Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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20(5): 528-530.

Hassan, S. Fiction in women's magazines 1693-1983: 144leaves.

Hatton, C. and E. Emerson (2003). "Families with a person with intellectual disabilities: stress and impact." Current Opinion in Psychiatry 16(5): 497-501.

Purpose of review This paper reviews research published since March 2002 that has addressed the situation of families with a person with intellectual disabilities. Such research is organized into research concerning families with a child with intellectual disabilities and families with an adult with intellectual disabilities, including parents with intellectual disabilities. Trends in family research, including greater methodological diversity and an expanding conception of the family, are highlighted. Recent findings Parents of children with intellectual disabilities report relatively high levels of distress, with a wide range of child, parent, family and service support factors implicated in parental distress. However, many parents also report positive perceptions of their child with intellectual disabilities. Research with parents who themselves have intellectual disabilities report very high levels of maternal distress, associated with a lack of social support. Methodologically, most studies are quantitative cross- sectional surveys using correlational analyses, with little consistency in measures or constructs across studies. However, increasing methodological diversity in family research is apparent. Summary Research concerning families with people with intellectual disabilities is gradually becoming more methodologically diverse and theoretically sophisticated, although more cooperation between research groups is required. Family research is also changing to reflect the changing status of people with intellectual disabilities in society, with expanding conceptions of family systems and increasing attempts to elicit the views of people with intellectual disabilities on their perceptions of these family systems


Hauck, Y. L. and V. F. Irurita (2002). "Constructing compatibility: Managing breast-feeding and weaning from the mother's perspective." Qualitative Health Research 12(7): 897-914.

Hausman, B. L. (2004). "The feminist politics of breast feeding." Australian Feminist Studies 19(45): 273-285.

Hayes, M. a. S., A. (2000). "Social capital and health promotion: A review,." Social Science Medicine 51(6): 871-885.

Hays, J., T. G. Power, et al. (2001). "Effects of maternal socialization strategies on children's nutrition knowledge and behavior." 22(4): 421-437.

This study examined the relationship between maternal socialization strategies and children's nutrition knowledge and behavior. It was hypothesized that children of mothers who used strategies that promote the internalization of healthful eating practices would demonstrate greater understanding of the relationship between nutrition and health. Seventy-nine low-income, immigrant Mexican American mothers and their children (ages 4 to 8) participated. Measures of maternal strategies and child eating behavior were obtained through observations of mother-child interactions during a meal in the home and through a structured interview. Children's knowledge and awareness of the relationship between nutrition and health were assessed in a structured play session. Results indicated that after controlling for child age, mothers' use of reasoning, verbal nondirectiveness, and their provision of opportunities for children to participate in food decisions were positively related to children's knowledge and awareness, whereas the use of commands was negatively related. The use of commands, however, was positively associated with children's compliance to maternal eating directives. Mothers who were overweight, who discouraged unhealthy eating, and who used nutrition rationales had children who gave more physical appearance or weight responses. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
Health, D. o. (1999). Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. London, HMSO.

Health, D. o. ( 2004). Choosing Health: Making healthy choice easier. London, DoH.

Health, D. o. ((1998)). Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health. London:, HMSO.

Health), D. D. o. (2000). The NHS Plan: A Plan for Investment, A Plan for Reform. London:, HMSO.

Health), D. D. o. ((1999)). Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. London:, HMSO.

Hearn, J., D. H. J. Morgan, et al. (1990). Men, masculinities & social theory. London, Unwin Hyman.

Heinig, M. J., J. R. Follett, et al. (2006). "Barriers to compliance with infant-feeding recommendations among low-income women." Journal of Human Lactation 22(1): 27-38.

Heinzer, M. M. (2005). "Obesity in infancy: questions, more questions and few answers." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews 5(4): 194-202.

Heird, W. C. (2002). "Parental feeding behaviour and children's fat mass." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75: 451-452.

Helgeson, V. S., D. Janicki, et al. (2003). "Brief report: Adjustment to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: A family systems perspective." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 28(5): 347-353.

Objective To examine the relations of the family environment to adjustment to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and to examine how those relations are influenced by child sex and age. Method Ninety-four children with JRA completed a questionnaire on family environment and adjustment. Results Family cohesion was related to good adjustment, whereas family conflict was related to poor adjustment. Some relations of family cohesion to adjustment were stronger for younger than for older children. The relations of child autonomy to adjustment depended on child sex and age. Conclusion The relations of the family environment to adjustment to JRA are dependent on child sex and age
Helterline, M. (1980). "The Emergence of Modern Motherhood: Motherhood in England 1899 to 1959." International Journal of Women's Studies 3(6): 590-614.

Analyzes the content of English women's magazines published between 1899 and 1959 to test the concept that modern motherhood was not a continuation of Victorian models of motherhood but a new role due to the "the emergence of the concept of psychological development and the assignment of responsibility for it (the child) to the mother," and gives a decade-by-decade history of middle-class child rearing in England.


Hendya, H., K. Williams, et al. (2005). "“Kids Choice” School lunch program increases children’s fruit and vegetable acceptance." Appetite 45(3): 250–263.

The “Kids Choice” school lunch program used token reinforcement, food choice, and peer participation to increase children’s fruit and

vegetable consumption without later drops in food preference sometimes found in past research and often called ‘overjustification effects.’

Participants included 188 school children (92 boys, 96 girls; mean age Z8.0; 95% Caucasian). After four baseline meals, children were

randomly assigned for 12 meals to receive token reinforcement for eating either fruits or vegetables. Observers recorded fruit and vegetable

consumption and provided token reinforcement by punching holes into nametags each day children ate their assigned foods, then once a week

children could trade these tokens for small prizes. Fruit and vegetable preference ratings were gathered with child interviews during baseline,

and during follow-up conditions two weeks and seven months after the token reinforcement program. Consumption increased for fruit and for

vegetables and the increases lasted throughout reinforcement conditions. Two weeks after the program, preference ratings showed increases

for fruit and for vegetables. Seven months later, fruit and vegetable preferences had returned to baseline levels, suggesting the need for an

ongoing school lunch program to keep preferences high, but also showing no signs of “overjustification effects” from the token reinforcement

used in the “Kids Choice” school lunch program.


Hennen, P. (2003). "The masculinity studies reader." CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS 32(3): 337-338.

Henson, S., S. Gregory, et al. (1998). Food choice and diet change within the family setting. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Pearson Education.

Aim

"To explore what happens to food choices within the family when one member unilaterally decides to change their diet."


Hepworth, J. (1999). "Gender and the capacity of women with NIDDM to implement medical advice." 27(4): 260-266.

This qualitative study of women with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) examined constructions of their diabetes management and socio-familial relationships as potential sources of support. Semi-structured interview data was collected from 16 women. The transcripts were analysed with the aim of examining the ways in which Sender relations structured women's accounts of health-related behaviours. Women talked about themselves as wives, mothers, being pregnant and parenting, and friends of other women in ways that demonstrated how caring for others impeded their capacity to care for themselves. Meeting the food preferences of husbands and dietary requirements of diabetic husbands were dominant themes in women's accounts of marriage, and in various ways women justified their husbands' lack of support. Furthermore, the care of others during pregnancy and parenting was also an obstacle to women caring for themselves. An awareness of the gender politics inherent within social and family contexts is crucial to improving the effectiveness of medical advice for diabetes management.


Hermes, J. (1995). Reading women's magazines : an analysis of everyday media use. Cambridge, Polity.

Hesketh, K., E. Waters, et al. (2005). "Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia." Health Promotion International 20(1): 19-27.

Highmore, B. (2002). The Everyday Life Reader. London, Routledge.

Hill, A. (2002). "Developmental issues in attitudes to food and diet." Nutrition Society 61: 259-266.

As a rule, children and most adults eat what they like and leave the rest. They like and consume foods high in fat and sugar. Parental behaviour shapes food acceptance, and early exposure to fruit and vegetables or to foods high in energy, sugar and fat is related to children’s liking for, and consumption of, these foods. Some parents are imposing child-feeding practices that control what and how much children eat. However, over-control can be counter-productive, teaching children to dislike the very foods we want them to consume, and generally undermining self-regulation abilities. The external environment is also important, with concerns expressed about food advertising to children and girls dieting for an ideal thin body shape. Up to one-quarter of young adolescent girls report dieting to lose weight, their motivation driven by weight and shape

dissatisfaction. For some, dieting and vegetarianism are intertwined and both legitimised as healthy eating. For others, striving for nutritional autonomy, the choice of less-healthy foods is not just because of their taste, but an act of parental defiance and peer solidarity. The determinants of what children choose to eat are complex, and the balance changes as children get older. A better understanding is crucial to informing how we might modify nutritional behaviour. Adults occupy a central position in this process, suggesting that children should be neither the only focus of

nutritional interventions nor expected to solve the nutritional problems with which adults around them are continuing to fail.
Hill, A. J. (2002). "Developmental issues in attitudes to food and diet." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61(2): 259-266.

As a rule, children and most adults cat what they like and leave the rest. They like and consume foods high in fat and sugar. Parental behaviour shapes food acceptance, and early exposure to fruit and vegetables or to foods high in energy, sugar and fat is related to children's liking for, and consumption of, these foods. Some parents are imposing child-feeding practices that control what and how much children eat. However, over-control can be counter-productive, teaching children to dislike the very foods we want them to consume, and generally undermining self-regulation abilities. The external environment is also important, with concerns expressed about food advertising to children and girls dieting for an ideal thin body shape. Up to one-quarter of young adolescent girls report dieting to lose weight, their motivation driven by weight and shape dissatisfaction. For some, dieting and vegetarianism are intertwined and both legitimised as healthy eating. For others, striving for nutritional autonomy, the choice of less-healthy foods is not just because of their taste, but an act of parental defiance and peer solidarity. The determinants of what children choose to eat are complex, and the balance changes as children get older. A better understanding is crucial to informing how we might modify nutritional behaviour. Adults occupy a central position in this process, suggesting that children should be neither the only focus of nutritional interventions nor expected to solve the nutritional problems with which adults around them are continuing to fail.


Hill, P., S. S. Humenick, et al. (1997). "Effects of parity and weaning practices on breastfeeding duration." 14(4): 227-234.

The purpose of this project was to examine (a) patterns of breastfeeding and (b) duration with parity and breastfeeding experience, and (c) mothers' reasons for termination of breastfeeding. A convenience sample of 120 breastfeeding mothers was followed by home visits and telephone for 20 weeks after delivery. The sample consisted of 69 primiparas, 40 multiparas with previous breastfeeding experience, and 11 multiparas with no prior breastfeeding experience. Parity was not significantly associated with the continuation of breastfeeding but there was a trend toward a difference made by breastfeeding experience. Inadequate milk supply and employment were the two most common reasons reported for weaning. Implications for support in the workplace and for first-time breastfeeding mothers are discussed.


Hill, P. D., J. L. Andersen, et al. (1995). "Delayed Initiation of Breast-Feeding the Preterm Infant." 9(2): 10-20.

It is well documented that mother's milk is the best source of nutrition for the preterm infant. However, mothers of preterm infants face obstacles during the early stages of the breast-feeding experience. This study examined the experiences of 13 mothers whose preterm infants initiated suckling at the breast on day 14 or later after birth. Eight weeks after delivery, six infants were exclusively receiving mother's milk four were receiving mother's milk and formula, and three infants had been weaned entirely from mother's milk. Some of the problems encountered by these mothers may have been averted with input from health professionals with special knowledge in breast-feeding the preterm infant. A clinical pathway for breast-feeding preterm infants is presented.


Hillerviklindquist, C. (1991). "Studies on Perceived Breast-Milk Insufficiency - a Prospective-Study in a Group of Swedish Women." 1-27.

A prospective investigation of the course of breast-feeding was carried out in a group of 51 healthy, well educated Swedish women during the period three days to 18 months after delivery. The aims were to investigate the incidence, causes and consequences of perceived breast milk insufficiency (transient lactation crises), by relating this phenomenon to the infant's breast milk consumption and growth, and to the course of breast-feeding. It was found that every second mother experienced transient lactation crises on at least one occasion (the crisis group). The crises were mostly caused by emotional disturbances in the mothers (e.g. anxiety, stress and discomfort), or by the infant's refusal to suckle, by unmotivated crying, or by illness. Within the crisis group no significant difference was found between the infants' intake of breast milk during the crises compared with control measurements one week later. Nor had the crises any immediate impact on the growth of the infants. A comparison between the mothers with crises and those who did not experience any crises, revealed that the breast milk consumption among the infants in the crisis group was lower throughout with significant differences at three and five months. The infants in the crisis group also had a significantly lower weight at two, three, four and nine months, although both groups were above the NCHS mean. The reasons for initiating breast-feeding differed between the two groups. The crisis group tended to give infant-related reasons to a higher degree than the mothers in the non-crisis group who more frequently mentioned mother-related motives. The mothers with crises also showed a greater ambivalence during the lactation period and terminated the breast-feeding somewhat earlier. Consequently they also introduced taste portions and started the weaning significantly earlier. Some general findings revealed a wide variation in breast milk consumption, not only between infants but also in the same infant from one occasion to another. The total energy intake was almost the same for the partially breast-fed infants, receiving breast milk plus supplementary food, and those who were exclusively breast-fed. Although most mothers in both groups initiated the weaning in accordance with general recommendations, a wide variation was also found in the length of the weaning period. In some cases it lasted for more than five months.


Hillerviklindquist, C. (1992). "Studies on Perceived Breast-Milk Insufficiency - Relation to Attitude and Practice." 24(3): 413-425.

Fifty-one mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively by home visits and telephone contacts during the first 6 months post-partum. Comparisons between mothers who experienced lactation crises because of perceived breast-milk insufficiency (crisis group) and those who did not (non-crisis group) revealed differences in attitudes to breast-feeding, breast-feeding behaviour and sexual life. The crisis group tended to initiate breast-feeding for infant-related reasons more frequently than the non-crisis group, which more frequently gave mother-related reasons. During the course of breast-feeding attitude changes in a negative direction were significantly more common in the crisis group. No difference was found between the groups in the resumption of sexual life, but 59% of all the women claimed that they experienced less or no desire compared to before pregnancy and, of these, a significantly higher proportion belonged to the crisis group.


Hillerviklindquist, C., Y. Hofvander, et al. (1991). "Studies on Perceived Breast-Milk Insufficiency - Relationship to the Weaning Process." 4(5): 317-326.

In order to study the weaning process in relation to transient lactation crises, 51 mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively during the period from 3 days to 18 months after delivery. In total, 55% of the mothers experienced transient lactation crises, emanating mostly from a perception of breast milk insufficiency. It was found that those in the crisis group introduced taste portions and started the weaning process significantly earlier than those in the non-crisis group although most mothers in both groups initiated weaning in accordance with general recommendations. A wide variation in the length of the weaning period was also found. In 25% of the infants in the crisis group and 35% in the non-crisis group the weaning period lasted for more than 5 months. It was also revealed that most mothers in both groups started the transition from breast milk feeds to supplements at single feeds with the noon feed and ended the weaning with the evening or night feed. This transition at single feeds, however, was carried out at very different speeds, ranging from 0 to 46 weeks in the crisis group and from 0 to 28 weeks in the non-crisis group. It is concluded that each individual mother seemed to have her own way of weaning her infant. A greater awareness of this variation in weaning behaviour is of importance when guiding the mother.


Hillsbonczyk, S. G., M. D. Avery, et al. (1993). "Womens Experiences with Combining Breast-Feeding and Employment." 38(5): 257-266.

A group of primiparas who combined breast-feeding and employment are described in terms of how they felt about the experience, the difficulties they encountered, factors that affected their total duration of breast-feeding, and patterns of feeding while separated from their infant. These women are contrasted with primiparas who weaned prior to returning to work and those who remained homemakers. Of the 619 women included in the analyses, 499 (80.6%) of the women returned to work or school by 12 months postpartum and 288 (46.5%) continued to breast-feed after returning to work. Women who combined breast-feeding and employment were older, had more years of education, worked fewer hours per week, and more worked in professional jobs than those who weaned prior to returning to work. A number of women who chose to express breast milk only at home thought they would have had problems with having enough time and finding a place to express and to store expressed milk had they tried to express breast milk at work. The overwhelming majority of women who combined breast-feeding and employment felt that it was worth the trouble, that they would recommend it to others, and that they had done something special for their infants that no one else could do. The findings suggest that nursing interventions and workplace accommodations could assist more women to experience the benefits and rewards of continuing to breast-feed after returning to employment.


Hillsbonczyk, S. G., K. R. Tromiczak, et al. (1994). "Womens Experiences with Breast-Feeding Longer Than 12 Months." 21(4): 206-212.

This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted to describe the experiences of 82 primiparas who breastfed longer than 12 months. They were compared with 541 primiparas who weaned their infants within the first year. Greater age, education, and weeks of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. More than two-thirds (68%) of the women who breastfed longer than one year returned to employment before their infant was 1 year old. The most frequently chosen reason for long-term breastfeeding was that breastfeeding was a special time for mother and baby that the mother was not ready to give up. Nearly half of the women reported breastfeeding their babies on demand. At 12 to 15 months, 54 percent of the babies slept in a crib in a separate room, and 37 percent slept in the same bed with their mother all or part of the night. Most mothers (57%) considered their support group to be slightly or moderately important in influencing their decision to breastfeed beyond a year, and 10 percent considered it to be extremely important. The major themes that emerged from women's comments were the importance of being strong in the face of social unacceptability, development of a close mother-child bond, and the naturalness of breastfeeding beyond 12 months. Health caregivers should recognize the emotional and interpersonal aspects of long-term breastfeeding, support the breastfeeding relationship, and avoid contributing to the development of ''closet nursers'' so that women may feel free to discuss their concerns about their child's health.


Hinds, A. (1978). An investigation of the cover images of British women's magazines, Royal College of Art.

Hirst, J. (1998). "Reform threatens supported housing."

Social housing experts say the government is talking up the level of Housing Benefit expenditure to justify cuts. Meanwhile, some of the most vulnerable claimants, in supported and sheltered housing, are falling victim to cost-shunting arguments between the Department of Social Security and the Department of Health. Looks at what this means for the individuals caught in the middle and at the prospects for the future. (Original abstract - amended)
Hitchcock, T. and M. Cohen (1999). English masculinities, 1660-1800 : edited by Tim Hitchcock and Michèle Cohen. London, Longman.

Hitchen, L. (2006). "Doctors are failing to tell diabetic people about UK driving rules." BMJ

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