Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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33(1): 141-161.

Abstract: The clustering of four food choice motives (health weighs concern, pleasure and ideological reasons) and the relationship between personality and the food choice motives were analysed among young and middle-aged women in two studies. The personality variables included personal strivings, magical beliefs about food, awareness and internalization of thinness pressures, appearance and weight dissatisfaction, depression, self-esteem and symptoms of eating disorders. Study 1 was done with 171 young and middle-aged women. In Study 2, with data provided by 118 senior high-school girls, one cluster of girls who did not regard any of the food choice motives as important was found, otherwise the food choice clusters were fairly similar in both studies. They were labelled as health fosterers, gourmets, ideological eaters, health dieters and distressed dieters. Only the second dieter group, distressed dieters, showed low psychological well-being and symptoms of disordered eating. The results also indicated that ideological food choice motives (i.e. expression of one's identify via food) were best predicted by vegetarianism, magical beliefs about food and health, and personal strivings for ecological welfare and for understanding self and the world. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
Lindgren, C., J. M. D. Thompson, et al. (1998). "Sleeping position, breastfeeding, bedsharing and passive smoking in 3-month-old Swedish infants." 87(10): 1028-1032.

Parents of 1028 infants who attended community-based infant health clinics were interviewed concerning infant sleeping position, feeding habits, bedsharing and passive smoking at 3 months of postnatal age. In addition. they were asked to state which source of information had mainly influenced them in the choice of the sleeping position. Fifteen per cent of the infants were regularly laid to sleep in the prone position, compared with 72% (1991) before official guidelines concerning infant sleeping position were issued. The overall prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 70.4%. Prevalence of maternal smoking was 17.9% and 22.8% of the infants were regularly bedsharing with the parents. Those mothers who did not comply with official recommendations regarding infant sleeping position were also less likely to follow other recommendations concerning infant care practices. Prone sleeping infants were more likely to be formula fed and exposed to passive smoking, and hence associated with additional risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.


Lindsay, A. C., K. M. Sussner, et al. (2006). "The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity." Future of Children 16(1): 169-180.

Ling, T. (2000). Unpacking Partnership: The Case of Health Care,. New Managerialism New Welfare. S. G. in J. Clarke, S. & E. McLaughlin (Eds). London, Sage.

Lipmann, B. "Providing housing and care to elderly homeless men and women in Australia."

People who are unemployed and who lack the resources to buy adequate food, shelter, or basic health care services face an endless struggle to survive. It is frequently a degrading and humiliating experience. The elderly homeless, who are often frail and sick, are particularly disadvantaged in this struggle. Yet resources are often available to welfare providers to care for the aged homeless. All that is needed is a willingness for providers and government agencies to acknowledge the existence of homelessness among the elderly and be prepared to alleviate the problem.


Lipmann, B. "Providing housing and care to elderly homeless men and women in Australia."

People who are unemployed and who lack the resources to buy adequate food, shelter, or basic health care services face an endless struggle to survive. It is frequently a degrading and humiliating experience. The elderly homeless, who are often frail and sick, are particularly disadvantaged in this struggle. Yet resources are often available to welfare providers to care for the aged homeless. All that is needed is a willingness for providers and government agencies to acknowledge the existence of homelessness among the elderly and be prepared to alleviate the problem.


Lister, R. (1999). "Reforming welfare around the work ethic: new gendered and ethical perspectives on work and care." Policy and Politics 27(2): 233-46.

Liu, J. H., K. D. Rosenberg, et al. (2006). "Breastfeeding duration and perinatal cigarette smoking in a population-based cohort." American Journal of Public Health 96(2): 309-314.

Livingstone, S. and P. Lunt (1994). Talk on Television: audience participation and public debate. London, Routledge.

Lizarraga, J. L., J. C. Maehr, et al. (1992). "Psychosocial and Economic-Factors Associated with Infant-Feeding Intentions of Adolescent Mothers." 13(8): 676-681.

The infant feeding intentions of 64 primiparous, adolescent females, ages 14-18 years, were studied to assess factors which differentiated those who chose breastfeeding from those who did not. The study population consisted of 43 Hispanic, 9 black, 7 non-Hispanic white, and 5 Filipino or Southeast Asian subjects interviewed after delivery. Among the Hispanics, 31 primarily spoke Spanish, and 12 primarily spoke English. A total of 72% intended to breastfeed, and 22% planned to exclusively formula feed. Those teens who intended to breastfeed were significantly older, more often married, more likely to be Hispanic and Spanish speaking, and less likely to have been in school during the pregnancy. In addition, teens were more likely to choose breastfeeding if they had been breastfed themselves or exposed to other women who breastfed. These data suggest that the younger, non-Hispanic, single teen who is enrolled in school and lacking exposure to breastfeeding is the most in need of breastfeeding-promotion programs.
Lobstein, T. (2002). "Food policies: a threat to health?'" Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61(579-585).

Locklin, M. P. and S. J. Naber (1993). "Does Breast-Feeding Empower Women - Insights from a Select Group of Educated, Low-Income, Minority Women." 20(1): 30-35.

A grounded theory study examined the breastfeeding experiences of a small group of educated, low-income, minority women. In-depth interviews were used to collect data. The five themes that emerged as primary descriptors of the experience were against all odds, personal motivation, support, attachment, and telling the world. These themes help to identify the factors that enhanced successful breastfeeding among this select sample of women, and demonstrate that the perception of successful breastfeeding can have an empowering effect on women.
Logue AW, L. C., Uzzo RG, McCarty MJ, Smith ME. (1988). "Food Preferences in Families." Appetite 10(3): 169-180.

Preferences for a wide variety of foods were examined in families: 77 students, plus their siblings, mothers and fathers, for a total of 241 subjects. The food preferences of family members were more similar than would be expected by chance. However, this occurred entirely in the comparisons between spouses and between female family members. The results also indicated sex and age differences in family members' food preferences. For example, females tended to prefer low-calorie foods more when they were older, while males tended to prefer alcoholic beverages more when they were older. Both males and females showed a greater preference for coffee when they were older. Some of the variance in food preferences can be explained by an individual's family members' food preferences, as well as by the individual's sex and age.


Lomas, J. ((1998)). "Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology,." Social Science & Medicine, 47: 1181 - 1188.

London, S. (2005). "Home visits help mothers maintain breast-feeding after leaving the hospital." International Family Planning Perspectives 31(4): 202-203.

Longbottom, P. J., W. L. Wrieden, et al. (2002). "Is there a relationship between the food intakes of Scottish 5 1/2 to 8 1/2 year olds and those of their mothers?" Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 15: 271-279.

Longhurst, R. (2005). "Fat bodies: developing geographical research agendas." Progress in Human Geography 29(3): 247-259.

Lord, D. (2004). "The good father: On men, masculinity, and life in the family." LIBRARY JOURNAL 129(19): 81.

Lowes, J. and M. Tiggemann (2003). "Body dissatisfaction, dieting awareness and the impact of parental influence in young children." 8: 135-147.

Objectives. This study aimed to assess the level of body dissatisfaction and dieting awareness in young children. Method. A sample of 135 children aged between 5 and 8 years old were individually interviewed. Body dissatisfaction was assessed by means of figure preference ratings, and dieting awareness by responses to a brief scenario. Results. The difference between boys' ratings of current and ideal figures was not significant at any age; nor was that of 5-year-old girls. However, 6-, 7- and 8-year-old girls rated their ideal figure as significantly thinner than their current figure. For dieting awareness there was no significant gender effect, although level of dieting awareness increased with age. Multiple regression analyses showed that body dissatisfaction was predicted by gender and perception of mothers' body dissatisfaction, while age was the only significant predictor of dieting awareness. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of young children have internalized societal beliefs concerning the ideal body shape and are well aware of dieting as a means for achieving this ideal. In particular, the desire for thinness emerges in girls at around age 6.
Lowry, M. and D. F. Lillis (1993). "Infant-Feeding Practices." 86(1): 13-14.

This study was done on a population of 877 mothers over a five month period. Interviews were held on the first day after delivery and on the day of discharge. Mothers were questioned on their infant feeding practice and on the influences which led them to their choice of feed types. Follow up studies were done in subsequent months on randomly selected populations of breast feeders (103) and bottle feeders (170) to determine duration of breast feeding after discharge from hospital; the factors contributing to cessation of breast feeding; the measure of satisfaction with the brand initially chosen and the factors which caused mothers to change from one brand to another. The salient finding is that 36% breast feed initially and that up to 10% of the total are still doing so five months later. The other findings are discussed and their significance stated.


Lu, M. C., L. Lange, et al. (2001). "Provider encouragement of breast-feeding: Evidence from a national survey." 97(2): 290-295.

Objective: To examine the influence of provider encouragement on breast-feeding among women of different social and ethnic backgrounds in the United States. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 2017 parents with children younger than 3 years was surveyed by telephone. The responses of the 1229 women interviewed were included in the analysis. Respondents were asked to recall whether their physicians or nurses had encouraged or discouraged them from breast-feeding. The effects of provider encouragement on breast-feeding initiation and duration were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. The sample was then stratified to allow subset analyses by race and ethnicity, education, income class, age group, and marital status. Results: More than one-third (34.4%) of respondents did not initiate breast-feeding. Three-fourths (73.2%) of women reported having been encouraged by their physicians or nurses to breast-feed; 74.6% of women who were encouraged initiated breast-feeding, compared with only 43.2% of those who were not encouraged (P < 0.001). Women who were encouraged to breast-feed were more than four times (relative risk 4.39; 95% confidence interval 2.96, 6.49) as likely to initiate breast-feeding as women who did not receive encouragement. The influence of provider encouragement was significant across all strata of the sample. In populations traditionally less likely to breast-feed, provider encouragement significantly increased breast-feeding initiation, by more than threefold among low-income, young, and less-educated women; by nearly fivefold among black women; and by nearly Ii-fold among single women. Conclusion: Provider encouragement significantly increases breast-feeding initiation among American women of all social and ethnic backgrounds. (Obstet Gynecol 2001;97: 290-5. (C) 2001 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.).


Ludvigsen, A. and N. Sharma (2004). Burger boy and sporty girl: children and young people's attitudes towards food in schools, Barnardos: 36-38.

Lumeng, J. C., K. Gannon, et al. (2003). "Association between clinically meaningful behavior problems and overweight in children." 112(5): 1138-1145.

Objective. To determine whether there is a relationship between clinically meaningful behavior problems and concurrent and future overweight in 8- to 11-year-old children. Methods. 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interview data for 8- to 11-year-old children and their mothers were analyzed. A Behavior Problems Index score >90th percentile was considered clinically meaningful. Child overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to95th percentile for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders (selected a priori): child's sex, race, use of behavior-modifying medication, history of academic retention, and hours of television per day; maternal obesity, smoking status, marital status, education, and depressive symptoms; family poverty status; and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score. In an attempt to elucidate temporal sequence, a second analysis was conducted with a subsample of normal-weight children who became overweight between 1996 and 1998 while controlling for BMI z score in 1996. Results. The sample included 755 mother-child pairs. Of the potential confounding variables, race, maternal obesity, academic grade retention, maternal education, poverty status, and HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score acted as joint confounders, altering the relationship between behavior problems and overweight in the multiple logistic regression model. With these covariates in the final model, behavior problems were independently associated with concurrent child overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-6.49). The relationship was strengthened in the subsample of previously normal-weight children, with race, maternal obesity, HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score, and 1996 BMI z score acting as confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 5.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-19.9). Conclusions. Clinically meaningful behavior problems in 8- to 11-year-old children were independently associated with an increased risk of concurrent overweight and becoming overweight in previously normal-weight children.
Lupton, D. (1996). Food, the Body and the Self. London, Sage.

Lupton, D. (1996). Food, the Family and Childhood. Food, the body and the self. London, Sage: 37-68.

Lupton, D. (1996). Theoretical Perspectives on Food and Eating. Food, the body and the self.

Lupton, D. (1999). Risk. London, Routledge.

Lupton, D. (2001). Bodies: exploring fluid boundaries. London, Routledge.

Chapter Headings

1) Bodily openings

2) 'Corporeogeographies'

3) Pregnant bodies in public places

4) Men's bodies and bathrooms

5) Managing managerial bodies

6) Some thoughts of close(t) spaces


Lynch, J. W., Smith G.D., Kaplan, G.A., House J.S. ( (2000)). "Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions,." British Medical Journal, 320: 1200 -1204.

Lyotard, J. F. ((1984)). The Postmodern Condition. A Report on Knowledge. Manchester:, Manchester University Press.

Mac an Ghaill, M. (1996). Understanding masculinities : social relations and cultural arenas. Buckingham, Eng. ; Philadelphia, Open University Press.

MacDonald, A. (2003). "Is breast best? Is early solid feeding harmful?" Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 123(3): 169-174.

Macgowan, R. J., C. A. Macgowan, et al. (1991). "Breast-Feeding among Women Attending Women, Infants, and Children Clinics in Georgia, 1987." 87(3): 361-366.

Breast-feeding is an important determinant of the health and nutritional status of children, particularly in lower socioeconomic populations. A major goal of the Georgia Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to increase the practice of breast-feeding among the women it serves. Breast-feeding practices were determined among a random sample of 404 women from a cohort of 2010 who attended WIC prenatal clinics in Georgia in 1986 and were expected to deliver in February 1987. Respondents were interviewed 6 months postpartum. Of these women, 24% initially breast-fed, but only 6% continued for 6 months or longer. The initiation of breast-feeding was associated with greater maternal education and with being married. The adjusted odds of breast-feeding for mothers who were married or living as married were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 5.3) times greater than for mothers who were not married or living as married. Mothers with more than 12 years, 12 years, or 10 to 11 years of education were 5.2 (1.8 to 15.3), 2.7 (1.0 to 6.9), and 2.5 (0.9 to 6.9) times more likely, respectively, to breast-feed than mothers with 9 or fewer years of education. After adjustment was made for marital status and education, the remaining variables (ethnicity, parity, age, and employment status) did not influence the initiation of breast-feeding in this low-income population. The need for vigorous promotion of breast-feeding by the Georgia WIC program is emphasized by the low rate of initiation and short duration of breast-feeding in this low-income population.


MacInnes, J. (1998). The end of masculinity : the confusion of sexual genesis and sexual difference in modern society. Buckingham [England] ; Philadelphia, Open University Press.

Mackian, S. (2002). "Complex cultures: rereading the story about health and social capital'." Critical Social Policy 22(2): 203-225.

Mackie, E. Market a La Mode: Fashion, Commodity and Gender in the "Tatler" and the "Spectator"

MacLachlan, C. M. (1974). "Modernization of Female Status in Mexico: the Image of Women's Magazines." Revista Interamericana 4(2): 246-257.

The mass media, especially women's magazines, offer insights into the status of women in Mexico. The role of the Mexican female has changed in recent times, but machismo (the cult of male dominance) still plays a decisive part in the conduct of women. Recent changes have come from the force of foreign examples rather than domestic pressure.
Macmurray, J. ((1995)). The Form of the Personal. London, Faber.

Maehr, J. C., J. L. Lizarraga, et al. (1993). "A Comparative-Study of Adolescent and Adult Mothers Who Intend to Breast-Feed." 14(6): 453-457.

The purpose of this study was to compare reasons for choosing to breastfeed, timing of the infant feeding decision, and intended duration of breastfeeding between adolescent and adult mothers. The study population consisted of primiparous teens and adults who were matched by ethnicity, and interviewed within 48 hours postpartum at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center from August to December, 1989. Of the 48 women in each age group, there were 40 Hispanics, 5 non-Hispanic whites, 2 blacks, and 1 Southeast Asian. Results showed that the teens differed from their adult counterparts in that they cited naturalness or convenience less often as a reason for breastfeeding. The adolescent mothers were also less likely than the adults to make the decision to breastfeed before the pregnancy, than during pregnancy or after birth. There was no difference in intended duration of breastfeeding between these two groups: the majority of women planned to breastfeed for less than 26 weeks. Early introduction of infant feeding education may serve to increase the adolescent's knowledge base from which to make the decision to breastfeed. Even though the adolescents intended to breastfeed for as long as the adults, they may benefit from increased exposure to prenatal care and childbirth classes as well as from a supportive school or work environment in order to achieve success in breastfeeding.
Maffeis, C. (2000). "Aetiology of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents." European Journal of Pediatrics 159(Suppl 1): S35-S44.

Maher, J. (2005). "A Mother by Trade: Australian Women Reflecting Mothering as Activity, Not Identity."

The changing roles & perceptions of women & mothers at the turn of the 21st century in Australia were reflected in various policy initiatives & discussions in the popular media. Presented here are empirical data collected in Australia, 2000-2003, in two separate studies of (1) the domestic labor patterns of cohabiting among 22 heterosexual couples, ages 25-35, 13 of whom had children; & (2) the fertility decisions of 100 women in Victoria (58 of whom had children) occupying various places in the paid workforce. Results are drawn on to examine the "contested terrain of mothering" & its implications for contemporary women & their sense of identity. It is shown that the mothers in these samples defined their mothering as "doing" rather than "being" & that motherhood was less connected to their perceptions of identity as women than one of the many types of "work" in which women engage. K. Hyatt Stewart.
Maher, V. (1995). The Anthropology of Breast-Feeding: natural law or social construct. Oxford, Berg.

Mahon-Daly, P. and G. J. Andrews (2002). "Liminality and breastfeeding: women negotiating space and two bodies." Health & Place 8(2): 61-76.

Makelakel, J. (1996). "A Proper Meal: Exploring the Views of Women with Families." Sosiologia 33(1): 12-22.

The role & importance of eating space were examined in an interview survey of 36 full-time employed, family women in Helsinki, Finland. Based on the concept of eating space as developed by previous research on meals & eating, the survey extricates the complexities of eating & accounts for contradistinctions in earlier work. The meal is defined as a manifestation of food culture represented by choice of food & sociability. Most respondents wished that more meals could be shared with the whole family - an uncommon occurrence due to the increasingly busy lives of all family members. Furthermore, with the number & range of modern alternatives, family meals have become less necessary. Although these changes are considerable, it is concluded that the role of women as housewives & cooks has not yet been challenged. 58 References. Adapted from the source document.


Makins, P. (1976). The Evelyn Home story. [London], Fontana.

Mannion, G. and J. I’Anson (2004). "Beyond the Dinseyesque. Children’s participation, spatiality and adult–child relations." Childhood 11(3): 303–318.

Mansfield, A. (2004). "A whirlwind tour of masculinity ideologies through the centuries." CULTURE & PSYCHOLOGY 10(3): 353-363.

Marineau, F. A., C (1979). "Values Underlying Food Shopping Practices of Low-Income Consumers." Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 40(4): 324-325.

Markel, H. (2003). "Don't kill your baby: Public health and the decline of breast feeding in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries." Bulletin of the History of Medicine

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