Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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42(2): 197-216.

Knight, C. (2005). 'The Food Nature Intended You to Eat': Low Carbohydrate Diets and Primitivist Philosophy. The Atkins Diet and Philosophy: Chewing the Fat with Kant and Nietzche. L. Heldke, K. Mommer and C. Pineo. Chicago, Open Court: 43-56.

Knights, B. (1999). Writing masculinities : male narratives in twentieth-century fiction. Houndmills, Hampshire ; New York, Macmillan : St. Martin's Press.

Knijn, T. (1994). "Social Dilemmas in Images of Motherhood in the Netherlands."

Analyzes the dilemma of the relationship between gender & individualization with regard to motherhood in the Netherlands, drawing on a content analysis of 3 volumes (1960-1980) of 2 leading women's magazines, Libelle & Margriet. The ambiguity of the individualization of mothers exists in magazine images of motherhood as well as in the relationship between attitudes & practices & in the conventions of mothers with individualistic attitudes. Nearly all the images of mothers presented mention two main obstacles: children's need to be taken care of at home, in their own environment, preferably by one of the parents, & the partner's position as breadwinner being taken for granted. 3 Tables, 15 References. Adapted from the source document.
Koerber, A. (2005). ""You just don't see enough normal" Critical perspectives on infant-feeding discourse and practice." Journal of Business and Technical Communication 19(3): 304-327.

Koivisto Hursti, U. K. (1999). "Factors influencing children's food choice." Annals of Medicine 31(SUPPL. 1): 26-32.

Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.
Kong, S. K. F. and D. T. F. Lee (2004). "Factors influencing decision to breastfeed." Journal of Advanced Nursing 46(4): 369-379.

Kools, E. J., C. Thijs, et al. (2005). "The behavioral determinants of breast-feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the initiation of breast-feeding." Health Education & Behavior 32(6): 809-824.

Kopytoff, I. (1986). The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process. The Social Life of Things. A. Appadurai. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 64-94.

Kozlowska, K. and L. Hanney (2002). "The network perspective: An integration of attachment and family systems theories." Family Process 41(3): 285-312.



In this article we discuss the network paradigm as a useful base from which to integrate attachment and family systems theories. The network perspective refers to the application of general systems theory to living systems, and provides a framework that conceptualizes the dyadic and family systems as simultaneously distinct and interconnected. Network thinking requires that the clinician holds multiple perspectives in mind, considers each system level as both a part and a whole, and shifts the focus of attention between levels as required. Key epistemological issues that have hindered the integration of the theories are discussed. These include in-consistencies within attachment theory itself and confusion surrounding the theoretical conceptualizations of the relationship between attachment and family systems theories. Detailed information about attachment categories is provided using the Dynamic Maturational model. Case vignettes illustrating work with young children and their families explore the clinical implications of integrating attachment data into family therapy practice
Kramer, M. S. and R. Kakuma (2004). The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding - A systematic review. Protecting Infants through Human Milk. 554: 63-77.

Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are acknowledged widely, opinions and recommendations are divided on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. We systematically reviewed available evidence concerning the effects on child health, growth, and development and on maternal health of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months vs. exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 months followed by mixed breastfeeding (introduction of complementary liquid or solid foods with continued breastfeeding) to 6 months. Two independent literature searches were conducted, together comprising the following databases: MEDLINE (as of 1966), Index Medicus (prior to 1966), CINAHL, HealthSTAR, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE-Medicine, EMBASE-Psychology, Econlit, Index Medicus for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, African Index Medicus, Lilacs (Latin American and Carribean literature), EBM Reviews-Best Evidence, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. No language restrictions were imposed. The two searches yielded a total of 2,668 unique citations. Contacts with experts in the field yielded additional published and unpublished studies. Studies were stratified according to study design (controlled trials vs. observational studies) and provenance (developing vs. developed countries). The main outcome measures were weight and length gain, weight-for-age and length-for-age z-scores, head circumference, iron status, gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious morbidity, atopic eczema, asthma, neuromotor development, duration of lactational amenorrhea, and maternal postpartum weight loss. Twenty independent studies meeting the selection criteria were identified by the literature search: 9 from developing countries (2 of which were controlled trials in Honduras) and 11 from developed countries (all observational studies). Neither the trials nor the observational studies suggest that infants who continue to be exclusively breastfed for 6 months show deficits in weight or length gain, although larger sample sizes would be required to rule out modest increases in the risk of undernutrition. The data are conflicting with respect to iron status but suggest that, at least in developing-country settings, where iron stores of newborn infants may be suboptimal, exclusive breastfeeding without iron supplementation through 6 months of age may compromise hematologic status. Based primarily on an observational analysis of a large randomized trial in Belarus, infants who continue exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months or more appear to have a significantly reduced risk of one or more episodes of gastrointestinal tract infection. No significant reduction in risk of atopic eczema, asthma, or other atopic outcomes has been demonstrated in studies from Finland, Australia, and Belarus. Data from the two Honduran trials suggest that exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months of age is associated with delayed resumption of menses and more rapid postpartum weight loss in the mother. Infants who are breastfed exclusively for 6 months experience less morbidity from gastrointestinal tract infection than infants who were mixed breastfed as of 3 or 4 months of age. No deficits have been demonstrated in growth among infants from either developing or developed countries who are exclusively breastfed for 6 months or longer. Moreover, the mothers of such infants have more prolonged lactational amenorrhea and faster postpartum weight loss. Based on the results of this review, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months to its member countries. Large randomized trials are recommended in both developed and developing countries to ensure that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months does not increase the risk of undernutrition (growth faltering), to confirm the health benefits reported thus far, and to investigate other potential effects on health and development, especially over the long term.
Kremers, S. P., J. Brug, et al. (2003). "Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption." Appetite 41(1): 43-50.

The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N = 643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style. fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kretchmar, M. D. and D. B. Jacobvitz (2002). "Observing mother-child relationships across generations: Boundary patterns, attachment, and the transmission of caregiving." Family Process 41(3): 351-374.

Grounded in both attachment and family systems theories, this study is one of the first to examine how relationship patterns observed in mothers' current relationships with their own mothers are recreated in their relationships with their infants. Mostly white, middle-class families (N = 55), including maternal grandmothers, mothers, and infants, were observed when infants were 6, 9, and 18 months old. At 6 months, mothers and grandmothers completed self-report assessments and worked together on discussion tasks. These interactions were coded using the Boundary Assessment Coding System, developed for the present study, which assessed three relational patterns: disengagement, balance, and entanglement. At 9 months, mothers were rated on sensitivity and intrusiveness while playing with and feeding their infants; and, at 18 months, infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation. Multiple regression analyses revealed, as predicted, that mothers who remembered being accepted by their mothers as children and who were in highly balanced relationships with their own mothers currently were more sensitive and less intrusive with their 9-month-old infants. Further, discriminant function analyses indicated that memories of acceptance, high levels of balance, and low levels of disengagement differentiated secure from insecure attachment, whereas memories of overprotection and high levels of entanglement distinguished resistant from secure and avoidant attachment. Discussion focuses on the theoretical hypothesis that mothers internalize relationship strategies experienced with their own caregivers and recreate these patterns with their infants


Kretchmar, M. D. and D. B. Jacobvitz (2002). "Observing mother-child relationships across generations: Boundary patterns, attachment, and the transmission of caregiving." 41(3): 351-374.

Grounded in both attachment and family systems theories, this study is one of the first to examine how relationship patterns observed in mothers' current relationships with their own mothers are recreated in their relationships with their infants. Mostly white, middle-class families (N = 55), including maternal grandmothers, mothers, and infants, were observed when infants were 6, 9, and 18 months old. At 6 months, mothers and grandmothers completed self-report assessments and worked together on discussion tasks. These interactions were coded using the Boundary Assessment Coding System, developed for the present study, which assessed three relational patterns: disengagement, balance, and entanglement. At 9 months, mothers were rated on sensitivity and intrusiveness while playing with and feeding their infants; and, at 18 months, infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation. Multiple regression analyses revealed, as predicted, that mothers who remembered being accepted by their mothers as children and who were in highly balanced relationships with their own mothers currently were more sensitive and less intrusive with their 9-month-old infants. Further, discriminant function analyses indicated that memories of acceptance, high levels of balance, and low levels of disengagement differentiated secure from insecure attachment, whereas memories of overprotection and high levels of entanglement distinguished resistant from secure and avoidant attachment. Discussion focuses on the theoretical hypothesis that mothers internalize relationship strategies experienced with their own caregivers and recreate these patterns with their infants.


Krishnakumar, A. and M. M. Black (2003). "Family processes within three-generation households and adolescent mothers' satisfaction with father involvement." Journal of Family Psychology 17(4): 488-498.

This investigation used a family systems perspective to examine how family dynamics within 3-generation households were associated with mothers' satisfaction with father involvement. The participants were low-income African American adolescent mothers (n = 148) and grandmothers recruited at delivery and followed over 6 months. The overall model explained 68% of the variance in satisfaction with father involvement. Fathers who were involved with caregiving activities had positive relationships with adolescent mothers and grandmothers. Grandmothers served as gatekeepers; when grandmothers reported positive relationships with the 2 young parents, adolescent mothers reported positive relationships with their male partners. Mothers who reported positive partner relationships also reported high parenting efficacy and satisfaction with father involvement. Efforts to increase paternal involvement should focus on role clarification for grandmothers and fathers and on parenting activities for mothers and fathers, regardless of their romantic relationship


Kruger, R. and G. J. Gericke (2003). "A qualitative exploration of rural feeding and weaning practices, knowledge and attitudes on nutrition." 6(2): 217-223.

Aim: An exploratory qualitative investigation was done to determine the feeding and weaning practices, knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition of mothers/caregivers of children up to 3 years old attending baby clinics in the Moretele district (South Africa). Methodology: Qualitative data collection on six relevant nutrition topics was done using focus group interviews. Trained moderators, using a pre-tested, structured interview schedule, interviewed participants in six age groups. Focus group interviews were taped, transcribed and translated. Content analysis produced systematic data descriptions and ethnography provided descriptive data. Results: Breast-feeding was the choice feed and bottle-feeding was only given when breast-feeding was impossible. Solid food was introduced early (at 2-3 months) and a mixed family diet at 7-9 months. Milk feeds were stopped completely from 18-24 months. Weaning diets were compromised due to poor food choices, preparation practices and limited variety. The participant's nutrition knowledge regarding specific foods, their functions and recommended quantities was poor. The women adhered to their cultural beliefs regarding food choices and preparation practices. Conclusion: The data analysis revealed that inadequate nutrition knowledge and adherence to cultural practices lead to poor-quality feeding practices. Cultural factors and taboos have a powerful influence on feeding practices and eating patterns. Young mothers often find it impossible to ignore their ill-informed elders or peer group. Nutrition knowledge needs to be changed in a first step towards implementing improved feeding practices. Facilitated group discussions could focus on possible solutions for the identified nutrition-related problems.


Kruse, L., C. E. Denk, et al. (2005). "Comparing sociodemographic and hospital influences on breastfeeding initiation." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 32(2): 81-85.

Kubik, M. Y., L. Lytle, et al. (2005). "Fruits, vegetables, and football: Findings from focus groups with alternative high school students regarding eating and physical activity." Journal of Adolescent Health 36(6): 494-500.

Purpose: To increase our understanding of factors that may influence the dietary and physical activity practices of adolescents attending an alternative high school (AHS).

Methods: Seventy students (36 girls, 34 boys) from urban and suburban AHSs in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area participated in 7 focus groups to discuss their perceptions and opinions about factors that influence their eating and physical activity behaviors and to offer suggestions regarding school-based strategies to support and to promote healthy physical activity and eating practices among students. Mixed-gender groups were facilitated by a trained moderator by using a set of standardized questions to guide the 45- to 60-minute discussions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a 3-step process for qualitative analysis.


Results: Time, cost, availability, and convenience were identified as key factors that influenced students' food choices and the choice to be active physically. Access to healthy foods and physical activity was problematic, especially at school. Students also reported that social support from their friends, family, and teachers, and role-modeling behaviors of adults enhanced their likelihood of eating healthy foods and being active.
Conclusions: Study findings suggest that programs that target social-environmental factors that include norms, role models, social support. and opportunities to practice a health behavior have the potential to affect positively the dietary and physical activity practices of teenagers attending an AHS. Interventions that aim to increase opportunities at school to practice healthy eating and physical activity may be effective, especially in promoting and supporting healthy behavior change among students. (c) 2005 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
Kuchta, D. and I. ebrary (2002). The three-piece suit and modern masculinity : England, 1550-1850. Berkeley, Calif. ; London, University of California Press.

Kuhn, L. (2002). "Beyond informed choice: Infant feeding dilemmas for women in low-resource communities of high HIV prevalence." Social Dynamics-a Journal of the Centre for African Studies University of Cape Town 28(1): 132-154.

Kyle, R. (1999). Middle Class Men's Conceptualisations of Food: A Sociological Investigation. London, South Bank University.

The thesis is an exploratory study about men’s conceptualisations of food and eating. Starting out from the discipline of nutrition, the thesis moves towards a sociological perspective on food and eating. The thesis draws on data generated by holding unstructured audio-tape recorded interviews with a small group of middle class, middleaged men. The study was carried out to begin to address the scarcity of men’s views on household food and eating in the sociological literature.


Three major themes emerged from the interviews. Men talked about food in relation to health, the family, and their contribution to household food work. The main health concern was heart disease, but most men had not changed their diets in accordance with current nutritional recommendations. Using a complex system of explanation, men assessed their own risk of heart disease, and thus whether dietary change is necessary. Talking about food and health brought conceptions of balance and moderation to light, which contrast with the customary use of these terms in nutrition health promotion materials.
Juxtaposing men’s views of food and eating in the household, with the opinions of men’s behaviour reported by women in previous research, revealed similarities and differences between men’s and women’s viewpoints. Men’s views are considered by reference to the age, life stage and social class of the informants, as well as taking into account the date and region of previous studies. Although in most households, shopping and cooking is undertaken by women, men whose wives had full-time jobs were often responsible for these activities. Most men reported that they did some cooking, but how ‘cooking’ is defined by men may have implications for deducting their actual contribution household food work.
Men adhered to an ideal of the family meal, but there was little evidence to support the privileging of men’s food preferences, The thesis discusses how this study about food and eating gives a preliminary insight into the ways in which men view their role, and hence define their masculinity, in the private domain of the household.
Laessle, R. G., H. Uhl, et al. (X2001). "Parental influences on eating behavior in obese and nonobese preadolescents." International Journal of Eating Disorders. 30(4): 447-53.

OBJECTIVE: To determine parental influences on obesity, the eating behavior of 80 obese and normal weight children (aged 8-12 years) was investigated in the laboratory. METHOD: A controlled repeated measures design was used. The mother was either present or absent while the child was eating in the laboratory. The eating style was measured by recording cumulative eating curves with a universal eating monitor, using yoghurt as a standardized experimental meal. RESULTS: The eating behavior of obese children differed significantly from normal weight children only when the mother was present in the laboratory. Overweight children ate faster with larger bites and showed an acceleration of their eating rate toward the end of the meal. DISCUSSION: Such an eating style can be hypothesized to explain an increased calorie intake in obese children, promoting a positive energy balance in the long term. The data support a learning model of obesity in childhood, which also has implications for family treatment. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Lambert, H., E. Gordon, J., et al. (2005). "Introduction: Gift horse or Trojan horse? Social science perspectives on evidence-based health care." Part Special Issue: Gift Horse or Trojan Horse? Social Science Perspectives on Evidence-based Health Care 62(11): 2613-2620.

Landon, M. B. and S. G. Gabbe (1996). "Fetal surveillance and timing of delivery in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus." 23(1): 109-&.

Protocols for antepartum fetal assessment in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus are an important part of a care program that allows most of these pregnancies to reach term, ensuring fetal maturation. Maternal assessment of fetal activity serves as an efficient screening test in most surveillance programs. These programs have used primarily biophysical testing consisting of the nonstress test, cardiac stress test, or biophysical profile. Doppler studies have been investigated as an adjunct for identifying fetal compromise. These studies may prove most valuable in cases of maternal vascular disease. The success of these protocols continues to be predicated on careful regulation of maternal glycemia through aggressive therapy with insulin and diet. Reassuring tests of fetal condition are present in most diabetic women and, therefore, permit fetal maturation to occur prior to delivery.
Lang, T. and Y. Gabirel (2005). A Brief History of Consumer Activism. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage

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