Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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7(1): 85-105.

The education provided to Maori children in both the day schools run by the Ministry of Education and denominational boarding schools in 19th-century New Zealand was intended to inculcate the language and culture of the European colonizers in Maori children. Female boarding school students in particular appeared to present the best agents for bringing European culture to the Maori communities that they would rejoin as wives and mothers. Some of the girls' boarding schools, such as the Hukarere Native School for Girls, provided instruction in Latin, algebra, and history as well as dressmaking and cooking. The Ministry of Education regarded English and vocational instruction in skills appropriate to Maoris' subordinate status as sufficient, and ministry inspectors pressured schools to decrease academic instruction, but boarding schools harbored currents of resistance to assimilation and a history of achievement that helped prepare Maori women to take leading roles when in the 1980's the Maori asserted their right to educate their children in Maori and about Maori culture.
Johansson, B. (2004). Consumption and Ethics in a Children's Magazine. Beyond the Competent Child: Exploring contemporary childhoods in the Nordic welfare societies. H. Brembeck, B. Johansson and J. Kampmann. Roskilde, Roskilde University Press: 229-249.

Johnsen, S., P. Cloke, et al. "Transitory spaces of care: serving homeless people on the street."

Within a rapidly expanding body of work exploring the role of hostels and day centres in the accommodation and care of homeless people, very little attention has been paid to the dynamics of the soup run. Soup runs have, however, recently become a focus of concern for the British Government who, echoing 19th century debates regarding the 'inappropriate' distribution of alms, argue that they are undermining attempts to reduce levels of rough sleeping by making it easier for people to survive on the streets. Drawing upon a postal survey, together with a series of interviews and participant observations, this paper develops an in-depth account of soup runs in Britain and explores the dynamics of the spaces involved. It argues that far from simply sustaining street homelessness, soup runs provide an important yet very complex series of spaces of care in the contemporary city. By their very nature, however-having a non-interventionist ethos, being transitory, and open to the public eye-the dynamics of these spaces differ in significant ways from those typical of geographically fixed spaces of care.
Johnsen, S., P. Cloke, et al. "Transitory spaces of care: serving homeless people on the street."

Within a rapidly expanding body of work exploring the role of hostels and day centres in the accommodation and care of homeless people, very little attention has been paid to the dynamics of the soup run. Soup runs have, however, recently become a focus of concern for the British Government who, echoing 19th century debates regarding the 'inappropriate' distribution of alms, argue that they are undermining attempts to reduce levels of rough sleeping by making it easier for people to survive on the streets. Drawing upon a postal survey, together with a series of interviews and participant observations, this paper develops an in-depth account of soup runs in Britain and explores the dynamics of the spaces involved. It argues that far from simply sustaining street homelessness, soup runs provide an important yet very complex series of spaces of care in the contemporary city. By their very nature, however-having a non-interventionist ethos, being transitory, and open to the public eye-the dynamics of these spaces differ in significant ways from those typical of geographically fixed spaces of care.


Johnson, B. and A. Hackett (1997). "Eating habits of 11-14 year old schoolchildren living in less affluent areas of Liverpool, UK." Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics 10(2): 135-144.

Johnson, M. K. (2005). "Family Roles and Work Values: Processes of Selection and Change."

This study focuses on whether marriage & parenthood influence work values after taking into account the influence of work values on family formation. In a recent panel of young adults (N = 709), stronger extrinsic & weaker intrinsic work values during adolescence predicted marriage & parenthood 9 years out of high school. Controlling these relationships, wives, but not husbands, came to attach less importance to extrinsic rewards, & both husbands & wives attached less importance to intrinsic rewards, compared to single men & women. Fathers came to place greater importance on extrinsic rewards than men who had not become parents. The effect of motherhood on extrinsic values depended upon marital status, with positive effects only evident among single mothers. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for models of work-family relationships & understanding the meaning of contemporary family roles, especially motherhood & fatherhood. 3 Tables, 1 Figure, 59 References. Adapted from the source document.
Johnson, R. and G. Harris (2004). "A preliminary study of the predictors of feeding problems in late infancy." 22(3): 183-188.

The aim of this small study was to investigate three hypothesised predictors of feeding difficulties in late infancy. Oral-motor-skill function, illness, and mealtime negativity were investigated as possible predictors. Eighteen mothers were visited when their infants were approximately 18 months old (range 15-21 months), and asked to complete three retrospective questionnaires relating to their child's temperament, feeding habits and practices, oral-motor-skills and illness. Illness was found to be the best predictor of feeding difficulty, the infants who experienced the highest incidence of illness, particularly vomiting, had the highest scores for food neophobia and food refusal.


Johnson, S., A. Burrows, et al. (2004). "'Does my bump look big in this'? The meaning of bodily changes for first-time mothers-to-be." 9(3): 361-374.

Research on the impact of bodily changes during the transition to motherhood is contradictory. The aim of the study reported here was to provide more useful insights by employing an inductive qualitative approach. Interviews with six women in the latter stages of pregnancy were analysed drawing upon aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis and Foucauldian discourse analysis. These analyses suggest generally negative consequence, and discursive constructions that have a greater potential to be limiting than empowering. The impact of gender ideologies on women's ways of being while pregnant is highlighted, as is the importance of developing alternative representations of the female, and the pregnant body, which do not pathologize women.


Johnson, S. L. and L. L. Birch (X1994). "Parents and Childrens Adiposity and Eating Style." Pediatrics 94(5): 653-661.

Objective. To investigate children's ability to self-regulate energy intake and to determine whether individual differences in the precision of food intake regulation are related to children's anthropometric measures. We collected information pertaining to parental adiposity and dieting practices, as well as mothers' child-feeding practices. Of special interest was the degree of control imposed by mothers over their children's food intake. Our intent was to explore whether these variables might influence children's regulation of energy intake. Subjects and setting. Seventy-seven 3-5-year-old children who attended a university preschool setting and their parents participated in this experiment. Measurements and main results. Children completed controlled, two-part meals used to estimate their ability to adjust food intake in response to changes in caloric density of the diet. An eating index, reflecting children's precision in the ability to regulate energy intake, was correlated to children's anthropometric measures. These correlations provided evidence for a relation between children's body fat stores and their responsiveness to caloric density cues: Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that children with greater body fat stores were less able to regulate energy intake accurately. The best predictor of children's ability to regulate energy intake was parental control in the feeding situation: mothers who were more controlling of their children's food intake had children who showed less ability to self-regulate energy intake (r = -.67, P < .0001). Conclusions. These findings suggest that the optimal environment for children's development of self-control of energy intake is that in which parents provide healthy food choices but allow children to assume control of how much they consume.


Johnston, F. E., Ed. (1987). Nutritional anthropology. New York, A.R. Liss.

Jones, G. (2005). The thinking and behaviour of young adults (aged 16 - 25), Social Exclusion Unit - Home Office.

Jonsson, I. M., A. M. Wallin, et al. (2002). "Choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia-Herzegovina: Focus group interviews with immigrant women in Sweden." Ethnicity & Health 7(3): 149-161.

Jordan, P. L. and V. R. Wall (1990). "Breast-Feeding and Fathers - Illuminating the Darker Side." 17(4): 210-213.

Although breastfeeding may be the best form of infant nutrition and be an important practice for mother and infant, it may be perceived as negative by the father and thus inhibit the development of the father-infant relationship. This study provides a summary of data from a longitudinal study of the male experience of expectant and new parenthood, and a summary of the literature on breastfeeding and fathers. Fathers' concerns about breastfeeding included the lack of opportunity to develop a relationship with their child, feeling inadequate, and being separated from their mate by the baby. The professional literature fails adequately to represent the negative aspects of breastfeeding for fathers. The parents' literature contains one father's candid and humorous account that caregivers might use, together with other techniques, to make parents aware of these aspects.
Jordan, T. (1988). Agony columns. London, Optima.

Joseph, H., S. Magura, et al. "Homelessness, substance misuse, and access to public entitlements in a soup kitchen population." Substance Use and Misuse 38(3-6): 645-68.

Examined the effects of homelessness on access to public entitlements (Medicaid and food stamp programmes) in a soup kitchen population. Five hypotheses,focusing on the effects of housing status (literal homelessness, unstable housing, and domiciled), frequency of drug /heavy alcohol use, drug /alcohol-user treatment history and childcare responsibilities on access to Medicaid and food stamp programmes were tested. Found that both literal homelessness and unstable housing were associated with less access to Medicaid and food stamps.(Original abstract - amended)
Julier, A. and L. Lindenfeld (2005). "Mapping Men onto the Menu: Masculinities and Food." Food and Foodways 13(1): 1-15.

Kaplan, J. S., S. Iqbal, et al. (1999). "Is pregnancy in diabetic women associated with folate deficiency?" 22(7): 1017-1021.

OBJECTIVE - To determine whether folate metabolism in pregnant diabetic women is significantly different from that in pregnant nondiabetic women, thus predisposing them to having offspring with major congenital anomalies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 31 pregnant diabetic women and 54 pregnant nondiabetic control subjects were studied at their first prenatal visits. Dietary folate intake, serum folate, red blood cell folate, urinary folate, and homocysteine were measured and compared after controlling for folate supplementation. Among diabetic women, the relationships among parameters of folate metabolism and glycemic control were also assessed. RESULTS - There were no significant differences between the pregnant diabetic and nondiabetic women for any measures of folate metabolism after accounting for folate supplementation. In addition, among diabetic women, there were no associations among parameters of folate metabolism and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS - Abnormal folate metabolism does not appear to occur in pregnant diabetic women. It is unlikely that deranged folate metabolism explains the higher incidence of major anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers. These results do not diminish the importance of periconception folate supplementation or preclude other possible scenarios that could restrict folate use by the embryo, leading to congenital anomalies.
Kashiwagi, M., C. Schafer, et al. (2005). "Opiate addiction and breastfeeding - Review of the literature and recommendations." Geburtshilfe Und Frauenheilkunde 65(10): 938-941.

Kawachi, I. a. K., B.P, (1997). "Income Inequality and Health: Pathways and Mechanisms,." Health Services Research 34((1) Part 2): 215-217.

Kearney, M., J. M. Kearney, et al. (2000). "Sociodemographic determinants of perceived influences on food choice in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults." Public Health Nutrition 3(2): 219-226.

Keller, K. (1994). Mothers and work in popular American magazines. Westport, Conn. ; London, Greenwood Press.

Kelly, M. (1993). "Infant-Feeding in Emergencies." 17(2): 110-121.

Recent experience of emergency relief operations in middle-income countries has shown that infant feeding issues can greatly complicate attempts to protect infant health. The two main problems are: how to protect and support breastfeeding in communities where it is no longer the norm and how to assist artificially fed infants without exposing them to the dramatically increased risks associated with artificial feeding under disaster conditions. This article explores the underlying issues and makes a number of recommendations for policy and programmes.


Kelly, Y. J. and R. G. Watt (2005). "Breast-feeding initiation and exclusive duration at 6 months by social class - results from the Millennium Cohort Study." 8(4): 417-421.

Objectives: To assess breast-feeding initiation and rates of exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months after birth, and to examine social class differences in breast-feeding rates. Design: First sweep of a longitudinal population-based survey, the Millennium Cohort Study. Setting: Four countries of the UK. Subjects: Subjects were 18125 singletons born over a 12-month period spanning 2000-01. Data were collected by parental interview on the initiation of breast-feeding and exclusivity at 1, 4 and 6 months after birth. Results: Overall breast-feeding was initiated for 71% of babies, and by 1, 4 and 6 months of age the proportions being exclusively breast-fed were 34%, 3% and 0.3%, respectively. There were clear social class differences and mothers with routine jobs with the least favourable working conditions were more than four times less likely (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.29) to initiate breast-feeding compared with women in higher managerial and professional occupations. Women in routine jobs were less likely to exclusively breast-feed their infants at 1 month (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.36-0-50) and 4 months (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.31-0-77) compared with women in higher managerial and professional occupations. Conclusions: Clear social class differences in breast-feeding initiation and exclusivity for the first 4 months were apparent in this large UK sample. By 6 months, less than 1% of babies were being exclusively breast-fed. A co-ordinated multi-faceted strategy is required to promote breast-feeding, particularly among lower-income women.


Kemmer, D. (2000). "'Tradition and change in domestic roles and food preparation.'" Sociology 34(2): 323 - 333.

Kemp, P. (1997). "Supporting the supporters: the learning and supervision needs of unqualified support staff in a supported housing scheme for people with mental health problems."

An inter-relationship between how residents experience 'being supported' and the learning needs of support staff is identified, teased out and described. Action research methods were found to be a useful means of generating areas of learning that appeared to be most relevant in this particular work context. (Original abstract-amended)
Kennedy, L. A. (2001). "Community involvement at what cost? Local appraisal of a pan-European nutrition promotion programme in low-income neighbourhoods.'" Health Promotion International 16(1): 35-45.

Kent, R. and R. A. A. a. Kent (1987). Agony : problem pages through the ages. London, W.H. Allen.

Kerr, M. and N. Charles (1986). "Servers and Providers: the distribution of food within the family." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 34(3): 115-157.

Khare, R. S. (1980). "Food as Nutrition and Culture: Notes towards an anthropological methodlogy." Social Science Information 19(3): 519-42.

Khoury, A. J., A. Hinton, et al. (2002). "Improving breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WIC clinic staff." Public Health Reports 117(5): 453-462.

Khoury, A. J., S. W. Moazzem, et al. (2005). "Breast-feeding initiation in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support, and perceived control." Womens Health Issues 15(2): 64-72.

Kimmel, M. S. (1988). Changing men : new directions in research on men and masculinity. Newbury Park, Calif. ; London, Sage.

Kingston, B. (1996). "When Did We Teach Our Girls to Cook?" Australian Cultural History 15: 89-101.

There was little formal cooking training available to girls in colonial Australia. The first private cooking school dates from around 1883, although cooking books were available before then. The introduction of the refrigerator and the gas stove took much of the drudgery out of cooking and encouraged more women into the kitchen. Australian cuisine underwent further changes when migrants from non-British countries began to arrive in significant numbers after World War II, and as young Australians began to travel overseas in the 1950's. Formal cooking classes were introduced to schools early in the 1900's, and the cooking books used in these classes chronicle the changes in Australian culinary practices.
Kirca, S. (1999). "Popular Culture: from Being an Enemy of the Feminist Movement to a Tool for Women's Liberation ?" Journal of American Culture 22(3): 101-107.

Cultural theorists have argued that popular culture deprecates women, but in Turkey the magazines Kim and Kadinca attempt to engage women's issues by combining the discourses of feminism and popular culture.


Kirca, S. (2000). "Kim and Kadinca: Bridging the Gap between Feminism and Women's Magazines." New Perspectives on Turkey(22): 61-84.

Examines the ways that patriarchal, commercial, and feminist discourses and interests are incorporated into two Turkish women's magazines, Kim and Kadinca, in order to draw conclusions about feminism and women in Turkey from the 1970's to the 1990's. Although the contribution of the magazines is limited, as the representation of feminism is a selective and partial one made by commercial media companies, the approach of the magazines (suggesting alternative rather than ideal models for Turkish women), their acceptance of diversity and contradiction, and their realistic advice in response to questions concerning sexual harassment and domestic violence make them progressive voices in the effort to encourage self-esteem among Turkish women.


Kirca, S. (2001). "Turkish Women's Magazines: the Popular Meets the Political." Women's Studies International Forum 24(3-4): 457-468.

Discusses the way concepts of feminism and femininity, often considered oppositional, intersect within two contemporary Turkish women's magazines, Kim and Kadinca. The methodology is derived from feminist critical theory and cultural studies and includes textual analysis of the magazines as well as structured interviews with their editors. A range of potentially competing interests - of editors, owners, and advertisers - is identified in the production of the magazines, and the ways in which these are managed and negotiated is explored. The combining of feminist discourses with patriarchal and commercial discourses offers a repertoire of subjectivities to women readers, some complementary and others contradictory.


Kirca, S. h. (2000). Popularizing feminism : a comparative case study of British and Turkish women's magazines, University of Warwick.

Kirk, M. C. and A. H. Gillespie (1990). "Factors Affecting Food Choices of Working Mothers with Young Families." 22(4): 161-168.

A two-stage data collection method (focus group interviews followed by an individual probing technique) was used to study influences on working mothers' food choices for their families. Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach through which five categories or perspectives were identified. Three of these perspectives - "nutritionist," "economist," and "manager-organizer" - have been commonly addressed in nutrition education. Two additional perspectives-"meaning-creator" and "family diplomat" - that affect working mothers' food choices were identified. The working mothers also revealed that they experienced guilt related to family meal-time activities.
Klesges, R., R. Stein, et al. (1991). "Parental influence on food selection in young children and its relationships to childhood obesity." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 859-64.

This investigation evaluated the impact of parental influences on children’s food selections and the impact of childhood obesity on these food choices. Subjects were 53 young children of various weight status. Foods ranging widely in nutritional values were offered to each child for lunch. The children were again offered foods but were told that their mothers would be monitoring their selections. Finally, mothers were allowed to modify their children’s last food choices. Results indicated that parental influences have a marked effect on food selection; both the threat of parental monitoring and actual parental monitoring lowered the number of nonnutritious foods chosen and total caloric content ofthe meal. The obesity status ofthe mothers and children had no impact on these results. The implication of these results for future intervention efforts are discussed.


Klesges, R. C., R. J. Stein, et al. (1991). "Parental influence on food selection in young children and its relationships to childhood obesity." Am J Clin Nutr 53(4): 859-64.

This investigation evaluated the impact of parental influences on children's food selections and the impact of childhood obesity on these food choices. Subjects were 53 young children of various weight status. Foods ranging widely in nutritional values were offered to each child for lunch. The children were again offered foods but were told that their mothers would be monitoring their selections. Finally, mothers were allowed to modify their children's last food choices. Results indicated that parental influences have a marked effect on food selection; both the threat of parental monitoring and actual parental monitoring lowered the number of nonnutritious foods chosen and total caloric content of the meal. The obesity status of the mothers and children had no impact on these results. The implication of these results for future intervention efforts are discussed.


Kloeblen-Tarver, A. S., N. J. Thompson, et al. (2002). "Intent to breast-feed: The impact of attitudes, norms, parity, and experience." American Journal of Health Behavior 26(3): 182-187.

Knaak, S. (2005). "Breast-feeding, Bottle-feeding and Dr. Spock: The Shifting Context of Choice."

In today's environment, breast-feeding represents both a medical gold standard for infant feeding & a moral gold standard for mothering. The morally charged character of this discourse makes the notion of choice in infant feeding particularly problematic & fraught with difficulty. From an historical content analysis of selected editions from 1946 to 1998 of Dr. Spock's famous child-care manual, this paper explicates the process through which the breast versus bottle discourse has shifted over the last half-century & how these shifts have shaped the context of choice within which mothers must make their infant-feeding decisions. 2 Tables, 56 References. Adapted from the source document.
Knaak, S. (2005). "Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding and Dr. Spock: The shifting context of choice." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology-Revue Canadienne De Sociologie Et D Anthropologie

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