Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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(73),(3:): 327-338.

Averyt, J. M. (2003). "Determinants of Adverse Departures from Supported Housing." Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 64(6): 2255-A.

Supported housing consists of residential market housing with flexible supports. The eligibility criteria for the supported housing in this study included a diagnosis of a serious mental illness, substance abuse, having HIV positive status, being homeless, or being at risk for being homeless. Approximately half of the exits or departures from this study were adverse, i.e.--due to eviction or abandonment of an apartment. Prior research suggested that substance abuse is a primary cause of adverse departures. In this study a history of substance abuse was expected to increase the likelihood of adverse departures, while case management and substance abuse treatment were expected to decrease the likelihood of adverse departures. This study included survey data and administrative data gathered as part of a three-year on-going evaluation of The Connecticut Supportive Housing Demonstration Program, a partnership between the Corporation for Supportive Housing and the State of Connecticut. The survey data came from survey instruments administered to tenants by caseworkers upon entry into the evaluation program. In addition, administrative data were provided by the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Medicaid Unit, and the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (DMHAS). The data were analyzed to examine the extent to which a history of substance abuse, case management, and substance abuse treatment explained adverse departures from supported housing. The findings from this study indicated that being African-American, having a history of prior homelessness and reporting doing very well at being independent/self reliant prior to entry to the program increased the likelihood of an adverse departure. Being over 40 decreased the likelihood of such a departure.
Avishai, O. "The Cultural Contradictions of Motherhood? The Case of Breast Feeding: Extolling Science, Reproducing Capitalism."

Drawing on the scholarship on motherhood that views mothering as a cultural opposition to the ideology of rationalized market societies, & focusing on class-privileged women, this paper suggests that breast-feeding practices may be embedded in, be the product of, & contribute to the reproduction of market ideology & to the predominance of science. Class-privileged women view breast-feeding as a rational response to scientific data; they emphasize substance over process, & approach breast-feeding as a project. Professionalization & consumerism are central to the way these women experience breast-feeding. More generally, the case of breast-feeding demonstrates that seemingly emancipatory mothering practices do not necessarily critique the individual at the heart of market ideology or the capitalist mode of thinking, & women of a certain class participate in & contribute to the reproduction of dominant contemporary regimes. Women's narratives about breast-feeding also reveal a paradox of women's lives as they attempt to reconcile a capitalist image of a successful & rational worker & consumer with a maternalist image of caregiver & nurturer.

Backett-Milburn, K. (2004). "Parenting in poor environments: Stress, support and coping." Journal of Marriage and the Family 66(5): 1346-1347.

Backett-Milburn, K., S. Cunningham-Burley, et al. (2003). "Contrasting lives, contrasting views? understandings of health inequalities from children in differing social circumstances." Social Science & Medicine 57(4): 613-623.

Children's differing socio-economic, cultural and familial circumstances and experiences are part of the pathways implicated in health and illness in adulthood. However, in the existing, mainly survey based, work children's own voices tend to be absent and adult-defined data about health and illness accumulated. Little is known about the social and cultural processes, in children's very different childhoods, which underpin and ultimately constitute these epidemiological findings. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lifestyles and the production of inequalities in health, carried out in a large Scottish city. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews, using a range of child-friendly techniques (photographs, drawings, vignettes), were carried out with 35 girls and boys aged 9-12 years living in two contrasting but contiguous areas, one relatively advantaged and one relatively disadvantaged. Thirty of their parents were also interviewed and community profiling and observational work undertaken. Children and parents described often starkly contrasting lives and opportunities. regularly involving material differences. However, children appeared to locate inequalities as much in relationships and social life as in material concerns; in this their direct experiences of relationships and unfairness were central to their making sense of inequality and its impact on health. Although children from both areas highlighted several different inequalities, including those related to material resources, they also spoke of the importance of control over their life world; of care and love particularly from parents; of friendship and acceptance by their peer group. Many children challenged straightforward causal explanations for future ill-health, privileging some explanations, such as psychological or lifestyle factors. The accounts of children from both areas displayed considerable resilience to and downplaying of the effects of both relationship and material inequalities; also showing how familial and personal challenges, such as bullying, divorce, learning difficulties, cut across structurally based differences. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Backett-Milburn, K. and J. Harden (2004). "How children and their families construct and negotiate risk, safety and danger." Childhood-a Global Journal of Child Research 11(4): 429-447.

This article presents an analysis of the family context and everyday negotiations around risk, safety and danger between children and parents in four families drawn from a larger qualitative study. The challenges of analysing accounts from several family members are highlighted. Case study families are described; and fragments of their interwoven individual and shared biographies, on which respondents regularly drew to legitimate risk-related beliefs and practices, are outlined. The dynamic, fluid and contingent nature of risk construction and reconstruction in everyday family life is discussed and three main themes explored: establishing `the bottom line'; assumptions, collusions and contradictions around age, siblinghood and time; and contextualizing risk in the conduct of others. The authors conclude that, just as with childhood itself, it is important also to contextualize `risk' within socioeconomic, cultural and institutional frameworks; and that, for most children, their families both constitute one such context and mediate wider social structures.

Badinter, E. (1995). XY : on masculine identity. New York, Columbia University Press,.

Bahn, A. K. (1979). "Changes and Continuities in the Transitional Status of Bride into Wife: A Content Analysis of Bridal Magazines, 1967-1977, The Decade of the Women's Movement." DAI 40(5): 2332-A.

Bailey, C. and R. Pain (2001). "Geographies of infant feeding and access to primary health-care." Health and Social Care in the Community 9(5): 309-317.

Bailey, C., R. H. Pain, et al. (2004). "A 'give it a go' breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers." Midwifery 20(3): 240-250.

Baker Collins, S. "An Understanding of Poverty from Those Who Are Poor."

Participatory research in the study of poverty invites those living in difficult circumstances to participate in an analysis of their own livelihood situation. A participatory poverty assessment was facilitated with a small group of women who are members of a food co-operative in Niagara Falls, Canada & who live in poverty. The women explored together issues of well-being, the stress of living in poverty, the role of the social assistance system in shaping their lives & community attitudes. Important themes which emerged included an emphasis on social relationships, the impact of the pervasive scrutiny of the social assistance bureaucracy, the importance of community good will & the possibilities for community action. This article discusses the contribution of local knowledge to an understanding of poverty as well as the limitations of participation in changing social policy. 5 Figures, 38 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Ltd., copyright 2005.].

Baker, S., P. Choi, et al. (2005). "Supermum, superwife, supereverything: performing femininity in the transition to motherhood."

The aim of this qualitative study was to comprehend how mothers understood and accounted for their experiences in relation to the ideology of motherhood which has been socially constructed as a critical aspect of femininity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 primiparous and multiparous women, and transcripts analysed using open and axial coding with triangulation. Using a material-discursive approach to interpret the data, two higher order themes are presented: 'the realization of new motherhood' and 'coping with new motherhood'. These themes demonstrate how unprepared for motherhood the women were and how their expectations were based on various myths of motherhood. This led to feelings of inadequacy as they struggled with the myth versus reality discrepancy. However, they could not be seen to be inadequate and therefore employed greater efforts to portray themselves as supermum, superwife, supereverything and hide the opposite. These findings are interpreted within the context of the social construction of femininity and how it is performed within motherhood. Implications for antenatal and postpartum care are discussed. (Original abstract)

Balfe, M. (2006). "Diets, Diabetes and Discipline: The Narratives of Practice of University Students with Type 1 Diabetes."

Ball, H. L., E. Hooker, et al. (1999). "Where will the baby sleep? Attitudes and practices of new and experienced parents regarding cosleeping with their newborn infants." 101(1): 143-151.

An evolutionary perspective on human infant sleep physiology suggests that parent-infant cosleeping, practiced under safe conditions, might be beneficial to both mothers and infants. However, cosleeping is not part of mainstream parenting ideology in the United States or the United Kingdom, and little evidence is available to indicate whether, and under what circumstances, parents sleep with their newborn infants. We present data from an anthropological investigation into the practices and attitudes of new and experienced parents of newborn infants regarding parent-infant sleeping arrangements in a community in the northeast of England. Despite not having contemplated cosleeping prior to the birth, new parents in our sample found it to be a convenient nighttime caregiving strategy, and one which was practiced regularly. Infants slept with both their parents, some being habitual all-night cosleepers, but commonly beginning the night in a crib and sleeping with their parents for several hours following the early morning feed.
Ballaster, R. B., Margaret ; Frazer, Elizabeth; Hebron, Sandra Women's Worlds: Ideology, Femininity and Women's Magazines (Women in Society S.)

Banner, L. W. (1973). "Why Women Have Not Been Great Chefs." South Atlantic Quarterly 72(2): 198-212.

Despite the achievements of women in writing cookbooks, creating new dishes, and serving as cooks in homes and restaurants when men were not available, a status-conscious public has preferred to be served by men. Male chefs have preferred to lessen competition and "shore up" their own status by denying women access to the prestigious positions in the world of cooking. In general women have not been great chefs because the role has not been available to them.
Bansal, M., R. Shaw, et al. (2003). "Is breast best? Perceptions of infant feeding." Community Practitioner 76(8): 299-303.

Explored the reasons why young women from low income areas are among those least likely to breastfeed. Focus groups were conducted with 15 health professionals and 11 young, first-time mothers were interviewed. Discusses the findings and makes recommendations which include educating health professionals about sub-cultures in their communities and reversing the misconception that breast milk is insufficient for a baby's healthy development. (Original abstract - amended)

Barling, D., Lang, T. & Caraher, M (2002). "Joined-up food policy? The trials of Baum, F. (1999) Social Capital: Is it Good for your Health? Issues for a Public Health Agenda',." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 53:: 195-196.

Barnard, A. (1971). The professional approach : writing & selling women's magazine fiction. St Columb (Trevarren, St Columb, Cornwall), United Writers Publications.

Barnett, C., P. Cafaro, et al. (2005). Philosophy and Ethical Consumption. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage: 11-24.

Barratt, M., K. Negayama, et al. (2004). "Characteristics of breast feeding mothers in the US, Japan and France." International Journal of Psychology 39(5-6): 353-353.

Bartfeld, J. (2003). "Single mothers, emergency food assistance, and food stamps in the welfare reform era." 37(2): 283-304.

This article documents the characteristics, circumstances, and factors linked to concurrent use of food stamps among single-mother food pantry clients in Wisconsin in 1999. Most of these mothers use food pantries as an alternative, rather than a supplement, to food stamps, despite appearing to meet food stamp income criteria. Concurrent food stamp use is more common among mothers with weaker employment ties, more recent welfare involvement, and residence in a county that experienced smaller food stamp caseload declines in the welfare reform years.

Barth, R. P., T. M. Crea, et al. (2005). "Beyond Attachment Theory and Therapy: Towards Sensitive and Evidence-Based Interventions with Foster and Adoptive Families in Distress."

Elements of attachment theory have been embraced by practitioners endeavouring to assist foster & adopted children & their parents. Attachment theory articulates the potential risks of experiencing multiple caregivers; emphasizes the importance of close social relationships to development; & recognizes that substitute parents may not always have close relationships with children who have experienced adversities before joining them. Attachment theory offers concerned parents what they believe to be a scientific explanation about their lack of the close, satisfying parent - child relationship they desire. Yet the scientific base of attachment theory is limited both in terms of its ability to predict future behaviours, & especially with regard to its use as the underpinning theory for therapeutic intervention with children experiencing conduct problems. There is a critical need to review the role of attachment theory in child & family services & to consider its place among other explanations for children's disturbing behaviour. An important step towards pursuing alternative approaches is for researchers & practitioners to understand the reasons the attachment paradigm appeals to so many adoptive & foster parents, given the apparent widespread prevalence of attachment-based interventions. Such understanding might assist in the development of adoption-sensitive uses of appropriate evidence-based treatment approaches. 90 References. Adapted from the source document.

Bartlett, A. (2002). "Breastfeeding as Headwork: Corporeal Feminism and Meanings for Breastfeeding." Women's Studies International Forum 25(3): 373-382.

Barton, R. (2000). "The effect of nutrition intervention, using the Balance of Good Health Model, on hte composition of packed lunches of 10-11 year old schoolchildren." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 13(5): 363-371.

Baughcum, A. E., K. A. Burklow, et al. (1998). "Maternal feeding practices and childhood obesity: a focus group study of low-income mothers." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 152(10): 1010-4.

Baughcum, A. E., L. A. Chamberlin, et al. (2000). "Maternal perceptions of overweight preschool children." Pediatrics 106(6): 1380-6.

Context. Childhood obesity is a major public health problem, and prevention efforts should begin early in life and involve parents., Objective. To determine what factors are associated with mothers' failure to perceive when their preschool children are overweight., Design. Cross-sectional survey., Settings. Offices of private pediatricians and clinics of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)., Participants. Six hundred twenty-two mothers with children 23 to 60 months of age., Main Outcome Measures. Maternal demographic variables, maternal self-reported height and weight, and children's measured height and weight. Mothers were asked whether they considered themselves or their children overweight., Results. Forty-five percent of mothers had low education (high school degree or less) and 55% had high education (some college or more). Obesity (body mass index: >/= 30 kg/m2) was more common in the low education group of mothers (30% vs 17%), and their children tended to be more overweight (weight-for-height percentile: >/= 90th; 19% vs 14%). Ninety-five percent of obese mothers believed that they were overweight, with no difference between education groups. However, 79% of mothers failed to perceive their overweight child as overweight. Among the 99 mothers with overweight children, low maternal education was associated with a failure to perceive their children as overweight after adjusting for low family income Baughcum, A. E., S. B. Johnson, et al. (2005). "Maternal efforts to prevent type 1 diabetes in at-risk children." 28(4): 916-921.

OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to assess maternal diabetes prevention efforts aimed at children identified as at risk through newborn genetic screening. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 192 mothers of children identified as at risk for type 1 diabetes through newborn genetic screening were administered a structured interview 3.6 +/- 0.8 years after risk notification. The interview assessed possible diabetes prevention behaviors across six domains: health surveillance, diet, physical activity, illness prevention, medications, and stress reduction. A mother's cognitive (diabetes risk perception and perceived control), affective (anxiety), and coping responses to the child's at-risk status were assessed. RESULTS - A total of 67% of mothers reported one or more diabetes prevention behaviors. Monitoring behaviors (e.g., watching for signs of diabetes and checking blood glucose) were the most common, reported in 59%, followed by modifications in the child's diet in 34% and physical activity in 14%. Potentially harmful prevention behaviors (e.g., limiting contact with other children, delaying immunizations, and giving medications including insulin) were rare. Mothers who engaged in diabetes prevention behaviors reported higher diabetes risk perception, greater anxiety, and more use of certain coping styles. Infants of these mothers were more likely to have a first-degree relative with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - in the absence of known methods of preventing type 1 diabetes, most mothers of at-risk children report diabetes prevention behaviors. Such behaviors must be more carefully assessed to ensure accurate interpretation of data obtained from natural history studies and prevention trials.

Baum, F. a. Z., A. (2003). "A glossary of social capital,." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health(57:): 320-323.

Bayley, T. M., L. Dye, et al. (2002). "Food cravings and aversions during pregnancy: relationships with nausea and vomiting." 38(1): 45-51.

Food cravings and food aversions are common during pregnancy, A mechanism that may explain these changes in food preference is taste aversion learning. Accordingly, this study examined the temporal association between the first occurrences of nausea. vomiting, food cravings and food aversions during pregnancy. Ninety-nine women completed a questionnaire that asked about the occurrence, timing of first onset, duration, strength and targets of these symptoms. Nausea and vomiting were reported by 80% and 56% of the women, food cravings and aversions by 61% and 54% respectively. Although more women experienced both food cravings and aversions than either symptom alone, cravings an aversions were statistically unrelated. There was a significant positive correlation between week of onset of nausea and of aversions. In 60% of women reporting both nausea and food aversions. the first occurrence of each happened in the same week of pregnancy. No such association was found for cravings. These retrospective accounts provide good support for taste aversion learning as a mechanism for the development of some but not all food aversions during pregnancy. Prospective data are needed to confirm these temporal relationships and to assist understanding of the emergence of food cravings. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
BBC. (2006). "Obesity tests for four-year-olds." BBC News Retrieved 22 May 2006, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/5003766.stm.

Beals, D. E. (1993). "Explanatory Talk in Low-Income Families Mealtime Conversations." 14(4): 489-513.

The purpose of this article is to outline the types and frequency of explanatory talk that occur in naturalistic conversations of low-income families of preschoolers. Thirty-one families participated in the study, tape-recording family mealtimes when their children were 3, 4, and 5 years old. A total of 75 transcripts were collected and analyzed for the presence of nine categories of explanatory talk, including intentional, causal, evidential, definitional/descriptive, procedural, and consequential. Explanatory talk consisted of conversation concerning some connection between objects, events, concepts, and/or conclusions that one speaker is pointing out to another. The most frequent type of explanations fell into intentional categories, which accounted for more than half of all segments of explanatory talk.
Beardsworth, A. and T. Keil (1997). Sociology on the menu : an invitation to the study of food and society. London ; New York, Routledge.

Beck, U. (1997). "Democratisation of the Family,." Childhood 4(2): 151-68.

Becker, S., M. Fedtke, et al. (2004). "Evolution of body mass index before, during and one year after pregnancy." 64(7): 706-710.

Purpose: Obesity is a problem that affects almost one third of all pregnant women. To establish a data base for further studies we looked at the evolution of weight and body mass index before, during and one year after pregnancy. Material and Methods: Out of 2220 women who gave birth at the Women's University Hospital Tubingen in 2001, 1000 were selected for further evaluation in accordance with our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data regarding pregnancy and delivery were collected retrospectively. One year after delivery, the women were contacted by phone and interviewed regarding their weight development. Results: Our of 1000 women, 713 women were successfully contacted. Average age was 31.7 years. Average weight before pregnancy was 65.9 kg, average weight-gain during pregnancy was 13.2 kg. Average weight one year postpartum was 66.5 kg. Before pregnancy, 23.3% of all women were overweight or obese. One year after delivery, 27.0% fell into these two categories (p < 0.01). Only about one third of all pregnant women gained weight within the recommended limits. Conclusion: Almost one third of women are overweight or obese before and one year after pregnancy and delivery. Weight changes during and after pregnancy varied widely. Overweight status before pregnancy and - for normal-weight women - weight gain in excess of the recommended maximal 16 kg during pregnancy were important risk factors for weight retention one year after

Becquet, R., D. K. Ekouevi, et al. (2005). "Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of health care workers regarding alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding (ANRS 1201/1202, Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire)." Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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