Nourishing infants presents women today with choices, desires, obligations and constraints. Despite mounting evidence about the health, psychosocial and societal benefits of breastfeeding both for women and infants, current breastfeeding rates worldwide are far from optimal, particularly among low-income women. Many mothers choose to use infant formula. Drawing from structured interviews with 154 mothers from an urban low-income multiethnic population in the United States, a typology of mothers' feelings about their infant feeding method is developed. Findings indicate that regardless of their feeding method, mothers tended to attribute higher health benefits to breastfeeding and perceived community norms as probreastfeeding. They differed in their rating and perceptions of logistics and the extent to which benefits mattered in their infant-feeding decision. Contradictions associated with the practice of breastfeeding even among mothers who breastfed, were reflected in their perceptions of social disapproval of breastfeeding in public, reports of ridicule by friends, lack of support from some health providers, and difficulties associated with working. A typology of mothers' emotional states resulting from such contradictions summarizes the findings and underscores how some mothers who did not, but would have liked to breastfeed, may be subjected to feelings of guilt and deprivation. Implications for educational interventions are to amplify prenatal infant feeding consultations and address ways to overcome logistical and apprehension barriers. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haapalahti M, M. H., Tikkanen S, Kokkonen J. (2003). "Meal patterns and food use in 10- to 11-year-old Finnish children." PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 6(4): 365-370.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the meal patterns and food use on weekdays among 10- to 11-year-old Finnish children and to analyse these in relation to family's socio-economic status and the child's behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on a cohort of 404 children aged 10-11 years in the rural town of Ylivieska, mid-western Finland. METHODS: A food-frequency questionnaire including questions on meal patterns and food use and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) completed by the parents and the child together. RESULTS: Practically all children (99%) ate breakfast regularly, 94% had a daily school lunch and 80% had dinner at home daily. Vegetables were consumed daily at home by 26% and fruits or berries by 21%, while 46% of the children had salad daily at school. Twenty-four per cent ate sweets daily or nearly so on weekdays. The children from families of high socio-economic status ate vegetables more often, and fewer of them used butter or high-fat milk. The children with no regular family dinner ate sweets and fast foods more often, and had higher total CBCL problem scores than those with a regular family dinner. CONCLUSION: Skipping meals appears not to be common among Finnish children aged 10-11 years, but a considerable proportion consume sweets frequently and vegetables infrequently. High family socio-economic status and a tendency to eat together are associated with healthy food choices among schoolchildren.
Haas, J. S., R. A. Jackson, et al. (2005). "Changes in the health status of women during and after pregnancy." 20(1): 45-51.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the changes in health status experienced by a multi-ethnic cohort of women during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Observational cohort. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women from 1 of 6 sites in the San Francisco area (N=1,809). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Women who agreed to participate were asked to complete a series of telephone surveys that ascertained health status as well as demographic and medical factors. Substantial changes in health status occurred over the course of pregnancy. For example, physical function declined, from a mean score of 95.2 prior to pregnancy to 58.1 during the third trimester (0-100 scale, where 100 represents better health), and improved during the postpartum period (mean score, 90.7). The prevalence of depressive symptoms rose from 11.7% prior to pregnancy to 25.2% during the third trimester, and then declined to 14.2% during the postpartum period. Insufficient money for food or housing and lack of exercise were associated with poor health status before, during, and after pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Women experience substantial changes in health status during and after pregnancy. These data should guide the expectations of women, their health care providers, and public policy.
Haider, S. J., A. Jacknowitz, et al. (2003). "Welfare work requirements and child well-being: Evidence from the effects on breast-feeding." Demography 40(3): 479-497.
Hall, A. S. (2003). "Expanding academic and career self-efficacy: A family systems framework." Journal of Counseling and Development 81(1): 33-39.
This article presents 2 theories useful to school counselors: self-efficacy and family systems. The author advocates the use of a family-sensitive model when counseling individuals that recognizes and respects the individual's membership in a family culture. Self-efficacy and family systems interventions for academic and career development are demonstrated in the hope that individual identities in relation to family identities will be strengthened so that youth can access family legacies as they consider their academic and career options
Hallawell, S. M. Women's glossy magazines: 118leaves.
Hallbauer, U., J. M. Grobler, et al. (2002). "Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of her baby from a neonatal unit." 92(8): 634-637.
Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from the hospital records. Setting. The neonatal unit, Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein from May 1996 to May 1998. Subjects. Eighty-one mothers of babies admitted to the neonatal unit. Outcome measures. At discharge 60% of mothers intended to breast-feed their babies exclusively the next day. The mother's decision to breast-feed her baby at home was significantly associated with her decision before delivery (P = 0.0050). Other factors positively associated with the decision to breast-feed exclusively at home were a significantly higher birth weight of the baby (P < 0.0008) and gestational age of the baby (P < 0.0005). The only hospital practice positively associated with this decision was the frequency with which mothers saw their babies during their stay in the unit (P = 0.0153). Mothers' knowledge of how to increase breast-milk supply was very poor. Conclusions. Infants with a lower weight and gestational age, who stayed in the unit longer, were less likely to be breast-fed after discharge from the neonatal unit. The mothers' experience in the unit did not seem to alter their choice of feeding method decided upon before delivery. This suggests that efforts to promote breast-feeding in the neonatal unit were either ineffectual or inadequate. In order to remedy this situation it is necessary to keep the mother-infant pair together (lodger mothers) and to promote breast-feeding before and after delivery. It would also be necessary to train staff in the management of lactation problems.
Hallden, G. (1994). The Family - A Refuge From Demands or an Arena for the Exercise of Power and Control - Children's Fictions on their Future Families. Children's Childhoods: Observed and Experiences. B. Mayall. London, Falmer Press.
Halpern, C. T., J. R. Udry, et al. (1999). "Effects of body fat on weight concerns, dating, and sexual activity: A longitudinal analysis of black and white adolescent girls." 35(3): 721-736.
Using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 200 Black and White adolescent girls (mean age was 13.8 years at study entry), the authors investigated the implications of differences in body fat for dating and sexual activity and the implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns. Among White girls, and Black girls with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with a lower probability of dating, even among nonobese girls. However, dating and sexual experience were unrelated to subsequent dieting and weight concerns. For both Blacks and Whites, body fat was the key determinant of dieting, weight dissatisfaction, and eating concerns. These findings indicate that adolescent girls' concerns about weight have a basis in real experiential differences, and efforts to promote healthy attitudes and eating habits may be more effective if the experiential implications of weight differences are taken into account.
Halvorson, S. J. (2004). "Women's management of the household health environment: responding to childhood diarrhea in the Northern Areas, Pakistan." 10(1): 43-58.
This paper examines mothers' management of water, sanitation, hygiene, and childhood diarrhea in a mountain community in the Northern Areas, Pakistan. It draws upon qualitative data obtained from 65 in-depth interviews and other ethnographic field methods. The analysis shows that respondents were familiar with diarrhea control interventions carried out in the study site, and associated childhood diarrhea with oral-fecal transmission routes such as poor water quality, unhygienic behaviors, contaminated food, and inadequate sanitation practices. Findings also demonstrate the continuance of long-established cultural patterns of perception and behavior with regard to childhood diarrhea and the influence of socio-economic constraints to instituting new management practices. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamer, J. (2001). What it means to be daddy : fatherhood for black men living away from their children. Chichester, Columbia University Press.
Hannon, P. A., Deborah J. Bowen, Carol M. Moinpour, Dale F. McLerran (2003). "Correlations in perceived food use between the family food preparer and their spouses and children Research Report." Appetite 40: 77-83.
Previous research has demonstrated that family members' eating habits are similar. We hypothesized that family members' eating habits would be predicted by the eating habits of the person who prepares the majority of the family's meals and the number of meals the family shares. Participants were 282 members of religious organizations who identified themselves as family food preparers (FFPs), and provided information about their own and their family members' eating habits. Results revealed that FFP fruit and vegetable intake predicted the fruit and vegetable intake of spouses, children, and adolescents ( p , 0.01), and that FFP consumption of high-fat foods predicted the consumption of high-fat foods of spouses and children ( p , 0.01). Child fruit and vegetable consumption was also influenced by shared meals: the more meals the child shared with the FFP, the stronger the relationship of FFP fruit and vegetable intake with child fruit and vegetable intake ( p , 0.05). These findings indicate that dietary interventions targeting the FFP may benefit other family members.
Hannon, P. A., D. J. Bowen, et al. (2003). "Correlations in perceived food use between the family food preparer and their spouses and children." Appetite 40(1): 77-83.
Previous research has demonstrated that family members’ eating habits are similar. We hypothesized that family members’ eating habits would be predicted by the eating habits of the person who prepares the majority of the family’s meals and the number of meals the family shares. Participants were 282 members of religious organizations who identified themselves as family food preparers (FFPs), and provided information about their own and their family members’ eating habits. Results revealed that FFP fruit and vegetable intake predicted the fruit and vegetable intake of spouses, children, and adolescents ( p , 0.01), and that FFP consumption of high-fat foods predicted the consumption of high-fat foods of spouses and children ( p , 0.01). Child fruit and vegetable consumption was also influenced by shared meals: the more meals the child shared with the FFP, the stronger the relationship of FFP fruit and vegetable intake with child fruit and vegetable intake ( p , 0.05). These findings indicate that dietary interventions targeting the FFP may benefit other family members.
Hardiman, E. R. (2004). "Networks of Caring: A Qualitative Study of Social Support in Consumer-Run Mental Health Agencies."
This article examines consumer-run agency participation by adults with psychiatric disabilities. Using qualitative data from 10 intensive interviews, the purpose was to explore personal meanings attached to agency membership, & understand the lived experiences of participants. A grounded hermeneutic approach was utilized to analyse results. Findings reveal that individuals balance agency utilization & external peer network development. Organizational factors previously found related to social network enhancement (e.g. empowerment & emphasis on supportive services) were confirmed here. The emergent narratives captured in this study suggest that these agencies function as low-demand, accepting, safe, & sheltering environments while offering opportunities for human connection, shared agency ownership & community. Finally, access to otherwise unavailable peer-focused 'networks of caring' was of utmost importance to participants. Implications for the organization & delivery of services are addressed. Social workers & other mental health professionals seeking to maximize community integration & develop natural supports for clients should explore consumer-run agencies. 33 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Ltd., copyright 2004.].
Harding, J. (1998). Sex acts : practices of femininity and masculinity. Thousand Oaks, [Calif.] ; London, Sage.
Hardyment, C. (1995). Slice of life: the British way of eating since 1945. London, BBC Books.
Hardyment, C. (1998). The Future of the Family. London, Phoenix.
Hardyment, C. ( 1983). Dream babies: child care from Locke to Spock [? Also published under title: Dream Babies: Three Centuries of Good Advice on Child Care]. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Harper, A. E. (1988). "Killer French Fries: the misguided drive to improve the American diet." Sciences 28(1): 21-7.
Harpham, T., S. Huttly, et al. (2005). "Maternal mental health and child nutritional status in four developing countries." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59(12): 1060-1064.
Harris, H. E., G. T. H. Ellison, et al. (1999). "Do the psychosocial and behavioral changes that accompany motherhood influence the impact of pregnancy on long-term weight gain?" 20(2): 65-79.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether the psychosocial and behavioral changes that occur during and after pregnancy influence long-term weight gain. The study examined 74 mothers enrolled in the Antenatal Care (ANC) Project (a randomized controlled trial of antenatal care based in South London), all of whom had volunteered to take part in a subsequent follow-up study. Data on body weight at the beginning of pregnancy; lifestyle and behavior during pregnancy; antenatal care and obstetric history; together with measures of postnatal depression and parenting stress following pregnancy were taken from the existing ANC Project database. Additional measurements of height and weight together with information on a variety of lifestyle changes and psychosocial characteristics, were gathered during semi-structured interviews at each mother's home, two and a half years after their children had been born. The results show that pregnancy-related weight gains are not simply the result of retaining weight that is gained during pregnancy, but that they also originate from gaining additional weight in the postpartum period. Mothers who felt they ate more after their children were born, had significantly greater long-term weight gains (2.78 (3.42) kg) than those who felt that they had not increased their food intake (-1.15 (0.76) kg; t = 2.49, p = 0.036). Similarly, mothers who felt they had greater access to food postpartum, had significantly greater long-term weight gains (1.70 (0.87) kg) than those who felt they did not have greater access to food (-1.37 (1.13) hg t = 2.18 p = 0.032). There was some evidence that the lifestyle changes which accompany pregnancy and motherhood increase some women's vulnerability to eating disorder psychopathology. Mothers who felt they did less exercise after pregnancy than they did before, were also at greater risk of long-term weight gain (p = 0.028), as were mothers with law numbers of supportive individuals (p = 0.033). Neither the stress of parenting nor maternal depression were significantly associated with an increased risk of long-term weight gain (p > 0.05).
Harris, H. E., G. T. H. Ellison, et al. (1999). "Relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle in the development of maternal obesity." 53(2): 66-74.
Study objective-To assess the relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle in the development of "maternal obesity" after pregnancy. Setting-South east London, in the homes of mothers who had delivered their babies at either Guy's, Lewisham or St Thomas's hospitals. Participants-Seventy four mothers of low antenatal risk who had been enrolled in the Antenatal Care (ANC) Project (a previous trial of antenatal care) during the first trimester of pregnancy, and who had subsequently been followed up 2.5 years after delivery. Design-Information on parental obesity, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors as well as lifestyle, was gathered during a semi-structured interview at each mother's home. Additional anthropometric and psychosocial data were taken from the existing ANC Project database. These data were used to assess the relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle on changes in maternal body weight from the beginning of pregnancy to the follow up interview. Main results-After adjusting for the effects of potential confounders and known risk factors for maternal obesity, women who selected larger silhouettes to represent their biological mothers were significantly more likely to have higher long term weight gains than those who selected thinner maternal silhouettes (r = 0.083, p = 0.004). Women who were less satisfied with their bodies postpartum had significantly greater long term weight gains than those women who displayed no increase in dissatisfaction with their bodies after pregnancy (r = 0.067, p = 0.010). Conclusions-A heritable predisposition to gain weight together with changing attitudes to body size, both had an independent role in the development of maternal body weight after pregnancy. Differences in each woman's heritable predisposition to gain weight and any changes in body image that occur after pregnancy might explain why some women gain weight in association with pregnancy.
Harris, I. M. (1995). Messages men hear : constructing masculinities. London, Taylor & Francis.
Harris, M. (1986). Good to eat: riddles of food and culture. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Harris, M. A., T. Wysocki, et al. (2000). "Validation of a structured interview for the assessment of diabetes self-management." 23(9): 1301-1304.
OBJECTIVE - The authors developed and validated a semi-structured interview the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP), to measure self-management of type 1 diabetes. The DSMP includes the following regimen components: exercise, management of hypoglycemia, diet, blood glucose testing, and insulin administration and dose adjustment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Families of youths with type 1 diabetes (n = 105) who were entering a controlled trial of intensive therapy (IT) versus usual care (UC) were administered the DSMP Analyses assessed the reliability and validity of the DSMP, including its associations with HbA(1c) and quality of life. RESULTS - The DSMP total score has adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.76), 3-month test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation, r = 0.67), inter-interviewer agreement (r = 0 94), and parent-adolescent agreement (r = 0.61). DSMP total scores (r = -0.28) and 3 subscales correlated significantly with HbA(1c) (diet [r = -0.27], blood glucose testing [r = - 0.37], and insulin administration and dose adjustment [r = -0.25]). Adolescents' reports of self-management did not differ from parental reports. Higher DSMP scores were associated with more favorable quality of life for mothers and youths. CONCLUSIONS - The DSMP is a convenient measure that yields a reliable and valid assessment of diabetes self-management. Compared with extant similar measures, the DSMP is more strongly correlated with HbA(1c).
Harrison, R., T. Newholm, et al., Eds. (2005). The Ethical Consumer. London, Sage.
Harriss-White, B. and R. Hoffenberg, Eds. (1994). Food: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
Hart, K. H., A. Herriot, J. A. Bishop and H. Truby (2003). "Promoting healthy diet and exercise patterns amongst primary school children: a qualitative investigation of parental perspectives." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 16: 89-96.
Parents represent a potentially powerful intermediary in behaviour change strategies aimed at improving the lifestyle behaviours of young children. However, to fulfil this role, parents need to have the necessary knowledge and motivation to assimilate dietary guidelines. This study aimed to assess these psychosocial constructs, and subsequent parental receptiveness to nutrition education, through investigation of the barriers and benefits perceived by parents to the provision of a healthy diet and adequate exercise for their children. A qualitative methodology was employed and 41 parents took part in seven focus groups separated by socio-economic status (SES). Across the groups, a combination of reported external barriers and unconscious internal barriers, stemming from high optimistic bias, low perceived control and unrealistic health expectations, were observed. SES differences were suggested in restrictive feeding practices, the responsibility attributed to the school and in the level and format of desired nutrition education. Overall a demand for interventions focusing on behavioural techniques rather than fact transmission was uncovered, in particular the promotion of parental self-awareness to reduce negative influences within the family food environment. Providing realistic definitions of appropriate behaviour and empowering parents to tackle children's weight issues were indicated as important targets for future education programmes.
Harvey, M., A. McMeekin, et al. (2004). Qualities of food. Manchester, New York :, New York, Manchester University Press, Distributed exclusively in the USA by Palgrave.
Haschke, F. and M. A. van't Hof (2003). "The influence of nutritional and genetic factors on growth and BMI until 5 years of age." 151: S54-S57.
Given the increasing numbers of overweight children,the EuroGrowth Study is aimed at investigating predictors for an increased Body Mass Index (BMI). The multi-centre,longitudinal,observational study therefore examines the influence of early nutrition-until 4-6 months of age -on growth and weight. A total of 2,245 healthy children, born full term (1,154 boys and 1,091 girls), were included from 22 study centres in 12 European countries. Data on weight,size,and the educational standard of the parents as well as demographic and socio-economic factors and the babies birth data were included. Anthropometric measurements and interviews on nutrition were made until the fifth birthday. The most important predictor of genetically determined growth potential was the average height of the parents. Predictors of weight gain until 60 months of age were duration of breast feeding, time at which solid food was first taken, sex, educational level the mother, and the height of the parents. The BMI at 1 month was the strongest and the BMI of the parents the second strongest predictor of a BMI over the 90th percentile at an age of between 12 and 60 months. For the successful prevention of overweight in children, however, additional significant predictors need to be identified.
Haslam, C., W. Lawrence, et al. (2003). "Intention to breastfeed and other important health-related behaviour and beliefs during pregnancy." Family Practice