Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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Hoddinott, P. and R. Pill "A qualitative study of women's views about how health professionals communicate about infant feeding." Health Expectations 3(4): 224-33.

Describes a study in which 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed. While the infant feeding goal for many women is a contented, thriving baby, women perceive that the goal for health professionals is the continuation of breastfeeding. Words alone offering support for breastfeeding were often inadequate and women valued practical demonstrations and being shown how to feed their baby. Spending time with a caring midwife with whom the woman had developed a personal, continuing relationship was highly valued. (Original abstract - amended)

Hoddinott, P. and R. Pill (1999). "Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London." 318(7175): 30-34.

Objective To improve understanding of how first time mothers who belong to a socioeconomic group with particularly low rates of breast feeding decide whether or not to initiate breast feeding. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. Setting Women's homes in east end of London. Subjects 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their partner or a relative. Two focus groups were conducted. Results Women who had regularly seen a relative or friend successfully breast feed and described this experience positively were more confident about and committed to breast feeding. They were also more likely to succeed. Exposure to breast feeding, however, could be either a positive or a negative influence on the decision to breast feed, depending on the context Women who had seen breast feeding only by a stranger often described this as a negative influence, particularly if other people were present. All women knew that breast feeding has health benefits. Ownership of this knowledge, however, varied according to the woman's experience of seeing breast feeding. Conclusions The decision to initiate breast feeding is influenced more by embodied knowledge gained from seeing breast feeding than by theoretical knowledge about its benefits. Breast feeding involves performing a practical skill, often with others present The knowledge, confidence, and commitment necessary to breast feed may be more effectively gained through antenatal apprenticeship to a breastfeeding mother than from advice given in consultations or from books.

Hodes, M., S. Timimi, et al. (1997). "Children of mothers with eating disorders: A preliminary study." 5(1): 11-24.

This study investigated the extent of psychiatric disorder and abnormalities of weight and growth amongst children of mothers with eating disorders. The design was a cross-sectional study, in which mothers were identified by attendance at specialist eating disorder services. Assessments included interviews with the mothers and children, questionnaires included EAT and child behaviour questionnaires (Rutter A scale), and weight and height of mothers and children was measured. Thirteen mothers who had 26 children participated in the study. The findings were that mothers had chronic eating disorders and high rates of marital difficulties and separation. Amongst the children 50 per cent had psychiatric disorders, and 32 per cent abnormalities of weight or growth. Female offspring tended to have low body weight. Mothers underestimated their children's dietary needs. The adjustment and growth of this group of children should be considered when mothers request help for themselves.

Hodges, E. A. (2003). "A primer on early childhood obesity and parental influence." Pediatric Nursing. 29(1): 13-6.

Childhood obesity is a common health problem facing U.S. children with an increasing prevalence particularly in certain populations. Recognizing obesity in children is a clinical determination with specific measures that can indicate potential future associated health problems, but parental perception of overweight and/or obesity is influenced by other conditions. This primer offers a brief synopsis of parental influence in the etiology of early childhood obesity beginning with parameters of obesity and how it is operationalized through measurement. The importance of parental perceptions of their children relative to obesity and eating are discussed, and how parents influence the development of childhood eating behaviors or physical activity are considered. [References: 30]

Holbrook, B. and P. Jackson (1996). "The social milieux of two north London shopping centres." Geoforum 27(2): 193-204.

As part of a larger project involving both quantitative and qualitative research, this paper discusses the findings of a questionnaire survey at Brent Cross and Wood Green concerning the social use of two north London shopping centres. Combined with focus group and ethnographic research (reported elsewhere), the survey results provide fresh empirical evidence about the nature of consumption as a social process, extending well beyond the point of sale. The paper demonstrates that 'regional' centres (like Brent Cross) have a surprisingly 'local' clientele; that shoppers at the two centres differ less markedly in terms of conventional measures of social class than might have been expected; but that there are significant perceived differences in the social character of the two centres. It is also suggested that looking (and other social aspects of shopping) may be as important as buying for many consumers and that 'family shopping' is better understood as a convenient marketing metaphor rather than as an accurate description of most people's shopping practices and preferences. The paper highlights the need to gain a more thorough understanding of the views of ordinary consumers in everyday places (like Wood Green and Brent Cross) in order to provide a more grounded analysis of the nature of contemporary consumption. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Holden, T. J. M. (2005). "The Overcooked and Underdone: Masculinities in Japanese Food Programming." Food and Foodways 13: 39-65.

Holloway, S. and G. Valentine (2001). "Children at home in the wired world: Reshaping and rethinking home in urban geography." Urban Geography 22(6): 562-583.

This paper is concerned with two developments which place questions about the home center-stage in urban geography, namely the growth of new information and communications technologies (ICT) and the rise of "critical geographies." The paper draws on an empirical in vestigation into British children's domestic use of ICT to move beyond utopian and dystopian hyperbole about the future of the home in the wired world and consider how children's ICT usage is shaped within and reshapes the home environment. In so doing, the paper both broadens and deepens the conceptualization of home in urban geography. In terms of breadth, the analysis illustrates the importance of including children's as well as adults' voices and experiences in studies of domestic life. In terms of depth, it highlights the importance of studying the micro-geographies of home as well as how social relations within the home shape its relation to the wider world.
Holloway, S. L. and G. Valentine (2000). "Corked hats and coronation street - British and New Zealand children's imaginative geographies of the other." Childhood 7(3): 335-357.

This article contributes to the developing literature on childhood and national identity by considering the ways in which children imagine other nations. Focusing in particular on on-line interactions between children in 12 British and 12 New Zealand schools, the article explores their imaginative geographies of each other, and assesses the ways these visions are endorsed or contested by the children to whom they refer. The article not only illustrates the sources and importance of stereotypical understandings of landscape, people and patterns of daily life in other nations, but also the ways these may be contested through on-line contact.

Holloway, S. L. and G. Valentine (2000). "Spatiality and the new social studies of childhood." Sociology 34(4): 763-783.

The past two decades have seen rapid changes in the ways in which sociologists think about children, and a growing cross-fertilisation of ideas between researchers in a variety of social science disciplines. This paper builds upon these developments by exploring what three inter-related ways of thinking about spatiality might contribute to the new social studies of childhood. Specifically, we identify the importance of progressive understandings of place in overcoming the split between global and local approaches to childhood; we discuss the ways in which children's identities are constituted in and through particular spaces; and we examine the ways in which our understandings of childhood can shape the meaning of spaces and places. These ideas are illustrated by reference to our current research on children's use of the internet as well as a range of wider studies.

Hollows, J. (2003). "Feeling like a domestic goddess: Postfeminism and cooking." European Journal of Cultural Studies 6(2): 179-202.

Hollows, J. (2003). "Oliver's Twist: Leisure, labour and domestic masculinity in The Naked Chef." International Journal of Cultural Studies 6(2): 229-248.

Holm, L. (2003). "Food health policies and ethics: lay perspectives on functional foods',." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16:(531 - 544).

Hood, M. Y., L. L. Moore, et al. (X2000). "Parental eating attitudes and the development of obesity in children. The Framingham Children's Study." International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 24(10): 1319-25.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which parents' degree of dietary self-control, as measured by self-reported dietary restraint, disinhibition, and perceived hunger, affects the development of excess body fat in the child. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Ninety-two 3-5y old children and their parents, enrolled in 1987 in the Framingham Children's Study. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported levels of parental dietary restraint, disinhibition and perceived hunger were estimated using Stunkard and Messick's Three-Factor-Eating Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and skinfold measurements at five sites) were obtained yearly for children and parents. The child's activity level was measured on multiple days each year using Caltrac accelerometers. Energy intake and percentage of calories from total fat were estimated from multiple sets of food diaries, collected each year. All analyses were adjusted for the following potential confounders: child's sex and baseline values for age, height, mean physical activity level, total calories and percentage of calories from fat as well as the educational levels of the parents at baseline. RESULTS: Over 6y, children's body fat increased linearly with increasing levels of self-reported parental disinhibition (eg 6y increase in the child's sum of five skinfolds was 34.4, 45.8 and 59.2 mm across increasing tertiles of parental disinhibition, P=0.012). Overall, children whose parents had higher dietary restraint scores had greater increases in body fatness than children whose parents had the lowest levels of restraint. When both parents had above average scores on dietary disinhibition or restraint, the children had greater increases in body fat (on all anthropometry measures) than when only one parent or when neither parent had high scores on those factors. Parental scores on the perceived hunger scale had no clear effect on body fat change of children. Since disinhibition and dietary restraint frequently co-exist, we then examined the joint effect of these two factors. The children with the greatest increases in body fat were those whose parents scored high on both factors. In the final analysis, we found that dietary restraint adversely affected the child's body fat only when associated with high parental disinhibition. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that parents who display high levels of disinhibited eating, especially when coupled with high dietary restraint, may foster the development of excess body fat in their children. This association may be mediated by direct parental role modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors, or through other indirect, and probably subconscious, behavioral consequences such as the suppression of the child's innate regulation of dietary intake.
Hornell, A., Y. Hofvander, et al. (2001). "Solids and formula: Association with pattern and duration of breastfeeding." 107(3).

Objectives. To study changes in pattern and duration of breastfeeding associated with the introduction of solids and formula. Study Design. Descriptive longitudinal, prospective study. Setting. The participants were recruited from the maternity ward in the University Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, between May 1989 and December 1992. A total of 15 189 infants were born during the period, 1 177 mother-infant pairs were found eligible for participation; 57% declined because of the perceived high workload. Study Population. Five hundred six mother-infant pairs. Methods. Daily recordings by the mothers on infant feeding, from the first week after delivery to the second menstruation postpartum or a new pregnancy; fortnightly home visits with structured interviews by a research assistant. Results. Introduction of solids was associated with no or minor changes in breastfeeding frequency and suckling duration. Breastfeeding frequency remained constant the first month after the introduction and then declined slowly, while daily suckling duration started to decline slowly when solids were introduced. Breastfeeding duration was not associated with infants' age at introduction of solids. In infants given formula, as soon as regular formula feeds started, the breastfeeding frequency and suckling duration declined swiftly. The younger an infant was at the start of regular formula feeds, the shorter the breastfeeding duration. Conclusions. Health care personnel and parents need to be aware that introduction of solids and introduction of formula can have very different consequences for breastfeeding. If the aim is to introduce other foods to breastfed infants under the protection of breast milk, it is important to realize that formula is also another food and needs to be treated as such.

Howard, C. R., F. M. Howard, et al. (1999). "The effects of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration." 103(3).

Objective. To evaluate the effects of pacifier use and the timing of pacifier introduction on breastfeeding duration, problems, and frequency. Methods. A cohort of 265 breastfeeding mother-infant dyads was followed prospectively. Maternal interviews were conducted at delivery, 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and thereafter every 90 days until breastfeeding ended. Information was obtained regarding pacifier use, infant feeding, use of supplemental foods and breastfeeding frequency, duration, and problems. The effect of pacifier introduction by 6 weeks of age on breastfeeding duration was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. The effect of the timing of pacifier introduction (less than or equal to 2 weeks and less than or equal to 6 weeks) on breastfeeding duration at 2 and 3 months was evaluated using logistic regression modeling. Results. A total of 181 mothers (68%) introduced a pacifier before 6 weeks. In adjusted analyses, pacifier introduction by 6 weeks was associated with a significantly increased risk for shortened duration of full (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.05) and overall (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.19,2.19) breastfeeding. Women who introduced pacifiers tended to breastfeed their infants fewer times per day, with significant differences noted at 2 (8.1 +/- 2.6 vs 9.0 +/- 2.3) and 12 weeks' (6.3 +/- 2.0 vs 7.4 +/- 1.6) postpartum. At 12 weeks postpartum, women who introduced pacifiers also were more likely to report that breastfeeding was inconvenient and that they had insufficient milk supplies. Pacifier use begun either before 2 weeks or before 6 weeks' postpartum was not significantly associated with breastfeeding duration at 2 and 3 months. Conclusions. Pacifier use was independently associated with significant declines in the duration of full and overall breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration in the first 3 months' postpartum, however, was unaffected by pacifier use. Women who introduced pacifiers tended to breastfeed their infants less frequently and experienced breastfeeding problems consistent with infrequent feeding. Findings from this study suggest that the decreases in breastfeeding duration associated with pacifier use may be a consequence of less frequent breastfeeding among women who introduce pacifiers to their infants.

Howorka, K., J. Pumprla, et al. (1996). "Modular education for diabetes and pregnancy: Outcome analysis in 58 diabetic pregnancies under functional insulin treatment." 56(1): 41-49.

Functional insulin treatment based on the patient's education for selective use of insulin for fasting, eating or correction of hyperglycaemia was used between 1985 and 1994 prospectively in 58 pregnancies (in 18 cases after conception) in 47 pregnant diabetic patients. We hypothesised that near-normalisation of glycaemia is possible throughout pregnancy by modular outpatient group education, individual counselling and functional insulin treatment. We wanted to investigate to which degree it might eliminate classical diabetes-associated neonatal complications. To avoid hospitalisation if possible and premature induction of labour, patients were taught both the primary adjustment (immediate correction of hyperglycaemia) and the secondary adjustment of the insulin dosages: correction of individual algorithms for insulin use according to daily insulin consumption and mean blood glucose MEG. A target metabolic control (HbAlc levels in the normal range, MBG < 100 and < 90 mg/dl after the 28th week of gestation respectively) was achieved in the majority of the 58 pregnancies. Severe hypoglycaemia occurred in 12 pa tients (21%). The gestational age at delivery was 39.0 +/- 1.6 (34-41; in 3 cases only [5%] < 37) weeks with an average birth weight of 3335 +/- 521 (1950-4450) g. The birth weight of only 5 newborn (9%) was above the 90th percentile and no one below the 10th percentile for weight of a comparable population. No cases of respiratory distress were observed. Hypoglycaemia was recorded in only 4 newborn (7%) and was comparable also to that of offsprings in non-diabetic women. Malformations were found in two offsprings whose mothers had presented first for diabetes education after conception, pregnancy being terminated in one case of meningomyelocele. Caesarean section (n = 15; 26%) was primarily due to maternal reasons. Functional insulin treatment prior to conception, modular diabetes group education, specific patient motivation for a near-normal glycaemia throughout pregnancy as well as interdisciplinary care allow pregnancy outcome in diabetic patients similar to that in non-diabetic women and thus the realisation of the 5-year targets of the WHO Declaration of St. Vincent 1989.

Huang, H. C., S. Y. Wang, et al. (2004). "Body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and choice of infant feeding method: A study in Taiwan." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 31(3): 183-188.

Humphreys, A. S., N. J. Thompson, et al. (1998). "Intention to breastfeed in low-income pregnant women: The role of social support and previous experience." 25(3): 169-174.

Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between breastfeeding intention among socioeconomically disadvantaged pregnant women and maternal demographics, previous breastfeeding experience, and social support. Methods: A cross-sectional, convenience sampling strategy was employed for data collection. Low-income women (n = 1001) in a public hospital completed a six-page questionnaire about their infant feeding plans, demographics, and social support. Simple regression analyses were conducted to compare maternal breastfeeding intention with the hypothesized correlates. Results: Breastfeeding intention was positively correlated with older maternal age, higher education, more breastfeeding experience, Hispanic ethnicity, and hearing about breastfeeding benefits from family members, the baby's father, and lactation consultants, but not from other health professionals. Health professionals' attitudes were less influential on women's infant feeding decisions than the attitudes and beliefs of members of women's social support networks. When controlling for breastfeeding experience (none vs any), some findings varied, indicating a need for breastfeeding interventions tailored to women's level of experience. Conclusion: Use of peer counselors and lactation consultants, inclusion of a woman's family members in breastfeeding educational contacts, and creation of breastfeeding classes tailored to influential members of women's social support networks may improve breastfeeding rates among low-income women, especially those with no breastfeeding experience, more effectively than breastfeeding education to pregnant women that is solely conducted by health professionals.
Humphreys, N. K. (1989). American women's magazines : an annotated historical guide. New York ; London, Garland.

Hunter, T. and J. Santhiveeran. "Experiences of Material Hardships among TANF Leavers."

Experiences of food insufficiencies, inadequate access to health care, & housing-related hardships represent how financial strain negatively impacts the entire family. The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of material hardships by TANF leavers & to understand factors that are associated with experiences of material hardship. This study examined the material hardships of TANF leavers using the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Data for 220 families who exited TANF in 1997 were extracted. The majority of TANF leavers (53.2%) reported worrying about food, which was ranked as the number one hardship. Voluntary leavers tended to experience housing-related hardships more than involuntary leavers did. When compared to White leavers, other ethnic groups experienced a higher percentage of housing & healthcare-related hardships. 4 Tables, 22 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
Hupkens, C. L. H., R. A. Knibbe, et al. (1998). "Class differences in the food rules mothers impose on their children: a cross-national study." Social Science and Medicine 47(9): 1331-1339.

Hurstel, F. (2004). "Can we talk about a masculinity crisis?" PENSEE(339): 5-17.

Iannotti RJ, O. B. R., Spillman DM. (1994). "Parental and peer influences on food consumption of preschool African-American children." Perceptual and Motor Skills 79(2): 747-752.

Sources of social influence on urban African-American preschool children's food consumption were coded from videotapes of noontime and evening meals of 42 children. The frequency of eating prompts was associated with the age of the child, the source (mothers, fathers, age mates, other adults, and day-care staff), and socioeconomic status. The success of the prompt in changing the child's eating behavior was dependent on the type of prompt

Ingram, J. and D. Johnson (2004). "A feasibility study of an intervention to enhance family support for breast feeding in a deprived area in Bristol, UK." 20(4): 367-379.

Objective: to assess fathers' and grandmothers' knowledge of breast feeding and their ability to support successful breast feeding. To design a suitable intervention for fathers and grandmothers to support breast-feeding mothers, to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and monitor its likely effects on breast-feeding rates. Design: qualitative focus groups and interviews. Evaluation of the feasibility of an antenatal intervention. Setting: Community Health Centre and family homes in an area of relative social and economic deprivation in South Bristol, UK, from November 2001 to May 2003. Participants: 10 grandmothers and five fathers in focus groups and interviews. Twenty-nine families in the intervention. Intervention: an antenatal intervention for grandmothers or partners to support breast feeding, which combined the benefits and mechanics of breast feeding with ways of providing support for breast feeding. Findings: using an antenatal session based around a leaflet, specifically written for grandmothers and partners, and including a demonstration of good breast-feeding positioning and attachment in addition to the discussion of specific issues around the health benefits and mechanics of breast feeding was found to be acceptable, useful and enjoyable by all participants, particularly for first-time parents. The importance of fathers and grandmothers in providing emotional and practical support for breast-feeding mothers is highlighted, since those who were still breast feeding at eight weeks all felt that they were receiving similar or better support postnatally than they were antenatally. Significantly more intervention mothers were breast feeding their babies at eight weeks than in the wider practice population of mothers outside the study who intended to breast feed. Fathers' attitudes to breast feeding postnatally were fairly similar to those before the baby was born with breast feeding in public and knowing how much milk the baby was getting having the most influence on whether they felt that their partner should continue to breast feed. Implications for practice: this type of intervention could be part of a multifaceted approach towards improving breast-feeding initiation and continuation, particularly in areas of low prevalence. Health professionals should be opportunistic about involving other family members in discussions about breast feeding whenever possible, both antenatally and postnatally. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ingram, J., D. Johnson, et al. (2002). "Breastfeeding in Bristol: teaching good positioning, and support from fathers and families."
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