Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Laqueur, T. (2001). "A man's place: Masculinity and the middle-class home in Victorian England." JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY 73(4): 946-949.

Larson, L. "Rebuilding the lives of the homeless."

Drawing on the community's health care, business, and social service resources, the I.M. Sulzbacher Center for the Homeless in Jacksonville, Fla., goes beyond just meeting the food, shelter, and medical needs of the city's destitute. As one center resident puts it: Homelessness is feeling like you're less of a human being. I really don't feel homeless; I feel like this is my home.


Larson, L. "Rebuilding the lives of the homeless."

Drawing on the community's health care, business, and social service resources, the I.M. Sulzbacher Center for the Homeless in Jacksonville, Fla., goes beyond just meeting the food, shelter, and medical needs of the city's destitute. As one center resident puts it: Homelessness is feeling like you're less of a human being. I really don't feel homeless; I feel like this is my home.


Larsson, G. and A. Andersson-Ellstrom (2003). "Experiences of pregnancy-related body shape changes and of breast-feeding in women with a history of eating disorders." European Eating Disorders Review 11(2): 116-124.

Launer, L. J., M. R. Forman, et al. (1992). "Maternal Recall of Infant-Feeding Events Is Accurate." 46(3): 203-206.

Study objective-Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. Design and setting-The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n=318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. Main results-As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR=2.07; 95%CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR=2.21; 95%CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. Conclusions-Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases.
Lawrence, A. R. and A. R. S. Schigelone (2002). "Reciprocity beyond dyadic relationships - Aging-related communal coping." Research on Aging 24(6): 684-704.

Residing in a long-term care community can provide numerous opportunities for collective identification and cooperative action to address the chronic stressors of aging, including issues of health and well-being. Communal coping, a process that entails the identification of a stressor as "our" issue and "our" responsibility, has traditionally been examined in the context of large-scale natural disasters or war or of family systems. This study examines communal coping behavior among I I elderly residents of a continuing-care retirement community. Using grounded theory and semistructured interviews, the authors found that respondents engaged in mutually beneficial and supportive behavior toward their peers through reciprocal assistance between roommates, the "buddy system" among neighbors, and the expression of solidarity in aging through "we" talk. Aging stressors often viewed as "individual" in nature can instead be both viewed and addressed in the context of a collectively shared experience


Lawrence, F. (2004). Not on the Label: What Really Goes into the Food on Your Plate. London, Penguin.

Lawrence, M. (2002). "Body, mother, mind - Anorexia, femininity and the intrusive object." 83: 837-850.

This paper takes as its starting point the preponderance of female to male patients who suffer from anorexia. The author suggests that there may be something speck about certain experiences of femaleness which predispose towards anxieties of intrusion. Two contemporary theories of the aetiology of anorexia are outlined. Both of these suggest that the problem has its origins in intrusion or invasion of different sorts. The author suggests that many women who suffer from anorexia have an intrusive object instated in their minds, which may not necessarily be the result of actual intrusions in external reality. In the final part of the paper, the author examines the intrusiveness of anorexic patients in the transference and suggests that such patients very often harbour profound phantasies of intruding between the parents, with a wish to regain their special place with mother, untroubled by the presence of father. It is further suggested that the psychopathology underlying certain cases of anorexia leads to a failure in symbolisation. This failure in turn complicates the clinical picture, making such patients particularly difficult to think with about their difficulties.
Lawson, K. and M. I. Tulloch "Breastfeeding duration: prenatal intentions and postnatal practices." Journal of Advanced Nursing 22(5): 841-9.

Those fully breastfeeding 3 months after the birth of the baby had a higher level of education, timed their decision to breastfeed earlier, intended to breastfeed longer and had a more negative attitude to formula feeding. Commitment and confidence scores were not related to breastfeeding duration in first-time mothers. (Original abstract-amended)


Lawson, K. and M. I. Tulloch (1995). "Breast-Feeding Duration - Prenatal Intentions and Postnatal Practices." 22(5): 841-849.

A study of 78 primiparas examined the role of prenatal intent and postnatal experiences in breastfeeding duration. Those fully breastfeeding 3 months after the birth of the baby had a higher level of education, timed their decision to breastfeed earlier, intended to breastfeed longer and had a more negative attitude to formula feeding. Commitment and confidence scores were not related to breastfeeding duration in first-time mothers. Breastfeeding duration was also related to the timing of the first breastfeed and extent of mother-infant contact in the 72 hours after birth but not to the number of feeding problems.


Lee, A., M. E. Moretti, et al. (2000). "Choice of breastfeeding and physicians' advice: A cohort study of women receiving propylthiouracil." 106(1): 27-30.

Objective. To examine the gap between the current social/medical practice and the evidence-based recommendation in favor of breastfeeding during maternal propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy. Design. Prospective, observational, cohort study. Subjects. Women requiring PTU during pregnancy, and endocrinologists and family physicians in Ontario, Canada. Interventions. Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures. Women were interviewed postpartum regarding their choice of infant feeding method and relevant advice received from physicians. Physicians were questioned about their advice to nursing women receiving PTU. Results. Of 78 women, 66 had live births. Thirty-six required PTU postpartum (group 1), and 30 did not (group 2). Thirty-six healthy women served as controls (group 3). Breastfeeding initiation rates for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 44%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. In group 1, 15 women who breastfed received advice from 22 physicians regarding breastfeeding (20 in favor, 1 against, and 1 equivocal). Eleven who formula fed received advice from 17 physicians (4 in favor, 12 against, and 1 equivocal). A logistic regression analysis of group 1 showed that physicians' advice was the only significant predictor of the woman's choice to breastfeed during PTU therapy (relative risk: 5.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-23.40). The physician survey showed that 44% of endocrinologists do not recommend breastfeeding during PTU therapy. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of the lactating patients on PTU still receive advice against breastfeeding from their physicians. Physicians' advice and attitudes toward breastfeeding during PTU therapy are a major factor in women's final decision to breastfeed. Physicians' compliance with evidence-based data will facilitate breastfeeding in this group.


Lee, J. I., J. A. Lee, et al. (2004). "Morning sickness reduces dietary diversity, nutrient intakes, and infant outcome of pregnant women." 24(7): 531-540.

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of morning sickness in pregnant women on dietary diversity, nutrient intakes, maternal weight gain, and infant outcome. A total of 143 pregnant women in their first trimester participated in the study. Morning sickness tended to make the subjects eliminate food groups, especially the meat and dairy groups. Consequently, the subjects who experienced morning sickness consumed less diverse diets with less energy, protein, and all micronutrients examined. Maternal weight gain during the first trimester tended to decrease gradually with increasing severity of morning sickness. Birth weights of infants born to subjects with even mild symptoms of morning sickness were significantly lower than those from the women without morning sickness. Birth weight and chest circumference seemed to be influenced by morning sickness also. In conclusion, morning sickness in pregnant women result in poor dietary diversity and reduced intakes of energy, protein, and micronutrients and, consequently, adversely affect infant outcome as well as maternal weight gain during early pregnancy. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lee, Y., D. C. Mitchell, et al. (2001). "Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding recommendations for total dietary fat of the American Academy of Pediatrics." Pediatrics 107(6): E95.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls' dietary fat intake, mothers' nutrient intakes, and mothers' child-feeding practices. DESIGN: Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or </=30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls' 3-day dietary recalls. Girls' food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers' nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared. RESULTS: Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years. CONCLUSION: These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers' use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers' own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters. dietary fat, dietary quality, nutrient intake, overweight, feeding practices, children.


Lent, J. A. (1985). "Women and Mass Communications: the Asian Literature." Gazette: The International Journal for Mass Communication Studies 35(2): 123-142.

Considers images and functions of women in the mass media in Asia from the late 19th century through the early 1980's. Women were underrepresented in the print and broadcasting labor market, and despite attempts at serious mass programs and publications by women such as Annie Besant and Hani Motoko, women continued to be portrayed largely as sex objects and homemakers, and traditional fashion-cooking-housekeeping magazines dominated the women's periodical market.


Lerebours, B., P. Czernichow, et al. (1991). "Infant-Feeding Practices During the 1st 4 Months of Life in a French Department." 48(6): 391-395.

This study reports infant feeding practices during the first 4 months of life. A representative sample of 10% of the births in the Seine-Maritime department formed the subject of a questionnaire cohort study carried on at home by public health institution for infants specialized nurses. Among 1,407 interviewed mothers, 52% had been thinking about their future child feeding before birth, essentially with their circles, especially their husbands. The type of feeding had been chosen before pregnancy in 64.3% of cases. Earlier choices resulted more often in breast-feeding. 46.2% of mothers tried to breastfeed their children, however 17% among them discontinued when back home. Carrying out breast-feeding (median duration 10 weeks) delayed the feeding diversification and was associated with a lower frequency of health difficulties in children.


Levi-Strauss, C. (1986). The raw and the cooked. Harmondsworth, Penguin.

Lévi-Strauss, C. (1990). The origins of table manners. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Lewallen, L. P. (2004). "Healthy behaviors and sources of health information among low-income pregnant women." 21(3): 200-206.

This article addresses responses from two open-ended questions, describing the healthy behaviors and sources of health information in 150 low-income pregnant women. Data for this exploratory study were collected as part of a larger descriptive correlational study. Qualitative content analysis was used in the analysis. One hundred fifty English-speaking pregnant women aged 18 and over were interviewed at a public prenatal clinic in the Southeastern United States at their first prenatal visit. Health behaviors were placed into seven mutually exclusive categories: food-related behaviors, substance-related behavior, exercise/rest/activity, self-awareness/appearance, learning, focus on baby, and no specific behaviors. Sources of information questions were placed into seven mutually exclusive categories: family, health personnel, reading, hearing, other people, self-intuitive, and no response. Low-income pregnant women are aware of healthy behaviors and report practicing them during their pregnancies. Because family members are a common source of information for health practices, they should be included in health education efforts.


Lewin, S. A., J. Dick, et al. (2005). "Lay health workers in primary and community health care." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1).

Lewis, G. (2005). "Welcome to the Margins: Diversity, Tolerance, and Policies of Exclusion."

This article explores some of the ways in which UK Government policies inscribe tensions between tolerance of cultural difference, on the one hand, & an attempt to instill a regime of normalizing discipline, on the other. It argues that these tensions are expressed in the ambiguity of the figure of 'the immigrant woman', who simultaneously embodies the possibility of assimilation into & destabilization of the nation & the national. This is because this figure has come to occupy a significant place both in the struggles over the meaning of cultural plurality & as the subject around whom the characterization of the nation as tolerant & modern is invested. 51 References. Adapted from the source document.
Li, R. W., K. S. Scanlon, et al. (2005). "The validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding practice." 63(4): 103-110.

In large epidemiologic studies, information on breastfeeding practice is often collected from maternal recall through interviews, but there is concern about the accuracy of the data, especially when mothers are asked to recall their practices from many years earlier. This review examines the validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding history using 11 studies published between 1966 and 2003 in English with a sample of 10 or more. Validity is the degree to which recall compares with a validation standard or reference, and reliability refers to the degree to which the breastfeeding practices obtained by recall are repeatable over time. The existing studies suggest that maternal recall is a valid and reliable estimate of breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially when the duration of breastfeeding is recalled after a short period (<= 3 years). Validity and reliability of maternal recall for the age at introduction of food and fluids other than breast milk are less satisfactory. Further and more extensive studies on maternal recall of breastfeeding history and ways to improve such recall are warranted.


Libbus, K., T. A. Bush, et al. (1997). "Breastfeeding beliefs of low-income primigravidae." 34(2): 144-150.

The purpose of this descriptive study was to elicit salient beliefs regarding breastfeeding in low-income, primigravidae. Open-ended questions were used in taped interviews with 41 pregnant women who intended to breastfeed. Basic content analysis was used to identify recurrent beliefs. Infant health benefits and improved bonding were frequently mentioned advantages; disadvantages included interference with maternal schedule, inability of others to feed infant, and physical discomfort. Family members, husbands/boyfriends, and health care providers were thought to approve of breastfeeding. These findings may facilitate efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation by examining beliefs fostering or inhibiting breastfeeding in this population. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.


Liem, D. G. and J. A. Mennella (2002). "Sweet and sour preferences during childhood: Role of early experiences." 41(4): 388-395.

We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. (C) 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Liem, D. G. and J. A. Mennella (2003). "Heightened sour preferences during childhood." 28(2): 173-180.

Basic research has revealed that the chemical sensory world of children is different from that of adults, as evidenced by their heightened preferences for sweet and salty tastes. However, little is known about the ontogeny of sour taste preferences, despite the growing market of extreme sour candies. The present study investigated whether the level of sourness most preferred in a food matrix and the ability to discriminate differences in sour intensity differed between 5- to 9-year-old children and their mothers, by using a rank-by-elimination procedure embedded in the context of a game. Mothers also completed a variety of questionnaires and children were asked several questions to assess whether children's temperament and food preferences and habits related to sour preferences. The results indicated that, although every mother and all but two of the children (92%) were able to rank the gelatins from most to least sour, more than one-third (35%) of the children, but virtually none of the adults, preferred the high levels of sour taste (0.25 M citric acid) in gelatin. Those children who preferred the extreme sour tastes wore significantly less food neophobic (P < 0.05) and tended to experience a greater variety of fruits when compared with the remaining children (P = 0.11). Moreover, the children's preference for sour tastes generalized to other foods, such as candies and lemons, as reported by both children and mothers. These findings are the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that sour taste preferences are heightened during childhood and that such preferences are related to children's food habits and preferences. Further research is needed to unfold the relationship between the level of sour taste preferred and the actual consumption of sour-tasting foods and flavors in children.


Lightdale, J. R. and E. Oken (2002). "Breastfeeding, food choices, restrictive diets and nutritional fads." Current Opinion in Pediatrics 14: 344-349.

Linares, E. "Food services for the homeless in Spain: Caritas Programme for the Homeless."

Homelessness includes a wide range of people, from those living on the street (strictly homeless) to people living temporarily with relatives or friends because they have lost their home. Programmes for the homeless should design strategies aimed at encouraging insertion processes, thus considering the different dimensions involved. Within this framework Caritas delivers an array of assistance services for the homeless facing the stages of insertion. In Spain there are 315 centres offering meals for 20000 people, most of them along with other services such as reception, residential premises or day-care centres. Caritas is responsible for 42% of them. Overall, it is easier to get a lunch than any other meal during the day, followed by dinner, while it is difficult to get a breakfast. Social dining rooms are valuable places for a first contact (first stage of the insertion process) and even to start the second stage (personal recovery).
Linares, E. "Food services for the homeless in Spain: Caritas Programme for the Homeless."

Homelessness includes a wide range of people, from those living on the street (strictly homeless) to people living temporarily with relatives or friends because they have lost their home. Programmes for the homeless should design strategies aimed at encouraging insertion processes, thus considering the different dimensions involved. Within this framework Caritas delivers an array of assistance services for the homeless facing the stages of insertion. In Spain there are 315 centres offering meals for 20000 people, most of them along with other services such as reception, residential premises or day-care centres. Caritas is responsible for 42% of them. Overall, it is easier to get a lunch than any other meal during the day, followed by dinner, while it is difficult to get a breakfast. Social dining rooms are valuable places for a first contact (first stage of the insertion process) and even to start the second stage (personal recovery).


Lindelof, A. (X2005). "Obese children and their parents' experience and understanding of their child's overweight." Ugeskrift for Laeger. 167(2): 163-5.

Lindeman, M. and K. Stark (1999). "Pleasure, pursuit of health or negotiation of identity? Personality correlates of food choice motives among young and middle-aged women." Appetite

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