Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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DeVault, M. (1991). Feeding the Family. Chicago, The University of Chigago Press.

DeVault, M. (1991). Feeding the Family: the Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

DeVault, M. L. (1991). Feeding the family : the social organization of caring as gendered work. Chicago ; London, University of Chicago Press.

Devine, C. M., M. M. Connors, et al. (2003). "Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households." Social Science & Medicine 56(3): 617-630.

Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the

ways through which workis connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of

workers’ experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and

moderate-income adults living in Upstate New Yorkin 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and

vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a

dynamic relationship between workand food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and

values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their

jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies.

Participants’ narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of workand their resources for food choice,

strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive

spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of workas demanding and

limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a

source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and

satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values

for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found workunproblematic. These

findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of workto food choices in which the demands

and resources of the workrole are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other roles and

values. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Devine, C. M. and C. M. Olson (1992). "Womens Perceptions About the Way Social Roles Promote or Constrain Personal Nutrition Care." 19(1): 79-95.

Research suggests that roles may affect women's health promoting behavior. This study was designed to discover, understand and develop hypotheses about the ways in which women's social roles influence their attitudes and beliefs about personal nutrition care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 married mothers, both employed and homemakers, at three different life stages. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. These data suggest that social roles influence women's attitudes about personal nutrition care in both positive and negative ways; this influence is modified by women's changing interpretations of their family roles at different life stages. The results have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease among women.


Devine, D. (2002). "Children's Citizenship and the structuring of adult-child relations in the primary school." Childhood 9(3): 303-320.

DfES (2005). Extended schools: Access to opportunities and services for all. DfES.

DfES, D. (2005). National Healthy Schools Status - A Guide for Schools. D. a. DOH.

DfES, D. a. (2005). Wired for Health.

Di Domenico, J. E. (2004). Advertising in Italian women's magazines 1915-1980 gender and evolving ideologies of the middle-class Italian women. Glasgow, University of Strathclyde

University of Strathclyde: 1 v.

Dickinson, R. A. and M. L. Carsky (2005). The Consumer as Economic Voter. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage: 25-36.

DiGirolamo, A. M., L. M. Grummer-Strawn, et al. (2003). "Do perceived attitudes of physicians and hospital staff affect breastfeeding decisions?" Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 30(2): 94-100.

Ditch, J. and N. Oldfield (1999). "Social assistance: recent trends and themes." Journal of European Social Policy 9(1): 65-76.

Dittrich-Johansen, H. (1994). "Dal Privato Al Pubblico: Maternita E Lavoro Nelle Riviste Femminili Dell'epoca Fascista." Studi Storici 35(1): 207-243.

The official discourse of the Fascist regime in Italy from the late 1920's was antifeminist and sometimes violently misogynist, based on the idea that the only roles for women were those of wives and mothers. In practice, however, women continued to work outside the home, ignoring the ideology of the regime. Women's magazines, written by Fascist women, contained both sets of attitudes, paying due service to official ideology but also justifying women's place in the workforce while denying any connection with pre-Fascist feminism.
Dix, D. N. (1991). "Why Women Decide Not to Breast-Feed." 18(4): 222-225.

The reasons for the low frequency of breastfeeding at an urban medical center were evaluated in a study in which 81 women were interviewed concerning the factors affecting their choice of infant feeding method and attitudes toward breastfeeding. One-half of the women made their decision during pregnancy, and 41 percent did so before conception. They received information on infant feeding methods from health care providers, family, and friends. In addition to their own thoughts and feelings, family members had the most influence on the feeding method. The influence of health care providers was minimal, yet most women received early and comprehensive prenatal care. Although they thought that breastfeeding was better for the baby, the majority chose to bottle feed due to negative attitudes toward breastfeeding, conflicting responsibilities or schedules, convenience, negative breastfeeding experiences, and health or medical reasons.


Dixey, R. (1996). "Gender perspectives on food and cooking skills." British Food Journal 98(10): 35-41.

Dixey, R., P. Sahota, et al. (2001). "Children talking about healthy eating: data from focus groups with 300 9-11 year olds." Nutrition Bulletin 26: 71-79.

Dixon-Woods, M., C. Jackson, et al. (2006). "Receiving a summary of the results of a trial: qualitative study of participants' views." 332(7535): 206-209.

Objective To explore trial participants' responses to receiving a summary of the results of a trial in pregnancy. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Participants 20 women who had when pregnant participated in the ORACLE trial of antibiotics for preterm labour and preterm rupture of the membranes and requested a copy of the trial results. Results Less than a fifth of women who participated in the ORACLE trial indicated that they wished to receive the trial results. Reactions to the leaflet summarising the trial results were generally positive or neutral, although some women had difficulty in understanding the leaflet, and there was evidence of possible negative implications for women who had adverse outcomes. Women requested the results because they were interested in being able to complete their own personal narrative. They wished to know to which arm of the trial they had been allocated and the implications for their own pregnancy, and they were disappointed with receiving a generic summary. Women's accounts indicated some confusion about the trial findings. Conclusions Recommendations that research participants be routinely provided with the results of studies have been made without the benefit of research to show the consequences of doing this or how it should best be managed. Caution is needed, as is more evaluation of how feedback of results should be handled, and assessment of the risks, benefits, and costs.


Djulus, J., M. Moretti, et al. (2005). "Marijuana use and breastfeeding." Canadian Family Physician 51: 349-350.

DOH. "School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme."

DOH (2003) 5 A DAY introduction. Volume, DOI:

DoH. (2005). "Health Survey for England: Obesity among children under 11." Retrieved June 2006, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PublishedSurvey/HealthSurveyForEngland/HealthSurveyResults/fs/en.

Donath, S. M. and L. H. Amir (2000). "Does maternal obesity adversely affect breastfeeding initiation and duration?" 36(5): 482-486.

Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal obesity and the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods: Analysis was made of the 1995 National Health Survey, in which personal interviews were conducted on a multistage area sample of private dwellings and a list sample of non-private dwellings in all states and territories of Australia. Mothers between the ages of 17 and 50 years (n = 1991) with children under the age of 4 years in 1995 participated in the study. Results: Of the group of mothers with a body mass index (BMI) of 20-25, 89.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 87.4-91.0) initiated breastfeeding, compared with 82.3% (95% CI 77.6-87.0) of mothers with a BMI of 30 or more. There was also a significant difference between the mean and median duration of breastfeeding of obese and non-obese mothers (BMI 30 and over, < 25, respectively). These differences remained significant when maternal smoking, age and other sociodemographic factors were taken into consideration. Conclusions: Health professionals should be aware that obese women may be at increased risk of not breastfeeding or stopping breastfeeding prematurely.


Donath, S. M. and L. H. Amir (2002). "The introduction of breast milk substitutes and solid foods: evidence from the 1995 National Health Survey." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 26(5): 481-484.

Donath, S. M. and L. H. Amir (2005). "Breastfeeding and the introduction of solids in Australian infants: data from the 2001 National Health Survey." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29(2): 171-175.

Dorfman, C. (1992). "The Garden of Eating: the carnal kitchen in contemporary American culture." Feminist Issues 12.

Doughan, D. T. J. (1987). "Periodicals by, for, and About Women in Britain." Women's Studies International Forum 10(3): 261-273.

Periodicals in general are an underrated resource for researchers, and this is especially true of women's periodicals. For present purposes these can be divided into three categories: commercial, organizational, and feminist. Commercial women's magazines first emerged at the turn of the 18th century and have been increasingly concerned with the domestication of women and with fashionable dress. They have come to be almost entirely controlled by advertising interests. Organizational periodicals frequently demonstrate a tension between the organization and the women within it, which tends to be resolved to the women's disadvantage. Feminist periodicals first began to appear in the mid-19th century and have since suffered various vicissitudes, but at present they appear to be flourishing as never before. The Fawcett Library has been stocking as many women's periodicals as it can, but runs into difficulties of space and categories. Although satisfactory lists of women's periodicals have been appearing, the important task of article indexing has scarcely begun.
Douglas, M. (1984). Food in the social order : studies of food and festivities in three American communities. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Douglas, M. (1984). Purity and danger : an analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo. London, Ark Paperbacks.

Douglas, M. (1991 (1975)). Deciphering a Meal (1972). Implicit meanings : essays in anthropology. M. Douglas. London, Routledge: 249-275.

Douglas, M. and J. Gross (1981). "Food and culture : measuring the intricacy of rule systems." Social Science Information 20(1): 1-35.

Douglas, M. and M. Nicod (1974). "'Taking the biscuit': the structure of British Meal." New Society 30(637): 744-747.

Douglas, M. and M. Nicod (1974). "Taking the Biscuit: the Structure of British Meals." New Society 19: 744-747.

Dowler, E. "Food and Poverty in Britain: Rights and Responsibilities."

Social policy & food/nutrition are both to some extent contested disciplines & areas for intervention. The role of food in poverty definition & measurement by experts & within the lived experience by those defined poor, has been a neglected component of disciplinary study & focused policy response in GB in the latter half of the 20th century. This paper explores the historical & contemporary complementarities & challenges, & examines some of the consequences poor people face because society has ignored the social aspects of nutritional needs & the nutritional contributions to poverty definition & interventions. Current policy initiatives in the health, food, & social sectors in GB are briefly reviewed & their potential shortcomings discussed. 82 References. Adapted from the source document.


Dowler, E. (2002). "Food and poverty in Britain: Rights and responsibilities." Social Policy & Administration 36(6): 698-717.

Social policy and food/nutrition are both to some extent contested disciplines and areas for intervention. The role of food in poverty definition and measurement by experts and within the lived experience by those defined poor, has been a neglected component of disciplinary study and focused policy response in Britain in the latter hay of the twentieth century. This paper explores the historical and contemporary complementarities and challenges, and examines some of the consequences Poor People face because society has ignored the social aspects of nutritional needs, and the nutritional contributions to poverty definition and interventions. Current policy initiatives in the health, food and social sectors in Britain are briefly reviewed and their potential shortcomings discussed.


Dowler, E. (2002). "'Food and poverty in Britain: rights and responsibilities.'" Social Policy and Administration 36(6): 698 - 717.

Dowler, E. (2002). "Social inequalities, nutrition and inequalities in health." European Journal of Public Health 12(4): 24-24.

Dowler, E. and M. Caraher (2003). "Local food projects: The new philanthropy?" Political Quarterly 74(1): 57-65.

Dowler, E. and C. J. Finer (2002). "Special issue: Food - Introduction." Social Policy & Administration 36(6): 553-555.

Dowler, E., S. Turner, et al. (2001). Poverty Bites. London, CPAG.

Drewett, R. F., M. Kasese-Hara, et al. (2003). "Feeding behaviour in young children who fail to thrive." Appetite 40(1): 55-60.

Drewnowski, A. (2004). "Obesity and the food environment." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(3S): 154-162.

Driver, C. (1983). The British at Table, 1940-1980. London, Chatto and Windus/ The Hogarth Press.

Drucker, R. R., L. D. Hammer, et al. (X1999). "Can mothers influence their child's eating behavior?" Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 20(2): 88-92.

This study examined the relationship between general maternal parenting style, maternal eating cues, and a child's eating behavior during mealtime. We expected that the general style would relate to the number of specific eating cues and that mothers who used more eating prompts would have children that ate more and at a faster rate. Seventy-seven children (39 girls, 38 boys), aged 3.5 years, visited the laboratory with their mothers for a videotaped lunch. Videotapes of each laboratory visit were coded for the child's eating rate and maternal parenting style, which was measured as the level of maternal control and support and the number and type of eating prompts given during a meal. Caloric intake was also calculated. The number and rate of verbal and physical encouragements and discouragements were significantly related to measures of general maternal parenting style and meal duration. The rates of food offers, food presentations, and total prompts were all significantly related to the child's rate of calorie intake. However, a mother's level of support or control was not related to the child's eating behavior. Although general maternal parenting style did not predict the child's eating behavior, these behaviors were related to the frequency of maternal eating prompts, which in turn were significantly related to the number of calories eaten and the time spent eating by the child. Children who ate the fastest had mothers who delivered eating prompts at a higher frequency. These findings may have implications for the development of obesity later in childhood, as a function of rapid eating or of poor self-regulation.


Du, M., Z. Bian, et al. (2000). "Caries patterns and their relationship to infant feeding and socio-economic status in 2-4-year-old Chinese children." 50(6): 385-389.

Aims: To describe the prevalence, severity and patterns of caries in 2-4-year-old children and to evaluate the association between caries experience of the children and their feeding patterns and socio-economic background in terms of mothers' education and family income. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Suburban area of Hanchuan in Hubei province, China. Participants: A sample of 426 children (250 boys and 176 girls). Methods: Dental examinations were undertaken in kindergartens using World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for dental caries. Mothers completed a short questionnaire. Outcome measures: Prevalence of caries; rampant caries; caries in incisors; caries in incisors and/or canines and molars; mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces (dmft/s). Results: 36% of the children had caries, 7% had rampant caries. The more extensive pattern of caries involving primary molars as well as incisors and/or canines was seen in 12% of children. Children who had been wholly bottle-fed had five times the risk of having rampant caries compared to children who were breast-fed. Conclusions: The results indicated that infant feeding practice might be a key risk factor for the development of caries at an early age in this country as elsewhere.


Dubois, L. and M. Girard (2003). "Social inequalities in infant feeding during the first year of life. The Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ 1998-2002)." 6(8): 773-783.

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the source and the scope of social inequalities in infant feeding practices. It examines the extent to which different recommendations are followed in different social groups and highlights the main factors influencing the total adherence to three recommendations at the population level. Design, setting and subjects: The study follows a representative sample (n = 2103) of the children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec (Canada). Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months by face-to-face interviews with the mother. The independent variables were mother's age, mother's education level, poverty level, family type, socio-economic status (SES) and living area. Odds ratios (adjusted for baby's rank in the family, birth weight and premature birth) are presented for breast-feeding, and for formula and cows' milk consumption, at different ages. The adherence to a combined indicator cumulating three recommendations (breast-fed at birth, complementary food at 4 months or later and cows' milk at 9 months or later) is also presented. Results: The analysis indicates that adherence to the recommendations is low in Quebec. Breast-feeding initiation, duration and its exclusivity improved with mother's age and education level and SES. Adherence to the different recommendations was interrelated, indicating an accumulation of bad nutritional circumstances for children in low-SES families. The odds of being fed in accordance with the three studied recommendations, when living in a family with the highest SES, was 2.3 times higher than when living in a family with the lowest SES. When living with a highly educated mother, the odds ratio was 2.7 times higher than when living with a low-educated mother. For mother's age, the odds ratio reached 3.7 for children from mothers aged greater than or equal to35 years, in comparison with children from mothers less than or equal to24 years old. When SES or mother's education level was combined with mother's age, the children in the best situation were >8 more times likely than the least privileged children to be fed in accordance with these recommendations. Living area was not related with infant feeding during the first year of life. Conclusions: Breast-feeding and nutrition could be related with different health and cognitive outcomes in childhood and later in life. Consequently, social disparities in diet during infancy could play a role in the development of social and health inequalities more broadly observed at the population level. Intervention to improve adherence to breast-feeding and nutrition recommendations in infancy should be prioritised and evaluated for its impact on the reduction on infant diet inequalities over time.


Dubois, L. and M. Girard (2005). "Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada." 60(9): 2035-2044.

This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Sante Quebec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Quebec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even ill the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dungy, C. I., M. E. Losch, et al. (1997). "Hospital infant formula discharge packages - Do they affect the duration of breast-feeding?"
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