereal prepared with carrot juice during another. Immediately after each session, the mothers rated their infants' enjoyment of the food on a 9-point scale. Results. The results demonstrated that the infants who had exposure to the flavor of carrots in either amniotic fluid or breast milk behaved differently in response to that flavor in a food base than did nonexposed control infants. Specifically, previously exposed infants exhibited fewer negative facial expressions while feeding the carrot-flavored cereal compared with the plain cereal, whereas control infants whose mothers drank water during pregnancy and lactation exhibited no such difference. Moreover, those infants who were exposed to carrots prenatally were perceived by their mothers as enjoying the carrot-flavored cereal more compared with the plain cereal. Although these same tendencies were observed for the amount of cereal consumed and the length of the feeds, these findings were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a flavor enhanced the infants' enjoyment of that flavor in solid foods during weaning. These very early flavor experiences may provide the foundation for cultural and ethnic differences in cuisine.


Mennella, J. A., Y. Pepino, et al. (2005). "Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences." 115(2): E216-E222.

Objective. Flavor is the primary dimension by which young children determine food acceptance. However, children are not merely miniature adults because sensory systems mature postnatally and their responses to certain tastes differ markedly from adults. Among these differences are heightened preferences for sweet-tasting and greater rejection of bitter-tasting foods. The present study tests the hypothesis that genetic variations in the newly discovered TAS2R38 taste gene as well as cultural differences are associated with differences in sensitivity to the bitter taste of propylthiouracil ( PROP) and preferences for sucrose and sweet-tasting foods and beverages in children and adults. Design. Genomic DNA was extracted from cheek cells of a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 143 children and their mothers. Alleles of the gene TAS2R38 were genotyped. Participants were grouped by the first variant site, denoted A49P, because the allele predicts a change from the amino acid alanine ( A) to proline ( P) at position 49. Henceforth, individuals who were homozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele are referred to as AA, those who were heterozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele are referred to as AP, and those who were homozygous for the bitter-sensitive allele are referred to as PP. Using identical procedures for children and mothers, PROP sensitivity and sucrose preferences were assessed by using forced-choice procedures that were embedded in the context of games that minimized the impact of language development and were sensitive to the cognitive limitations of pediatric populations. Participants were also asked about their preferences in cereals and beverages, and mothers completed a standardized questionnaire that measured various dimensions of their children's temperament. Results. Genetic variation of the A49P allele influenced bitter perception in children and adults. However, the phenotype-genotype relationship was modified by age such that 64% of heterozygous children, but only 43% of the heterozygous mothers, were sensitive to the lowest concentration ( 56 micromoles/liter) of PROP. Genotypes at the TAS2R38 locus were significantly related to preferences for sucrose and for sweet-tasting beverages and foods such as cereals in children. AP and PP children preferred significantly higher concentrations of sucrose solutions than did AA children. They were also significantly less likely to include milk or water as 1 of their 2 favorite beverages (18.6% vs 40%) and were more likely to include carbonated beverages as 1 of their most preferred beverages 46.4% vs 28.9%). PP children liked cereals and beverages with a significantly higher sugar content. There were also significant main effects of race/ ethnicity on preferences and food habits. As a group, black children liked cereals with a significantly higher sugar content than did white children, and they were also significantly more likely to report that they added sugar to their cereals. Unlike children, there was no correspondence between TAS2R38 genotypes and sweet preference in adults. Here, the effects of race/ ethnicity were the strongest determinants, thus suggesting that cultural forces and experience may override this genotype effect on sweet preferences. Differences in taste experiences also affected mother - child interaction, especially when the 2 resided in different sensory worlds. That is, children who had 1 or 2 bitter-sensitive alleles, but whose mothers had none, were perceived by their mothers as being more emotional than children who had no bitter-sensitive alleles. Conclusion. Variations in a taste receptor gene accounted for a major portion of individual differences in PROP bitterness perception in both children and adults, as well as a portion of individual differences in preferences for sweet flavors in children but not in adults. These findings underscore the advantages of studying genotype effects on behavioral outcomes in children, especially as they relate to taste preferences because cultural forces may sometimes override the A49P genotypic effects in adults. New knowledge about the molecular basis of food likes and dislikes in children, a generation that will struggle with obesity and diabetes, may suggest strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases.
Merritt, S. (2005). "Yes, I'm one of those lone parents - and what's so bad about that?"

More than a quarter of families in the UK now have only one parent. The article considers how attitudes towards single parenthood have changed since the 1980s. It remains a difficult option, requiring courage, tenacity and a strong support network, but it has to be better than feeling obliged to persist in an unhappy, abusive or unfulfilling relationship, or better than missing out on motherhood altogether.


Meshcherkina, E. (2002). "Sociological conceptualization of masculinity." SOTSIOLOGICHESKIE ISSLEDOVANIYA(11): 15-25.

Messner, M. A. (1997). Politics of masculinities: men in movements. Thousand Oaks. Calif. ; London, Sage Publications.

Mestdag, I. (2005). "Disappearance of the traditional meal: Temporal, social and spatial destructuration." 45(1): 62-74.

The disappearance of the 'traditional' meal was explored, comparing Flemish time budget data for 1988 and 1999. In 1988, 463 respondents between 21 and 40 years old kept a diary for three consecutive days. In 1999, 599 respondents followed the same procedure for a full week. Respondents registered all their activities, including timing, duration. location and other parties to the interaction. Respondents also completed a questionnaire. Questionnaire and time budget data from the 1988 and 1999 surveys were merged into a single, combined database. Separate analyses were undertaken for weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays. Data from 1988 and 1999 were compared, bearing in mind the temporal, social and spatial features of the meal. The results indicate that the Flemish are not eating indiscriminately, in terms of time, place or the company of others. There was no sign of a shift between 1988 and 1999 towards disorganisation of the meal in these terms. All in all, Flemish eating practices show a high level of structure in the temporal, spatial and social organisation of the meal. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mestdag, I. and J. Vandeweyer (2005). "Where Has Family Time Gone? In Search of Joint Family Activities and the Role of the Family Meal in 1966 and 1999." Journal of Family History 30(3): 304-323.

The idea that family meal time is disappearing is gaining growing attention in Western societies. This article investigates to what extent family time has decreased and what place the family meal has within family time. Belgian time-budget data gathered in 1966 and 1999 were used to answer these research questions. Analyses show parents were spending less time together as a family and also on family meals, especially on working days. Nevertheless, the growing number of dual-earner families was not responsible for the decline in family meal time between 1966 and 1999. 6 Tables, 3 Figures. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright 2005.].


Mezzacappa, E. S., W. Guethlein, et al. (2002). "Breast-feeding and maternal health in online mothers." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 24(4): 299-309.

Mezzacappa, E. S. and E. S. Katkin (2002). "Breast-feeding is associated with reduced perceived stress and negative mood in mothers." Health Psychology 21(2): 187-193.

Mezzacappa, E. S., R. M. Kelsey, et al. (2005). "Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and maternal autonomic responses to stress." Journal of Psychosomatic Research 58(4): 351-365.

Mezzacappa, E. S., A. Y. Tu, et al. (2003). "Lactation and weaning effects on physiological and behavioral response to stressors." Physiology & Behavior 78(1): 1-9.

Michailidou, M. (2000). Femininity confessed : the transformation of feminine experience from postwar women's magazines to the modern talk show, University of London.

Michalski, J. H. "Housing Affordability, Social Policy and Economic Conditions: Food Bank Users in the Greater Toronto Area, 1990-2000."

The following paper examines trends in the social & economic correlates of food bank usage in the Greater Toronto Area through annual interviews with food bank users between 1990-2000. The analysis tests the thesis that the effects of social assistance rate reductions & housing costs contributed to the economic vulnerability of these already marginalized families & households. Descriptive statistics & multivariate regression modeling were used to assess changes in post-shelter income available to food bank users prior to (1990-1995) & following Ontario social assistance cuts (1996-2000). The results confirm the importance of social assistance rate reductions & housing affordability problems as factors contributing to the decline in post-shelter income available to food bank users. 4 Tables, 5 Figures, 66 References. Adapted from the source document.
Middleton, P. (1992). The Inward Gaze. London, Routledge.

Mikkelsen, B. E., V. B. Rasmussen, et al. (2005). "The role of school food service in promoting healthy eating at school - a perspective from an ad hoc group on nutrition in schools, Council of Europe." Food Service Technology 5(1): 7-15.

Miles, S. (1998). Consumerism: as a Way of Life. London, Sage.

Miller, A. B. and C. B. Keys "Understanding dignity in the lives of homeless persons."

The current investigation is a planned, systematic study of dignity as critical to understanding the experience of homelessness and improving services and programs for the homeless. Specifically, we conducted a thematic content analysis of interviews with 24 homeless men and women to identify their perception of specific environmental events that validate and invalidate dignity. In addition, we explored the impact that these events have on homeless persons. Eight types of events were identified that sustain dignity such as being cared for by staff and having resources available to meet basic needs. Eight types of events were found that undermine dignity, such as being yelled at or insulted by staff persons and having staff use rules in an excessive and arbitrary way. Two outcomes followed the sustenance of dignity including increased self-worth and motivation to exit homelessness. Three outcomes followed the undermining of dignity including anger, depression, and feelings of worthlessness. The results suggest that dignity is an important variable to consider in understanding the experience of homelessness. Policies and programs that support validating the dignity of homeless persons are encouraged.
Miller, A. B. and C. B. Keys. "Understanding dignity in the lives of homeless persons."

The current investigation is a planned, systematic study of dignity as critical to understanding the experience of homelessness and improving services and programs for the homeless. Specifically, we conducted a thematic content analysis of interviews with 24 homeless men and women to identify their perception of specific environmental events that validate and invalidate dignity. In addition, we explored the impact that these events have on homeless persons. Eight types of events were identified that sustain dignity such as being cared for by staff and having resources available to meet basic needs. Eight types of events were found that undermine dignity, such as being yelled at or insulted by staff persons and having staff use rules in an excessive and arbitrary way. Two outcomes followed the sustenance of dignity including increased self-worth and motivation to exit homelessness. Three outcomes followed the undermining of dignity including anger, depression, and feelings of worthlessness. The results suggest that dignity is an important variable to consider in understanding the experience of homelessness. Policies and programs that support validating the dignity of homeless persons are encouraged.


Miller, D. (1987). Material Culture and Mass Consumption. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

Miller, D. (1998). Making Love in Supermarkets. The Everyday Life Reader. B. Highmore. London, Routledge.

Miller, D. E. "Experiencing homelessness. Review essay."

Reviews Dordick, G. A., Something left to lose: personal relations and survival among New York's homeless. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997; and Desjarlais, R., Shelter blues: sanity and selfhood among the homeless. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Dordick explore 5 alternatives which face homeless people in their pursuit of shelter and food, while Desjarlais focuses on one setting: Station Street Shelter in Boston, a facility located in the Massachusetts State Service Center near city hall, which serves homeless people who are mentally ill. A common theme is that physical location has a dramatic impact on how people experience their lives. The books challenge the stereotypes that homeless people are less than human, victims of fate who exercise no control over their lives, or that they are autonomous beings who do not live in networks of friendships and relationships. (Quotes from original text)


Miller, D. E. "Experiencing homelessness. Review essay."

Reviews Dordick, G. A., Something left to lose: personal relations and survival among New York's homeless. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997; and Desjarlais, R., Shelter blues: sanity and selfhood among the homeless. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Dordick explore 5 alternatives which face homeless people in their pursuit of shelter and food, while Desjarlais focuses on one setting: Station Street Shelter in Boston, a facility located in the Massachusetts State Service Center near city hall, which serves homeless people who are mentally ill. A common theme is that physical location has a dramatic impact on how people experience their lives. The books challenge the stereotypes that homeless people are less than human, victims of fate who exercise no control over their lives, or that they are autonomous beings who do not live in networks of friendships and relationships. (Quotes from original text)


Millum, T. Images of Woman: Advertising in Women's Magazines

Ming, L. L. Y. (1996). The local meets the global : a study of upmarket women's magazines in Hong Kong; the case of Cosmopolitan, University of Sussex.

Minkovitz, C., D. Strobino, et al. (2001). "Early effects of the healthy steps for young children program." 155(4): 470-479.

Objective: The Healthy Steps for Young Children Program (HS) incorporates early child development specialists and enhanced developmental services into routine pediatric care. An evaluation of HS is being conducted at 6 randomization and 9 quasi-experimental sites. Services received, satisfaction with services, and parent practices were assessed when infants were aged 2 to 4 months. Methods: Telephone interviews with mothers were conducted for 2631 intervention (response rate, 89%) and 2265 control (response rate, 87%) families. Analyses were conducted separately for randomization and quasi-experimental sites and adjusted for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Hierarchical linear models assessed overall adjusted effects, while accounting for within-site correlation of outcomes. Results: Intervention families were considerably more likely than controls to report receiving 4 or more developmental services and home visits and discussing 5 infant development topics. Thc) also were more likely to be satisfied and less likely to be dissatisfied with care from their pediatric provider and were less likely to place babies in the prone sleep position or feed them water. The program did not affect breast-feeding continuation. Differences in the percentage of parents who showed picture books to their infants, fed them cereal, followed routines, and played with them daily were found only at the quasi-experimental sites and may reflect Factors unrelated to PIS. Conclusions: intervention families received more developmental services during the first 2 to 4 months of their child's life and were happier with care received than were control families. Future surveys and medical record reviews H ill address whether these findings persist and translate into improved language development, better utilization of well-child care, and an effect on costs.


Mintz, S. (1986). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Harmondsworth, Penguin.

Moag-Stahlberg, A., A. Miles, et al. (2003). "What kids say they do and what parents think kids are doing: The ADAF/Knowledge Networks 2003 Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Study." Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103(11): 1541-6.

Molyneaux, J. and J. Irvine. (2004). "Service User and Carer Involvement in Social Work Training: A Long and Winding Road?"

In recent years the imperative to involve service users & carers at every level of care, service, & policy development has been extended to include involving users & carers in the training of health & social care professionals. Guidance on how this is to be achieved in practice is, however, limited. This paper describes work undertaken to explore how an Approved Social Work Program in northern England could involve service users & carers more fully & develop an integrated approach to service user & carer involvement in this & other social work programs. Following a review of the literature in this area, the results of a series of meetings with individual & groups of service users & carers are presented, together with a survey of ASW programs. It then goes on to consider the implications for service user & carer involvement in the new social work degree. 1 Figure, 29 References. Adapted from the source document.


Monarrez-Espino, J., T. Greiner, et al. (2004). "Perception of food and body shape as dimensions of western acculturation potentially linked to overweight in Tarahumara women of Mexico."
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