Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Fewtrell, M. S. (2004). "The long-term benefits of having been breast-fed." Current Paediatrics 14: 97-103.

Field, F. (2005). "Eleanor Rathbone and the Politics of Citizenship."

The contributions of Eleanor Rathbone to contemporary understandings of citizenship & the connection between citizenship & motherhood are considered. An overview of Rathbone's career as a Member of British Parliament & of the origins of her notion of citizenship is presented; it is stressed that Rathbone's conception of citizenship is contingent upon principles of high character, presenting one's best self, & responsibility. Rathbone's efforts to extend enfranchisement to British women during the 1910s & to have the British state endow motherhood are then examined. In addition, Rathbone's contention that inadequate parenting is responsible for various social problems & recommendations for establishing an endowment scheme that would allow mothers to properly nurture their children are covered. It is stressed that contemporary British society should initiate debates regarding the endowment of motherhood & the financial & social costs of endowing mothers of young children. J. W. Parker.


Finch, C. and E. L. Daniel (2002). "Breastfeeding education program with incentives increases exclusive breastfeeding among urban WIC participants." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102(7): 981-984.

Finch, J. (1989). Family obligations and social change. Cambridge, Polity Press.

Finch, J., & Mason, J. (1993). Negotating Family Responsibilities.

Fiorino, V. (2003). "Gender and masculinity - A historical perspective." MOUVEMENT SOCIAL(203): 130-132.

Fischler, C. (1980). "Food habits, social change and nature/culture dilemma." Social Science Information 19(6): 937-53.

Fischler, C. (1986). "Learned versus "spontaneous" dietetics: French mothers' views of what children should eat." Social Science Information 25(4): 945-65.

Fischler, C. (1987). Attitudes toward Sugar and Sweetness in Historical and Sociological Perspective. Sweetness. J. Dobbing. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Fischler, C. (1988). "Food, Self and Identity." Social Science Information 27(2): 275-92.

Fischler, C. (1989). Cuisines and Food Selection. Food Acceptability. D. M. H. Thomson. London, Elsevier.

Fisher, J. O. and L. L. Birch (1999). "Restricting access to foods and children's eating." Appetite. 32(3): 405-19.

This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related "risk" factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine "risk" factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Fisher, J. O. and L. L. Birch (1999). "Restricting access to palatable foods affects children's behavioural response, food selection and intake." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 1264-1272.

Fisher, J. O. and L. L. Birch (2002). "Eating in the absence of hunger and overweight in girls from 5 to 7 y of age." Am J Clin Nutr 76(1): 226-31.

BACKGROUND: Eating when exposed to large portions of palatable foods in the absence of hunger has been suggested to contribute to overweight. OBJECTIVE: This research evaluated whether young girls' eating in the absence of hunger was stable across a 2-y period in middle childhood, was associated with an increased risk of overweight, and could be predicted by parents' use of restriction in child feeding. DESIGN: The participants were 192 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when the girls were 5 and 7 y of age. The girls' eating when exposed to palatable foods in the absence of hunger was measured after they consumed a standard lunch and indicated that they were no longer hungry. RESULTS: Eating in the absence of hunger showed moderate stability across the 2-y period for most of the girls. The girls who ate large amounts of snack foods in the absence of hunger at 5 and 7 y of age were 4.6 times as likely to be overweight at both ages. Parents' reports of restricting their daughter's access to foods at age 5 y predicted girls' eating in the absence of hunger at age 7 y, even when the girls' weight status and eating in the absence of hunger at age 5 y were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that young girls' eating in the absence of hunger may represent a stable phenotypic behavior of young overweight girls. In addition, these findings are consistent with previous work indicating that parents' restrictive feeding practices may contribute to this behavior.
Fisher, J. O., L. L. Birch, et al. (2000). "Breast-feeding through the first year predicts maternal control in feeding and subsequent toddler energy intakes." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100(6): 641-646.

Objective Current recommendations for infant feeding encourage breast-feeding through the first year. This research was conducted to evaluate associations among breast-feeding, maternal control of child feeding, and the dietary intake of toddlers during the second year of life, In particular, we sought to determine whether breast-feeding through the first year and subsequent toddler intake was mediated via maternal control of child feeding. Design/subjects Fifty-five white infants and their mothers were monitored longitudinally from age 12 or 13 months to age 18 months. Main outcome measures Breast-feeding through the first year and maternal control in infant feeding were evaluated as predictors of energy intake at age 18 months. Statistical analyses performed Regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of toddler energy intake at age 18 months. A mediation model tested if the relationship between breast-feeding and infant intake was mediated by maternal control in feeding. Results Breast-feeding through the first year was associated with higher toddler energy intakes at age 18 months through its influence on maternal control in feeding. Mothers who breast-fed their infants for at least 12 months used lower levels of control in feeding. Lower levels of maternal control in feeding were associated with higher toddler energy intakes. The highest energy intakes among children aged 18 months were observed among taller and leaner toddlers. Applications/conclusions Our findings suggest that breast-feeding through the first year may have an effect on children's energy intake by shaping mothers' child-feeding practices. These findings may be used by clinicians to assist parents in making informed decisions about choice of infant-feeding method and to provide anticipatory guidance regarding infant-feeding style when initiating dietary diversity.


Flynn, A., M. Harrison, et al. (1998). Regulation, rights and the structuring of food choices. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Pearson Education: 152-167.

Foley, P. (2001). 'Our Bodies, Ourselves'?: Mothers, Children and Health Care at Home. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 98-103.

Foord, M. and P. Simic. (2001). "A sustainable approach to planning housing and social care: if not now, when?"

The publication of 'Supporting People' (Department of Social Security 1998) has given urgency to discussions around needs analysis, planning, user voice and the development of 'normal' housing for people with support needs. Explores a project, which aimed to design a collaborative model for identifying supported housing needs. (Original abstract - amended)


Forbes, G. B., L. Adams-Curtis, et al. (2005). "Body dissatisfaction in college women and their mothers: Cohort effects, developmental effects, and the influences of body size, sexism, and the thin body ideal." 53(3-4): 281-298.

A study of body dissatisfaction, as measured by the Figure Rating Scale ( Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schlusinger, 1983) and the Body Esteem Scale ( Franzoi & Shields, 1984), in 75 college women and their mothers indicated that both daughters and mothers experienced body dissatisfaction. When body size was statistically controlled, either no difference was found between the groups or daughters were found to have greater body dissatisfaction than mothers. The results supported the hypotheses that ( 1) there are generational differences in body dissatisfaction, ( 2) both cohort and developmental effects contribute to these differences, and ( 3) that a developmental effect ( mothers' greater body size) may obscure a cohort effect ( daughters' greater exposure to the thin body ideal). Body dissatisfaction measures based on the mothers' retrospective ratings of how they felt at their daughters' age were consistent with these hypotheses. Relationships between body dissatisfaction and the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire ( Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995) were stronger and more frequent for daughters than for mothers and for the Internalization Scale than for the Awareness Scale. Relationships between the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory ( Glick & Fiske, 2001) and body dissatisfaction were stronger for mothers than for daughters and for Benevolent Sexism than for Hostile Sexism.


Foresight Trends and Drivers of Obesity: A Literature Review for the Foresight Project on Obesity

Forste, R. (2002). "Where Are All the Men? A Conceptual Analysis of the Role of Men in Family Formation." JOURNAL OF FAMILY ISSUES 23(5): 579-600.

Over the past several decades, births in the United States occurring outside of marriage have increased dramatically. At the same time, the involvement of men in child rearing has split along a continuum between two distinct types: "Good Dads," men who are actively involved in child care, and "Bad Dads," men who reject parental responsibilities (Furstenberg, 1988). Why some men are actively involved with their children and others are not is a critical question, given the declining role of men in the family (Furstenberg, 1988; Goldscheider & Kaufman, 1996). The commitment of men to their sex partners and the children they father has serious consequences not only for women and children but also for men. Nonmarital births in particular have been linked to health risks and poverty among women and children as well as poverty among unmarried fathers (Brown & Eisenberg, 1995; Da Vanzo & Rahman, 1993; Nock, 1998; Stier & Tienda, 1994; Zill & Nord, 1994).

The role of men in family formation has largely been overlooked in contemporary research, given that women physically bear children and that child rearing has historically been considered the domain of women. Increasingly, the critical role men play in family formation is being recognized. Goldscheider and Kaufman (1996), in a review of the literature on men and their role in fertility, asked, "What do we know about how variation in male commitment, involvement-the partner dimension of 'context'-influences fertility-related behavior?" (p. 93). Their answer? Very few studies even consider the question.

Past studies of family formation in the United States have been based almost entirely on surveys of women, in part because the reporting of fertility by men is generally considered flawed: Men tend to underreport fertility. Researchers have concluded that the additional information provided by men in general does not warrant the cost of surveying both groups (Cherlin, Griffith, & McCarthy, 1983; Morgan, 1985). However, the demand for data on the fertility of men has increased recently because of the growth of out-of-wedlock childbearing, marital disruption, and public assistance programs that require the identification of fathers for child support payments (Bachu, 1996). If the intent of research is primarily to calculate precise rates, then the study of women is preferable. If, however, the intent is to understand men's family formation patterns and subsequent participation in parenting, then the study of men is essential (Bianchi, 1998; Brown & Eisenberg, 1995; Goldscheider & Kaufman, 1996; Moore, 1995).

Most of what is known about the fertility-related behavior of men is based on studies of adolescents. Moore (1995), in a report to Congress, reviewed research on out-of-wedlock childbearing and noted that considerable research has been done on adolescent childbearing, but much less is known about the fertility- and marital-related behaviors of adults. She concluded that because most research on nonmarital childbearing has focused on adolescents and women, further research is needed, in particular to understand the role of adult men in family formation. Similarly, Bianchi (1998), in her introduction to a recent special issue of Demography entitled "Men in Families," emphasized the need for more research on men's involvement in contraceptive and childbearing decision making. Thus, further study of the processes leading to family formation and the early involvement of young men in parenting is needed. To date, previous research has focused largely on the participation of men in families generally but has given little attention to the processes leading to the formation of families and to how men define their role as fathers, particularly men in nonmarital unions (Blankenhorn, 1995; Furstenberg, 1988; Gerson, 1993; Goldscheider & Waite, 1991; Marsiglio, 1995). The purpose of this review, therefore, is twofold: (a) to summarize the primary literature on the role of adult men in family formation and (b) to outline a potential framework for future research. Because the primary aim of the literature review is to present a potential research model and to identify major gaps, it should not be considered comprehensive.


Foster, L. K. G., Peg (2004). Fathers' Impact on Children's Nutrition, California Research Bureau.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In California, one out of every four children is classified as overweight or likely to become overweight. Obesity exacts high costs to the psychological and physical health of individuals who are overweight. In addition, it leads to high medical costs for society to treat the related health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. As a result, nutrition enhancement and obesity prevention have become primary targets of health policy efforts at both the national and state levels.

Most child nutrition-related research and programs focus on mothers as the primary influence on children's eating habits. To date there has been little research on the relationship between fathers and children relating to nutrition in spite of the role changes brought about by recent trends in divorce, single-parenthood, and joint custody. In order to examine this aspect of father/child relationships, the California Department of Health Services, Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section provided funds to the California Research Bureau (CRB) for a qualitative community research project. As part of the project, CRB convened a series of focus groups with fathers of young children. The groups discussed child nutrition, meal planning, shopping for and preparing food, and resources available to families in need of food. This report includes the information gathered in the focus groups as well as descriptions and findings from some of the relevant research.

The focus groups revealed that fathers face many of the same problems documented in research on mothers and children when it comes to what their children eat. Frozen and processed foods such as pizza and corn dogs were favorites among many of the children as were Mexican dishes like burritos and tacos. Vegetables were not high on many of the children's lists of favorites. The focus groups included many fathers who understood the importance of good nutrition and made an effort to cook balanced meals for their children. On the other hand, the fathers interviewed suffered the typical problems faced by single parents and couples who work long hours and have children with busy schedules. Time available for cooking is limited. Fast food filled-in for home cooked meals on occasions when the family was particularly rushed.

When asked about resources available to families who ran out of money to purchase food, many fathers spoke of "making do" with what was available. Some focus group fathers said they thought that families would cut back on other expenses, buy cheaper food, borrow food, find a second job, or otherwise "find a way" to feed their families when they were short on money for food. Some said families would likely eat less food and eat less healthy food. Some fathers were aware of government programs although several thought that men would not take advantage of these resources due to pride or cultural issues. When the WIC (Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children) program was raised, several fathers asked the focus group leader if men were eligible to apply, a valid question given the name of the program.

Based on research and input from the focus groups, the report offers several options for policy-makers that focus on targeting and outreach to fathers for current programs for which they are eligible. It also suggests exploring the feasibility of adding fathers as eligible applicants for current child nutrition programs that are restricted to mothers.
Foster, L. W. and L. J. McLellan (2002). "Translating psychosocial insight into ethical discussions supportive of families in end-of-life decision-making." Social Work in Health Care 35(3): 37-51.

A large number of Americans would rather rely on family and friends more than their physicians about end-of-life care and decisions. Moving beyond traditional clinical ethics and its dyadic focus on the physician-patient relationship, this article presents an approach to ethical decision-making at the end of life that is more inclusive of the patient's family and has the potential to advance social work practice in end-of- life care. Initial attention is given to how psychosocial and bioethical perspectives and practices interact to shape understanding of moral issues in end-of-life decisions. Morally relevant principles are then adapted from contextual therapy as being useful for including more of a family focus and viewing ethical decision-making at the end of life as a family process. Specifically, focus is on exploring the ethical dynamics of family systems that impact the decision-making process and translating psychosocial insight into ethical discussions that are supportive of families. The case of a patient with sudden and unexpected brain death and without advance directives demonstrates one family's unresolved grief and illustrates how its members were helped to reason morally about end-of-life choices. Contributions of a social worker and bioethicist are illustrated. (C) 2002 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved


Fox, M. K., K. Reidy, et al. (2006). "Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106(1): S28-S42.

Frampton, E. (2004). "Fluid objects: Kleinian, psychoanalytic theory and breast feeding narratives." Australian Feminist Studies 19(45): 357-368.

Francis, L. A. and L. L. Birch (2005). "Maternal weight status modulates the effects of restriction on daughters' eating and weight." International Journal of Obesity 29(8): 942-949.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of overweight and normal-weight mothers' restriction in child feeding on daughters' eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and body mass index (BMI) change from age 5 to age 9 y. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of the health and development of young girls. SUBJECTS: A total of 91 overweight and 80 normal-weight mothers and their daughters, assessed when daughters were ages 5, 7, and 9 y. MEASUREMENTS: Measures included maternal restriction of daughters' intake at age 5 y, and daughters' EAH and BMI change from age 5 to 9 y. RESULTS: There were no overall differences in the level of restriction that overweight and normal-weight mothers used. However, overweight mothers' restrictive feeding practices when daughters were age 5 y predicted daughters' EAH over time, and higher EAH scores were associated with greater BMI change from age 5 to 9 y. These relationships did not hold for daughters of normal-weight mothers. CONCLUSION: More adverse effects of restriction on daughters' EAH, and links between EAH and BMI change were only noted among daughters of overweight mothers. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of factors that contribute to within-group variation in eating behavior and weight status.


Francis, L. A., S. M. Hofer, et al. (2001). "Predictors of maternal child-feeding style: maternal and child characteristics." Appetite 37(3): 231-243.

We investigated relationships among maternal and child characteristics. and two aspects of maternal child-feeding styles that may place daughters at risk for developing problems with energy balance, Participants included 104 overweight (BMI greater than or equal to 25) and 92 non-overweight (BMI < 25) mothers and their 5-year-old. non-Hispanic, White daughters, Child-Feeding styles included (a) restriction of daughters' intake of energy-dense snack food, and (b) pressure to cat more food. Predictors of child-feeding styles included measures of (1) maternal investment in weight and eating issues. including dietary restraint and weight concern., (2) child adiposity, (3) maternal perceptions of the child as underweight or overweight, and (4) maternal concern for child weight. Mothers reported using more restrictive feeding practices when they were invested in weight and eating issues, when they perceived daughters as overweight, when they were concerned about daughters' weight, and when daughters were heavier. Mothers reported using more pressure in child feeding when daughters were thinner, and when mothers perceived daughters as underweight. Further analyses examined whether relationships among child-feeding styles were different for overweight and non-overweight mothers. Overweight mothers' child-feeding styles appeared to be influenced by observable child weight characteristics, concerns for the child's weight status, and mothers' own history of overweight. Non-overweight mothers' child-feeding styles appeared to be influenced by distorted perceptions of and concerns for children, as well as distorted self-perceptions. (C) 2001 Academic Press.


Frederick, S. A. (2001). "Housewives, Modern Girls, Feminists: Women's Magazines and Modernity in Japan." DAI 61(10): 4001-A.

Friedman, B. D. "No Place Like Home: A Study of Two Homeless Shelters."

Explores the operations of 2 adult homeless shelters to understand how they address the problem of homelessness, drawing on case records, participant observation, & interviews with 14 guests & 4 staff members. Two types of services are identified: house & home. House services provided basic food, shelter, & linkage to social services, which fulfilled the basic definition of the problem of homelessness. Home services provided the basic services of house but also went one step beyond by providing these services within the context of a supportive environment, thus creating informal social supports. Discussed are implications of each of these modalities in addressing the problems associated with the homeless as well as the differences in policies & structures that contribute to one shelter providing house, & the other home, services. 3 Tables, 101 References. Adapted from the source document.
Frohlich, J. (2002). "Obesity in pregnancy." MIDIRS

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