Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Frosh, S., A. Phoenix, et al. (2002). Young masculinities : understanding boys in contemporary society. Basingstoke, Palgrave.

Fuller, T. L., K. Backett-Milburn, et al. (2003). "Healthy eating: the views of general practitioners and patients in Scotland." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(4): 1043S-1047S.

Background: Scotland has one of the poorest health records of all Western countries, and this has been linked to poor diet. A key part of efforts to improve health has been an action plan to improve the Scottish diet. General practice has been identified as an important setting for health promotion and the provision of healthy eating advice. Objective: The objective was to investigate the views of general practitioners (GPs) and their patients about healthy eating and the provision of healthy eating advice in general practice. Design: This qualitative research study used semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 general practitioners (8 female and 7 male) and 30 patients (15 married couples in social class 3, 4, or 5 with young children). Results: The study found that health was only one priority in patients' everyday lives and that these patients were also questioning the relevance of healthy eating advice. GPs were divided in their opinions, with greater enthusiasm being displayed by the younger and female doctors. However, despite their differing views, GPs felt that general practice was better suited to specific rather than general health advice. Conclusions: If programs in general practice to address dietary inequalities are to succeed, both patients' views and GPs' views must be taken into account.


Furness, B. W., P. A. Simon, et al. "Prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among low-income households in Los Angeles County."

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and identify the predictors of food insecurity among households in Los Angeles County with incomes below 300% of the federal poverty level. METHODS: The Six-Item Short Form of the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Scale was used as part of a 1999 county-wide, population-based, telephone survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of food insecurity was 24.4% and was inversely associated with household income. Other independent predictors of food insecurity included the presence of children in the household (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3) and a history of homelessness in the past five years (OR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4-9.4). CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is a significant public health problem among low-income households in Los Angeles County. Food assistance programmes should focus efforts on households living in and near poverty, those with children, and those with a history of homelessness.


Furness, B. W., P. A. Simon, et al. "Prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among low-income households in Los Angeles County."

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and identify the predictors of food insecurity among households in Los Angeles County with incomes below 300% of the federal poverty level. METHODS: The Six-Item Short Form of the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Scale was used as part of a 1999 county-wide, population-based, telephone survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of food insecurity was 24.4% and was inversely associated with household income. Other independent predictors of food insecurity included the presence of children in the household (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3) and a history of homelessness in the past five years (OR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4-9.4). CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is a significant public health problem among low-income households in Los Angeles County. Food assistance programmes should focus efforts on households living in and near poverty, those with children, and those with a history of homelessness.


Furst, T., M. Connors, et al. (1996). "Food choice: a conceptual model of the process." Appetite 26: 247-266.

Gallagher, K., A. Stanley, et al. (2005). "Challenges in data collection, analysis, and distribution of information in community coalition demonstration projects." 37(3): S53-S60.

Purpose: This article summarizes the experiences of 13 grantees funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the Community Coalition Partnership for the Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data as required under the requirements of this community-based demonstration project. While describing the challenges associated with these activities, this article suggests how future demonstration projects can better support both centralized and locally based data collection and analysis and enhance their usefulness for various audiences. Methods: A multi-method data collection approach was employed that included: (a) a systematic review of semiannual progress reports submitted by the grantees to CDC between 1998 and 2002, (b) telephone interviews with program directors and evaluators and (c) site visits to four of the 13 grantee locations. In all, 46 individuals were interviewed, for an average of 3.5 respondents per grantee site. Data collected for this article focused on three data collection/analysis activities required as part of the Partnership: needs assessments conducted during the planning phase of the project, the collection of cross-site indicator data and project-specific studies. Results: Grantees from the 13 Partnership communities indicated that two of the data collection/analysis requirements (the needs and assets assessments and project-specific studies) were useful and should be included in future demonstration projects. The collection of cross-site indicator data was found to be more challenging. Across all areas of data collection/analysis, the grantees' efforts were complicated by data collection challenges, difficulties conducting studies of local programs, and uncertainties about how local efforts fit with national goals for the demonstration projects. Conclusion: The data collection/analysis activities within the Partnership were viewed by the grantees as being both supportive of project efforts, but also challenging. On the positive side, the presence of community-based evaluators helped the grantees to profile community needs, identify program interventions, provide participant feedback, and track community mobilization efforts. Collection of the cross-site indicator data was difficult for many of the grantees and not always connected to locally determined objectives. The value of these activities can be enhanced in the future if greater attention is given to creating more clearly defined goals at the demonstration project level and to providing guidance on scientifically valid data collection and analysis techniques to maximize the usefulness of local efforts. (c) 2005 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
Gannon, K. and L. Glover (2005). "Men, masculinity and reproduction." JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE AND INFANT PSYCHOLOGY 23(3): 268-269.

Gaskin, I., M. (1987). Babies, Breastfeeding & Bonding. USA, Bergin & Garvey.

Gatrell, C. (2005). "Hard labour: the sociology of motherhood and career."

The number of women who combine motherhood with employment has increased significantly over the past 25 years. At the forefront of this important social change are women who are well qualified (degree level or above) and who are pursuing careers at senior level. Considers how they are treated at home and at work. (Original abstract - amended)


Gavanas, A. (2004). "Domesticating masculinity and masculinizing domesticity in contemporary US fatherhood politics." SOCIAL POLITICS 11(2): 247-266.

Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. fatherhood responsibility movement has claimed that fathers have become marginalized in the family, with catastrophic societal consequences. In response to this perceived situation, the fatherhood responsibility movement seeks to reestablish the necessity of men in families, constituting fatherhood as specifically male in differentiation from the feminizing connotations of family involvement. However, by masculinizing fatherhood, proponents of responsible fatherhood engage a century-long dilemma at the heart of constructing particularly male versions of parenthood: How do you masculinize domesticity and at the same time domesticate masculinity? The fatherhood responsibility movement deals with this dilemma by converging on three long-standing and overlapping arenas for masculinization: heterosexuality, sport, and religion


Gengler, C. E., M. S. Mulvey, et al. (1999). "A means-end analysis of mothers' infant feeding choices." 18(2): 172-188.

In this research, the authors focus on the choice of an infant feeding method as a public policy issue and present the results of a qualitative study of mothers' motivations to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. Means-end theory provides a framework for understanding mothers' motivations, and the authors interview 73 mothers using a qualitative technique called "laddering." The results of this study could hell, improve promotional campaigns and training programs by reinforcing the benefits of breastfeeding. This may encourage more mothers to breastfeed, as well as reinforce the efforts of women already breastfeeding to continue during this stressful and demanding time. Marketing strategies and public policy programs must be directed toward preventing pre,nature discontinuation that deprives many infants of the fill benefits of breastfeeding.


Geraghty, S. R., S. M. Pinney, et al. (2004). "Breast milk feeding rates of mothers of multiples compared to mothers of singletons." 4(3): 226-231.

Objective.-Over 3% of infants born annually in the United States are from a multiple gestation pregnancy, yet there is little data published about the feeding practices of their mothers. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the rates of breast milk feeding of mothers of multiples and mothers of singletons. Methods.-Stratified random sampling (n = 686) on the basis of plurality of pregnancy and gestational age at delivery was performed on a 1999 birth certificate database in the greater Cincinnati area. We collected information about infant feeding during the first 6 months of life using a retrospective, self-administered questionnaire and phone interview from mothers of term singletons (TS), preterm singletons (PS), term multiples (TM), and preterm multiples (PM). Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic or multiple regression. Results.-We obtained feeding information from 346 mothers (n = 81 TS, 80 PS, 90 TM, and 95 PM). By 3 days postpartum, PM provided breast milk less often than all other groups: TS = 69%, PS = 66%, TM = 73%, PM = 57% (P = .035). Among mothers who initiated breast milk feeding, the geometric mean duration of at least some breast milk feeding was significantly shorter for PM than for all other groups: TS = 23 weeks, PS = 19 weeks, TM = 24 weeks, and PM = 12 weeks (P = .002). Conclusions.-Further evaluation of the potential causes for the lower breast milk feeding rates among PM is needed to develop effective intervention strategies and increase the number of preterm multiple gestation infants receiving breast milk.


Germov, J. and L. Williams (1999). A sociology of food and nutrition : the social appetite. South Melbourne, Vic. ; Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Giard, L. (1980). Doing Cooking. The Everyday Life Reader. B. Highmore. London, Routledge.

Gibson, E. L., J. Wardle, et al. (1998). "Fruit and vegetable consumption, nutritional knowledge and beliefs in mothers and children." Appetite 31(2): 205-228.

Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is an important health behaviour. Parental and other psychosocial influences on children's fruit and vegetable consumption are poorly understood. The contribution of a variety of psychosocial and environmental factors to consumption of fruit and vegetables by children aged 9-11 years was explored. Ninety-two mothers and children (48 girls and 44 boys) were recruited via urban primary health-care practices. Socio-economic and educational level, nutritional knowledge and health- and diet-related beliefs and attitudes were assessed in mothers and children by questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Mothers' diets were measured by a food frequency questionnaire, while children's diets were assessed by 3-day diaries (N = 80). The pattern of influence of the various measures on fruit and vegetable consumption was compared with that on children's confectionery intake. The children's intakes of macronutrients were typical for the U.K. (37% fat, 50% carbohydrate and 13% protein by energy; 12 g/day fibre), while median fruit, fruit juice and vegetable intake amounted to about 2.5 servings/day. Univariate correlations and subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed quite different influences on the three food types. Independent predictors of children's fruit intake included mothers' nutritional knowledge (beta = 0.37), mothers' frequency of fruit consumption (beta = 0.30) and mothers' attitudinal conviction that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by their children could reduce their risk of developing cancer (beta = 0.27; multiple r2 = 0.37, p < 0.0001). Children's vegetable consumption was independently explained by the child's liking for commonly eaten vegetables (beta = 0.36) and the mother's belief in the importance of disease prevention when choosing her child's food (beta = -0.27; r2 = 0.20, p < 0.001). Children's confectionery consumption was predicted by the mother's liking for confectionery (beta = 0.32) and the children's concern for health in choosing what to eat (beta = -0.26; r2 = 0.16, p < 0.005). Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables are related to different psychosocial and environmental factors. Promotion of this behaviour may require attention to nutritional education and child feeding strategies of parents.


Gibson, E. L., J. Wardle, et al. (1998). "Fruit and vegetable consumption, nutritional knowledge and beliefs in mothers and children." 31(2): 205-228.

Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is an important health behaviour. Parental and other psychosocial influences on children's fruit and vegetable consumption are poorly understood. The contribution of a variety of psychosocial and environmental factors to consumption of fruit and vegetables by children aged 9-11 years was explored. Ninety-two mothers and children (48 girls and 44 boys) were recruited via urban primary health-care practices. Socio-economic and educational level, nutritional knowledge and health- and diet-related beliefs and attitudes were assessed in mothers and children by questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Mothers' diets were measured by a food frequency questionnaire, while children's diets were assessed by 3-day diaries (N = 80). The pattern of influence of the various measures on fruit and vegetable consumption was compared with that on children's confectionery intake. The children's intakes of macronutrients were typical for the U.K. (37% fat, 50% carbohydrate and 13% protein by energy; 12 g/day fibre), while median fruit, fruit juice and vegetable intake amounted to about 2.5 servings/day. Univariate correlations and subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed quite different influences on the three food types. Independent predictors of children's fruit intake included mothers nutritional knowledge (beta = 0.37), mothers' frequency of fruit consumption (beta = 0.30) and mothers' attitudinal conviction that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by their children could reduce their risk of developing cancer (beta = 0.27; multiple beta = 0.37, p<0.0001). Children's vegetable consumption was independently explained by the child's liking for commonly eaten vegetables (beta = 0.36) and the mother's belief in the importance of disease prevention when choosing her child's food (beta = - 0.27; r(2) = 0.20, p<0.001). Children's confectionery consumption was predicted by the mother's liking for confectionery (beta=0.32) and the children's concern for health in choosing what to eat (beta =-0.26, r(2) = 0.16, p<0.005). Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables are related to different psychosocial and environmental factors. Promotion of this behaviour may require attention to nutritional education and child feeding strategies of parents. (C) 1998 Academic Press.


Gibson, E. L., J. Wardle, et al. (1998). "Fruit and vegetable consumption, nutritional knowledge and beliefs in mothers and children." Appetite 31(2): 205-228.

Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is important health behaviour. Parental and other psychosocial influences on children's fruit and vegetable consumption are poorly understood. The contribution of a variety of psychosocial and environmental factors to consumption of fruit and vegetables by children aged 9-11 years was explored. Ninety-two mothers and children (48 girls and 44 boys) were recruited via urban primary health-care practices. Socio-economic and educational level, nutritional knowledge and health- and diet-related beliefs and attitudes were assessed in mothers and children by questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Mothers>> diets were measured by a food frequency questionnaire, while children's diets were assessed by 3-day diaries (N=80). The pattern of influence of the various measures on fruit and vegetable consumption was compared with that on children's confectionery intake. The children's intakes of macronutrients were typical for the U.K. (37% fat, 50% carbohydrate and 13% protein by energy; 12 g/day fibre), while median fruit, fruit juice and vegetable intake amounted to about 2.5 servings/day. Univariate correlations and subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed quite different influences on the three food types. Independent predictors of children's fruit intake included mothers>> nutritional knowledge (beta=0.37), mothers>> frequency of fruit consumption (beta=0.30) and mothers>> attitudinal conviction that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by their children could reduce their risk of developing cancer (beta=0.27; multiple r2=0.37,p<0.0001). Children's vegetable consumption was independently explained by the child's liking for commonly eaten vegetables (beta=0.36) and the mother's belief in the importance of disease prevention when choosing her child's food (beta=-0.27 r2=0.20,p<0.001). Children's confectionery consumption was predicted by the mother's liking for confectionery (beta=0.32) and the children's concern for health in choosing what to eat (beta=-0.26 r2=0.16, p<0.005). Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables are related to different psychosocial and environmental factors. Promotion of this behaviour may require attention to nutritional education and child feeding strategies of parents.


Giddens, A. (1998). The Third Way: the renewal of social democracy. Cambridge:, Polity Press.

Gijsbers, B., I. Mesters, et al. (2005). "Factors influencing breastfeeding practices and postponement of solid food to prevent allergic disease in high-risk children: results from an explorative study." 57(1): 15-21.

This paper presents results of seven focus group interviews conducted to gain insight into the feelings, opinions and perceived barriers of parents with a history of asthma who have recently delivered a child. The parents participated in an educational program regarding breastfeeding and postponement of solid food to prevent their child from developing allergic symptoms. Breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months seemed an advice difficult to follow. The most important influencing factors regarding initiation and continuation of breastfeeding were health advantages for the baby, bonding, social support, modelling, knowledge about all the aspects of breastfeeding and breastfeeding confidence. In general, parents adhered to the advice to postpone solid food until the child had reached the age of 6 years. The few obstacles revealed were social pressure, hungry babies and eagerness of parents to give solid food. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilbert, E. D. (2005). "The surprising power of family meals: How eating together makes us smarter, stronger, healthier, and happier." 130(14): 164-164.

Gilbert, T. (2001). "Reflective Practice and clinical supervision: meticulous rituals of the confessional,." Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(2): 199-205.

Gill, G. K. "Gender Roles, Negotiations and Coping Strategies: A Qualitative Study of Two-Income Couples."

Data obtained via in-depth interviews & structured questionnaires from 35 two-income couples with children in Australia are drawn on to explore the ideology of gender roles, negotiations, & strategies employed by such couples to cope with the demand of housework. Analysis reveals variations in gender-role ideology: 33% of the couples felt that ideally, only the husband should be the main provider, whereas the remainder supported either spouse in the provider role. In actual practice, however, husbands & wives performed their roles as providers & contributors, respectively. Although housework was perceived as a shared responsibility, wives performed a majority of the household tasks. A seven-step model based on the process of negotiation as one typical coping strategy by husbands & wives during the housework performance is developed. Results confirm & extend the existing dichotomy of gender relations (masculine-feminine & provider-nurturer roles) to provider-contributor & helper-accountable roles. 1 Table, 1 Figure, 24 References. Adapted from the source document.


Gillies, P. (1998). "Effectiveness of Alliances and Partnerships for Health Promotion,." Health Promotion International 13((2):): 99-120.

Gillies, V. (2005). "Meeting parents needs?" Critical Social Policy 25(1): 70-90.

Gillman, M. W., S. L. Rifas-Shiman, et al. (2006). "Breast-feeding and overweight in adolescence." Epidemiology 17(1): 112-114.

Gillon, E. J. (1997). Men's Talk about Food: A Discourse Analysis. Buckingham, Open University.

Giullari, S. and M. Shaw (2005). "Supporting or controlling? New Labour's housing strategy for teenage parents

10.1177/0261018305054078." Critical Social Policy 25(3): 402-417.

Teenage pregnancy has been the subject of much attention in recent social policy, including a particular strategy for supported housing for teenage parents. The issue of support, both formal and from family, is central to this endeavour, and problematic. In this paper we unravel New Labour's construction of teenage parents' housing need as an issue of isolation from support. First we focus on family support, and argue that New Labour's supported housing strategy ignores its fragile and individualized nature and thus puts it in jeopardy. We then disentangle the discourse of welfare dependency that underpins this strategy and show that its disregard for teenage parents' need for independent housing and capacity for autonomous living says more about the wish to control those teenage parents that New Labour perceives most at risk of welfare dependency than it does about a genuine desire to support them. We conclude that a right to independent housing is key to a strategy that genuinely aims to support teenage parents.
Glasser, C. K. (1997). "Patriarchy, Mediated Desire, and Chinese Magazine Fiction." Journal of Communication 47(1): 85-108.

Examines the fictional writings found in three Chinese women's magazines from 1961 to 1991 to analyze the relationship between social change and mass media using a feminist viewpoint. The author notes that the repression of the worker of the 1960's was replaced by domestic images of wives and mothers after the modernization policies of the 1970's.


Golan, M. and S. Crow (X2004). "Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems." Nutrition Reviews. 62(1): 39-50.

There is growing agreement among experts that an obesogenic environment, which encourage excess food intake and idealizes thinness, plays a crucial role in the epidemic of childhood obesity and eating disorders. Because parents provide a child's contextual environment, they should be considered key players in interventions aimed at preventing or treating weight-related problems. Parenting style and feeding style are crucial factors in fostering healthy lifestyle and awareness of internal hunger and satiety cues and de-emphasizing thinness. Effective interventions for prevention and treatment of weight-related problems should be approached from a health-centered rather than a weight-centered perspective, with the parents as central agents of change. This paper reviews the environmental risk factors and parents' role in the prevention and treatment of children's weight-related problems. [References: 128]


Goldscheider, F. K. (2000). "Men, children and the future of the family in the third millennium." Futures
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