Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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51(2): 127-154.

The medical properties ascribed to different foodstuffs by physicians in 18th-century Europe and North America were still derived largely from the theory of humors, but the so-called solidist theory and new chemical theories were easily incorporated. The classification of foods in chemical terms made prescription easier, but it is difficult to determine what properties of particular foods prompted their entry into common medical usage. Medical recipe guides, general health guides, and cookbooks spread the ideas associating specific foods to the prevention and cure of disease to women cooking for households of all sizes and conditions.


Etelson, D., D. A. Brand, et al. (2003). "Childhood obesity: do parents recognise this health risk?" Obesity Research 11: 1362-1368.

European Commission Childcare, M. a. c. N. (1993). Men as carers : towards a culture of responsibility, sharing and reciprocity between women and men in the care and upbringing of children.

European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, I. R. and A. Social (1999). Inventory of projects regarding families and children, 1993-1997. Luxembourg, Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities.

European Commission. Network on, C., E. Other Measures to Reconcile, et al. Annual report. [Brussels], The Network.

European Commission. Network on, C., E. other Measures to Reconcile, et al. (1994). Men as carers : towards a culture of responsibility, sharing and reciprocity between women and men in the care and upbringing of children : report of an international seminar Ravenna, Italy, May 21-22 1993. London, European Commission Network on Childcare and other Measures to Reconcile Employment and Family Responsibilities.

Evans, J. and D. Legrange (1995). "Body-Size and Parenting in Eating Disorders - a Comparative-Study of the Attitudes of Mothers Towards Their Children." 18(1): 39-48.

The present study aimed to redress the paucity of available information on the effects of eating disorders on patients' parenting capabilities and their children's development. Ten previous and/or current eating-disordered mothers and their children and 10 normal mothers and their offspring completed several rating scales and participated in a semistructured interview. The results indicated that both groups and their children displayed similar levels of satisfaction with their body sizes and perceived their current weights and shape with a similar degree of accuracy. These groups were, however, found to differ on the types of feeding employed during their children's infancy with the eating-disordered mothers choosing to schedule feed their babies, whereas the control mothers fed on demand. At least half the children of eating-disordered mothers were also described as suffering from emotional difficulties. Recommendations are made for increased availability of supportive and instructive facilities for these mothers, particularly during their nursing period. (C) 1995 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Evenhouse, E. and S. Reilly (2005). "Improved estimates of the benefits of breastfeeding using sibling comparisons to reduce selection bias." Health Services Research 40(6): 1781-1802.

Fairburn, C. G., A. Stein, et al. (1992). "Eating Habits and Eating Disorders During Pregnancy." 54(6): 665-672.

A general population sample of 100 primigravid women was studied prospectively to describe the changes in eating that occur in pregnancy with particular reference to cravings and aversions and the behavior and attitudes characteristic of clinical eating disorders. Assessment was by standardized interview. Dietary cravings and aversions were found to be common and largely confined to early pregnancy. Eating disorder features decreased in severity early in pregnancy but increased later on. Dietary cravings rarely resulted in episodes of overeating like those seen in patients with eating disorders. In this study of a general population sample, no evidence was found of a relationship between pregnancy outcome and the severity of eating disorder features prior to pregnancy.
Fairburn, C. G. W., S L. (1990). "The Impact of Pregnancy on Eating Habits and Attitudes to Shape and Weight." International Journal of Eating Disorders 9(2): 153-160.

Faith, M. S., R. I. Berkowitz, et al. (2004). "Parental feeding attitudes and styles and child body mass index: prospective analysis of a gene-environment interaction." Pediatrics 114: e429-e436.

Faith, M. S., S. Heshka, et al. (2003). "Maternal-child feeding patterns and child body weight - Findings from a population-based sample." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157(9): 926-932.

Background: Certain mother-child feeding patterns (MCFPs) may promote childhood obesity and/or disordered eating. Objectives: To assess the demographic correlates of MCFPs and to test whether differences in MCFPs are associated with child body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) z scores in a population-based study. Design: A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth main and child cohorts was conducted on more than 1000 Hispanic, African American, and non-Hispanic/non-African American children, aged 3 to 6 years. The MCFPs were measured by means of 3 interview questions probing mother-allotted child food choice, child compliance during meals, and child obedience during meals. Results: Mothers of non-Hispanic/non-African American children allotted greater food choice than mothers of African American or Hispanic children. Maternal BMI and other demographic measures were unrelated to MCFPs. The lowest levels of mother-allotted child food choice and child eating compliance were associated with reduced child BMI, with mean BMI z scores of -0.36 and -0.41, respectively. Effect sizes were small, however, and MCFPs did not discriminate children who were overweight or at risk for being overweight from children who were not (P>.05). Conclusions: Feeding strategies providing the least child food choice were associated with reduced child BMI. However, MCFPs did not relate to child overweight status.


Faith, M. S., S. Heshka, et al. (2003). "Maternal-child feeding patterns and child body weight - Findings from a population-based sample." 157(9): 926-932.

Background: Certain mother-child feeding patterns (MCFPs) may promote childhood obesity and/or disordered eating. Objectives: To assess the demographic correlates of MCFPs and to test whether differences in MCFPs are associated with child body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) z scores in a population-based study. Design: A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth main and child cohorts was conducted on more than 1000 Hispanic, African American, and non-Hispanic/non-African American children, aged 3 to 6 years. The MCFPs were measured by means of 3 interview questions probing mother-allotted child food choice, child compliance during meals, and child obedience during meals. Results: Mothers of non-Hispanic/non-African American children allotted greater food choice than mothers of African American or Hispanic children. Maternal BMI and other demographic measures were unrelated to MCFPs. The lowest levels of mother-allotted child food choice and child eating compliance were associated with reduced child BMI, with mean BMI z scores of -0.36 and -0.41, respectively. Effect sizes were small, however, and MCFPs did not discriminate children who were overweight or at risk for being overweight from children who were not (P>.05). Conclusions: Feeding strategies providing the least child food choice were associated with reduced child BMI. However, MCFPs did not relate to child overweight status.


Faith, M. S., K. S. Scanlon, et al. (2004). "Parent-child feeding strategies and their relationships to child eating and weight status." Obesity Research. 12(11): 1711-22.

Parental feeding styles may promote overeating or overweight in children. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the associations between parental feeding styles and child eating and weight status. Twenty-two studies were identified. We systematically coded study attributes and outcomes and tested for patterns of association. Nineteen studies (86%) reported at least one significant association between parental feeding style and child outcome, although study methodology and results varied considerably. Studies measuring parental feeding restriction, as opposed to general feeding control or another feeding domain, were more likely to report positive associations with child eating and weight status. Certain associations differed by gender and by outcome measurement (e.g., rate of eating as opposed to total energy intake). Parental feeding restriction, but no other feeding domain, was associated with increased child eating and weight status. Longitudinal studies are needed to test underlying causal pathways, including bidirectional causal models, and to substantiate findings in the presence of other obesity risk factors. [References: 61]


Fakhoury, W. K. H., S. Priebe, et al. (2005). "Goals of new long-stay patients in supported housing: a UK study."

Aim: This study assessed the goals "new" long-stay clients aim to achieve by being in supported housing (SH), compared the goals stated by clients and staff, and tested whether subgroups of clients can be identified on the basis of their goals, quality of life and psychopathology. Method: Interviews were conducted with 41 clients and 39 staff of supported houses in London and Essex, UK. Descriptive, content and cluster analyses were used to analyse the results. Results: Clients' most frequently reported goal was moving to independent housing, followed by staying healthy, and increasing living skills. A comparison of goals reported by clients and staff showed poor or no agreement between them. Cluster analyses identified two clusters of clients. Cluster A (n = 23) contained those with no stated goals (or with the aim of staying healthy), lower quality of life, and more psychopathology; cluster B (n = 18) included those with an aim to move to independent housing, better quality of life, and less psychopathology. Conclusion: In the UK, more staff training may be needed to identify and achieve the goals of the "new" long-stay clients. For a subgroup of these clients, SH may still be a long-term care setting; while for another subgroup, new forms of rehabilitation in SH and better opportunities to leave SH may have to be developed. More conceptual and practical efforts are needed to manage the transformation of many settings from homes for life to transitional places where residents receive specific interventions. (Original abstract)


Falceto, O. G., E. R. J. Giugliani, et al. (2004). "Influence of parental mental health on early termination of breast-feeding: a case-control study." Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 17(3): 173-183.

Farough, S. (2002). "Recreating men: Postmodern masculinity politics." GENDER & SOCIETY 16(4): 565-566.

Farrow, C. and J. Blissett (2006). "Breast-feeding, maternal feeding practices and mealtime negativity at one year." 46(1): 49-56.

This paper explores whether breast-feeding, mediated by lower maternal use of controlling strategies, predicts more positive mealtime interactions between mothers and their I year old infants. Eighty-seven women completed questionnaires regarding breast-feeding, assessing their control over child feeding and mealtime negativity at I year of infant age. Seventy-four of these women were also observed feeding their infants solid food at I year. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the experience of breast-feeding, mediated by lower reported maternal control over child feeding, predicted maternal reports of less negative mealtime interactions. The experience of breast-feeding also predicted observations of less conflict at mealtimes, mediated by observations of maternal sensitivity during feeding interactions. The implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Faust, J. (2000). "Integration of family and cognitive behavioral therapy for treating sexually abused children." Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 7(3): 361-368.

This paper demonstrates the application and integration of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of symptomatic children with histories of sexual abuse. This is achieved via the case of Ryan, a 12-year-old boy who had been sexually abused by two family members and who was experiencing affective/anxiety symptoms and acting-out behavior problems. While this paper provides a theoretical rationale and comprehensive treatment plan, additional details of specific treatment interventions, from both treatment modalities, are delineated. From the family systems perspective, an emphasis is placed upon the discussion of realignment of family structure and changing familial communication patterns (including messages about safety, Protection, and validation of children's experiences). From the cognitive behavioral paradigm, exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring are accentuated. Finally, the importance of the integration of both modalities without violating the theoretical assumptions of either is highlighted


Featherstone, B. and M. Manby (2006). "Working with Families: Messages for Policy and Practice from an Evaluation of a School-based Project." Children and society 22(1): 30–39.

Fee, M. (2006). "Racializing narratives: Obesity, diabetes and the “Aboriginal” thrifty genotype " Social Science and Medicine 62(12): 2988-2997

This post-colonial reading of narratives of obesity, diabetes, and the hypothesized “thrifty genotype” ascribed to Aboriginal peoples shows how scientific and popular texts support the belief in biological “race.” Although the scientific consensus is that “race” is not a empirical category, many scientists use it without comment as a “crude proxy” for presumed genetic differences. The division between science and the social sciences/humanities protects such confusing practices from full scientific and social critique, something interdisciplinary research teams, science studies and improved peer review could provide.

Fein, S. B. and B. Roe (1998). "The effect of work status on initiation and duration of breast-feeding." 88(7): 1042-1046.

Objectives. In this study, longitudinal data are used to examine the effect of work status on breast-feeding initiation and duration. Methods. Mothers from a mail panel completed questionnaires during late pregnancy and 10 times in the infant's first year. Mother's work status was categorized for initiation by hours she expected, before delivery to work and for duration by hours she worked at month 3. Covariates were demographics; parity; medical, delivery, and hospital experiences; social support; embarrassment; and health promotion. Results. Expecting to work part-time neither decreased nor increased the probability of breast-feeding relative to expecting not to work (odds ratios [ORs] = .83 and .89, p greater-than .50), but expecting to work full-time decreased the probability of breast-feeding (OR = .47, P less-than .01). Working full-time at 3 months postpartum decreased breast-feeding duration by an average of 8.6 weeks (P less-than .001) relative to not working, but part-time work of 4 or fewer hours per day did not affect duration and part-time work of more than 4 hours per day decreased duration less than full-time work. Conclusion. Part-time work is an effective strategy to help mothers combine breast-feeding and employment.
Felce, D., K. Lowe, et al. (2002). "Association between the Provision Characteristics and Operation of Supported Housing Services and Resident Outcomes."

Variation in outcome between community housing services indicates the need for research on the factors that predict quality of life. The associations between service sector, staffing levels, staff characteristics, internal organization, noninstitutional milieu, staff activity, the nature & extent of staff attention to residents, & a range of resident outcomes were explored in a study of 10 statutory, 10 voluntary & 9 private-sector community housing schemes in South Wales. There were no significant differences between sectors after differences in resident abilities were taken into account. Smaller residence size was associated with lower resident engagement in activity, & did not predict social or community integration. Higher staff to resident ratios predicted lower resident participation in household tasks but a greater frequency of community activities. A higher proportion of qualified staff was not shown to be a positive attribute. Measures of the internal organization of the settings were not strongly related to outcome. Residents receiving more attention from staff predicted greater participation in domestic activities & residents receiving more assistance from staff predicted higher engagement in activity. The quality of life experienced by residents was strongly associated with their own abilities. Other influences emerged with less clarity. Perhaps the strongest conclusion is that setting factors widely believed to promote quality of life, such as smaller size of residence, higher staffing, & individual planning, were not shown to have such unequivocal effects. 6 Tables, 43 References. Adapted from the source document.


Felce, D., K. Lowe, et al. (2002). "Staff Activity in Supported Housing Services."

Variation in staff performance between small community housing services indicates the need for research on the factors that predict high-quality care. The associations between service sector, staffing levels, staff characteristics, internal organization or working practices, noninstitutional milieu, & staff activity & the nature & extent of staff attention to residents were explored in a study of 10 statutory, 10 voluntary, & 9 private-sector community housing schemes in South Wales. There were few significant differences between sectors after differences in resident abilities were taken into account. Higher staff to resident ratios predicted greater resident receipt of attention & assistance but also a lower proportion of time during which each member of staff was directly concerned with residents. A greater range in resident ability predicted lower resident receipt of attention & assistance. A higher proportion of qualified staff was not shown to be a positive attribute but greater prior experience was associated with staff spending more time directly concerned with residents, less time doing "other" activity, & residents receiving more assistance. Measures of the internal organization & noninstitutional milieu of the settings were not strongly related to staff activity. The findings are consistent with previous research that there are diminishing marginal returns associated with increasing staff; size of residence was unimportant. Links between service organization & staff performance require further research but retaining experienced staff appears to be important. As resident receipt of attention & assistance was unrelated to their adaptive behavior level, there is a need to find ways to ensure that staff support better matches the needs of residents. 4 Tables, 1 Figure, 42 References. Adapted from the source document.


Ferguson, M. (1979). The creation of myths with reference to female roles : the impact of social change on the contents and editorial processes of mass circulation women's magazines, 1949-1978. London, University of London: 292 leaves.

Ferguson, M. (1983). Forever feminine : women's magazines and the cult of femininity. Aldershot, Gower, 1985.

Ferland, S. and H. T. O'Brien (2003). "Maternal dietary intake and pregnancy outcome." 48(2): 86-94.

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between maternal diet and infant anthropometric measurements in 56 women, aged 28 +/- 5.1 years, with singleton pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: The overall quality of the diet (three 24-hour recalls), including supplementation, was evaluated at 34 +/- 1.3 weeks using a total mean adequacy ratio (TMAR) of 12 nutrients. Specific interviewing techniques were used to minimize social desirability bias. Anthropometric measurements of both parents and maternal lifestyle practices were also obtained. Infant weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured 14.6 +/- 4.4 days after birth. RESULTS: Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal diet quality (TMAR) was significantly related to infant weight (r=.039, P=.036) and crown-heel length (r=.071, P=.007). Other significant predictors included gestational age, maternal height, sex, smoking and physical activity. CONCLUSION: Maternal diet was positively associated with infant weight and crown-heel length.


Ferrari, J. R., M. M. Loftus, et al. (1999). "Young and older caregivers at homeless animal and human shelters: selfish and selfless motives in helping others."

Young (n=34) and older (n=70) adult volunteers at either animal (n=48) or human (n=56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young assisting animals reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per visit with their clients. They also reported significantly higher levels of caregiver stress with humans more than animals. Volunteers at human homeless shelters claimed the need for meeting social expectations as a motive for community service. Younger volunteers reported gaining relevant career experience, obtaining knowledge of the plight of others, relieving aversive emotions, and meeting normative expectations as significant motives. (Original abstract - amended)


Ferris, A. M., S. H. Neubauer, et al. (1993). "Perinatal Lactation Protocol and Outcome in Mothers with and without Insulin-Dependent Diabetes-Mellitus." 58(1): 43-48.

This study compared the course of lactation from days 2 to 84 postpartum in 33 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM); 33 women without diabetes selected by using gestational age of the infant, method of delivery, sex of the infant, and prior lactation experience as a means of ensuring similar patterns in factors known to influence success (control subjects); and 11 healthy reference subjects who delivered vaginally. Nutritionists visited the mothers on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 42, and 84 postpartum; obtained prenatal and perinatal medical information; and questioned the mothers on their breast-feeding experience. Women with IDDM were able to establish lactation despite postpartum separation from their infants, delays in the start of breast-feeding, reduced frequency of feeding, increased use of supplemental feedings, and the high rate of cesarean section. Clinicians must recognize the need to provide appropriate counseling so that mothers with IDDM will not be discouraged by problems with breast-feeding.


Fessler, D. M. T., S. J. Eng, et al. (2005). "Elevated disgust sensitivity in the first trimester of pregnancy - Evidence supporting prophylaxis the compensatory hypothesis." 26(4): 344-351.

By motivating avoidance of contaminants, the experience of disgust guards against disease. Because behavioral prophylaxis entails time, energy, and opportunity costs, Fessler and Navarrete [Evol. Hum. Behav. 24 (2003) 406-417] hypothesized that disgust sensitivity is adjusted as a function of immunocompetence. Changes in immune functioning over the course of pregnancy offer an opportunity to test this notion. Relative to later stages, the first trimester of pregnancy involves substantial suppression of the maternal immune response, and both maternal and fetal vulnerability to pathogens are greatest during this phase; food-borne illnesses, in particular, pose a threat during the first trimester. Using a Web-based survey of 496 pregnant women, we compared participants in the first trimester with those in later stages of pregnancy. Results reveal heightened disgust sensitivity in the first trimester, notably including disgust sensitivity in the food domain. This pattern is not simply a consequence of elevated nausea during the first trimester, as, although disgust sensitivity and current level of nausea are correlated, first trimester women remain more easily disgusted in the food domain even after controlling for the greater incidence of nausea. These results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity varies during pregnancy in a manner that compensates for maternal and fetal vulnerability to disease. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Feunekes, G. I. J., C. de Graaf, et al. (1998). "Food choice and fat intake of adolescents and adults: associations of intakes within social networks." Preventive Medicine
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