A. Western Europe



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Unit 4 Test
1. The desire to expand religious boundaries and the desire to profit from commercial opportunities are two goals that characterize the motivations of which of the following regions that were involved in maritime expansion in the era c. 1450 C.E. to c. 1750?

a. Western Europe

b. North Asia

c. East Asia

d. Oceania


2. Which of the following comparisons regarding Portuguese and Spanish voyages of exploration beginning c. 1300 C.E. is correct?

a. Portuguese navigators concentrated on finding a way to east Asia by exploring for a northeast passage around Eurasia, and the Spanish navigators sought a route to Asia by trying to explore the seas around Australia



b. Portuguese navigators concentrated on finding a sea route around Africa to Asia and Spanish navigators concentrated on finding a way to Asia by exploring west of Europe

c. Portuguese navigators concentrated on finding a way to Asia by using the Suez Canal, and Spanish navigators searched exclusively for a northwest passage around the Americas

d. Portuguese navigators concentrated on finding a way to Asia by exploring west of Europe, and Spanish navigators concentrated on finding a sea route around Africa to Asia
3. Which of the following did NOT contribute to more accurate maps in the period between 1450 C.E. and 1750?

a. Use of the astrolabe to help European mariners accurately measure latitude by being able to make calculations based on readings of the position of the polar star or the sun



b. The development of steamships that allowed mariners to explore areas that had been inaccessible before this technology was developed

c. The use of cross staffs and back staffs, which were based on Arabic designs and adapted by European mariners

d. More accurate knowledge of winds and currents that helped mariners make determinations of when to schedule voyages
4. The expansion of western European nations c. 1492 C.E. to 1759 facilitated the diffusion of plant and food crops around the world. Which of the following events is an example of a similar process from c. 700 C.E. to 1100?

a. The early expansion of Papua New Guinea into western South America

b. The early expansion of Polynesia into New Zealand

c. The early expansion of Islam in Afro-Eurasia

d. The early Mongol expansion into central and western Europe


5. Historians often consider c. 1492 a turning point in the history of European population growth. Which of the following events that occurred in that period best supports that contention?

a. Lack of urban growth in Europe during this period was tied to the rise of the early factory system, where birthrates fell as more people worked in the mills

b. Changes in nutrition based on exploitation of the North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries made Europeans more susceptible to infectious diseases



c. Introduction of American crops such as potatoes and American maize provided cheap, abundant sources of food for Europeans and their animals

d. The rapid decline in European population c. 1492 was related to massive European immigration to Africa and southeastern Asia


6. The encomienda system instituted by the Spanish in their Latin American holdings was most like earlier European serfdom in that

a. Both systems compelled laborers to work for the landowners, but also, in theory, they required the landowner to provide for their health and safety needs

b. Both systems used Christianity as a justification to force participants to convert to the Catholic or Protestant faiths

c. Both system allowed laborers to retain their own small plots of land and then share the bounty of that land with the landowner

d. Both systems required men to serve as militia in service to the landowner, if other landowners attacked him


7. Which of the following best characterizes a central element of the Atlantic triangular trade between c. 1500 and c. 1800?

a. Europe shipped manufactured goods to Africa that were exchanged for slaves; then slaves were transported to the Americas and traded for cash, sugar, or molasses to sell in Europe

b. American manufactured goods were transported to Europe and then exchanged for slaves that were sold in Europe; European grain and furs were then sold to American customers

c. Indian and southeast Asian manufactured goods were shipped to the Americas, sold for sugar and molasses, and sugar and molasses was transported to Europe and exchanged for grain and wine

d. Chinese entrepreneurs monopolized the Atlantic triangular trade during this period, basing trade routes and exchanges on earlier Chinese exploration and colonization led by Admiral Zheng He



8. The Great Wall of China pictured above, begun in the fifth century B.C.E. and intermittently expanded through the sixteenth century C.E., best exemplifies which of the following historical processes?

a. Imposition of Chinese religious traditions by military conquest and forced conversion to the state religion

b. Spread of religion along trade routes protected by monumental fortifications and manned by foreign mercenaries

c. Development of a rivalry between settled peoples with a universalized religious tradition and nomadic, shamanistic peoples

d. Imperial development and maintenance of border fortifications to block incursions by nomads and to display imperial power
9. A historian researching the religious and political decision making of Safavid dynasty leaders would most likely use which of the following sources?

a. Research about the beliefs of Sunni Islam



b. Research about the beliefs of Shi’ism

c. Research about the beliefs of Hinduism

d. Research about the beliefs of Sikhism
c. 1760s Strict enforcement of British navigation laws requires that cargo be shipped in British ships and that tariffs be paid

1764 Sugar Act places a tax on molasses imports

1764 Stamp Act places a tax on publishing and on legal documents

1767 Townshend Acts places a tax on a variety of imported items

1773 Tax Act places a tax on tea

10. A historian examining the two decades prior to the American Revolution would best utilize the information listed above to analyze which of the following?

a. Results of Britain’s defeat in the French and Indian War, part of the larger Seven Years’ War, also fought in India, Europe, and at sea

b. Mercantilist theory as applied to the settler colonies in the Americas, as well as in South Africa and Australia

c. Taxation within the thirteen British colonies in eastern North America as conceived and imposed by colonial legislatures

d. Taxation imposed upon the thirteen British colonies in eastern North America by actions of the British Parliament
Questions 11-13 refer to the excerpt below.

The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast, was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror, when I was carried on board. . . . Upon the Negroes refusing to take sustenance, I have seen coals of fire, glowing hot, put on a shovel and placed so near their lips as to scorch and burn them. And this has been accompanied with threats of forcing them to swallow the coals if they any longer persisted in refusing to eat. . . . As very few of the Negroes can so far brook the loss of their liberty and the hardship they endure, they are ever on the watch to take advantage of the least negligence in their oppressors. Insurrections are frequently the consequence; which are seldom expressed without much bloodshed. Sometimes these are successful and the whole ship’s company is cut off. They are likewise always ready to seize every opportunity for committing some acts of desperation to free themselves from the miserable state and notwithstanding the restraints which are laid, they often succeed. . . . “



Olaudah Equiano, “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African,” 1789
11. The quotation describes the effects of which of the following?

a. Plantation system



b. Middle Passage

c. Salutary neglect

d. Mercantilism
12. Who was the author of the document

a. Joseph Smith

b. Squanto

c. Olaudah Equiano

d. John Winthrop


13. What was the most common and the most successful way newly enslaved Africans responded to enslavement?

a. Active revolt

b. Running away

c. Passive resistance

d. Cooperation with their captors


14. The Mughal and Ottoman empires shared the common trait of

a. Being a Muslim empire in the Middle East

b. Possessing a monarchy that could trace its heritage to Muhammad

c. Having been defeated by Alexander the Great

d. Being created by nomadic horsemen
15. Which of the following was an important demographic change that occurred between 1450 and 1750?

a. New navigational inventions made sea travel on the Atlantic Ocean more practical



b. Native populations in the Americas were decimated by disease contracted from Europeans

c. Social mobility increased as new opportunities opened in the Western Hemisphere

d. Absolute governments proved to be much less effective than constitutional monarchies
16.) One reason that Zheng He’s voyages had only a limited impact on the course of world history is that they

a. made use of few advanced navigational technologies

b. did not venture very far from Chinese ports

c. did not begin sustained long-term contacts with other parts of the world

d. added little to the knowledge that China already had about other parts of the world


17. Which of the following accurately compares the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires?

a. The dominant religion in all three was Sunni Islam

b. The Mughals had a powerful navy, but the Ottomans and Safavids did not

c. The three empires fought with empires outside the region, but generally had few quarrels with one another



d. All reached their peak of power in the 16th and 17th centuries, and were in decline by 1750
18. One difference between Ming and Qing rulers of China was that Qing rulers

a. Were considered to be outsiders by Confucian scholars

b. De-emphasized the civil service examinations

c. Encouraged intermarriage between Manchu and Chinese

d. Decentralized government control


19. During the era from 1450 to 1750, which of the following areas of Asia was most isolated from foreign influences?

a. China


b. Vietnam

c. Korea


d. Japan
20. The most dramatic development of the 1450 to 1750 timeframe was

a. mercantilism



b. a global trade network

c. the Industrial Revolution

d. the spread of universal religions


21. Which region of the world was LEAST impacted by the flow of gold and silver out of the Americas?

a. the Mediterranean

b. Western Europe

c. East Asia

d. the Middle East


22. The Mongols in China and the Mughals in India were similar in that

a. they were both Muslim

b. they forced their native religion on the regions they conquered

c. they were a minority population in a land they controlled

d. they were ultimately assimilated by the people they conquered
23. The flood of New World silver into China and Europe resulted in

a. the equitable redistribution of land in both regions

b. a peasant revolt and the overthrow of the established government

c. a dramatic increase in prices for consumer goods

d. a reduction in taxes
24. Both China and Japan responded to European maritime exploration by

a. openly trading with the new customers

b. closing their ports

c. sending out warriors to develop their own colonies

d. charging higher tolls for merchants to use the Silk Road
25. The Hagia Sophia, Ankor Wat, Borubodor, and the Kaaba all share the common characteristic of being

a. destroyed by invading armies



b. religious edifices

c. Muslim places of worship

d. controlled at one time or another by Mongol rulers
26. Which of the following was the LEAST politically unified during the 16th century?

a. Italy

b. Ming China

c. Spain

d. The Mughal Empire


27. In Russia, the position that most closely matched the position of “daimyo” in Japan was

a. Tsar


b. Boyar

c. Vizier

d. Opichniki
28. Which of the following had the LEAST real political power during the era 1450-1750?

a. The Spanish king

b. The Ottoman sultan

c. The Safavid shah



d. The Japanese emperor


29. The table above supports the fact that the majority of slaves were traded to areas where the economy was dominated by

a. Gold and silver mines

b. Tobacco

c. Corn and beans



d. Sugar
30. The status of which of the following was in jeopardy in Japan by 1750?

a. The Shogun

b. The emperor

c. Samurai

d. Merchants


31. The introduction of papermaking into Europe is an example of cultural diffusion

a. from China by way of the Eurasian trade route

b. from Japan by way of the Arab-Indian trade route

c. through the Columbian Exchange

d. through the Triangular Trade route
32. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the differences between the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas?

a. Portuguese Brazil was more dependent on agriculture for its economic base than was Spanish America



b. The Catholic Church had more influence over developments in Spanish America than in Brazil

c. Portugal exercised direct governmental control over Brazil, whereas Spain put little structure in place to govern its colonies

d. Spanish America, unlike Brazil, developed a multiracial society
33. Which of the following decisions by the Portuguese affected the Arab-African cities of the east coast of Africa?

a. To trade only from coastal centers


b. To monopolize trade with Asia

c. To use force if necessary to ensure favorable trading conditions

d. To set up an African trading network that included the interior trade routes as well as the coastal cities

34. Which of the following most clearly differentiates the period from 1450 to 1750 from earlier periods?

a. Decline of manorialism in Western Europe

b. The rise of the Ottoman Empire



c. The inclusion of the Americas in the global trade network

d. The opening of Japan to the West


35. Suleiman, Abbas I, and Akbar had which of the following in common?

a. All were defeated by Timur

b. All were Sunni Muslims

c. All successfully withstood Mongol attack



d. All ruled at the peak of their empire’s power
36. How did Russia tend to fit into the emerging global economy in the period 1450-1750?

a. As a source of serf labor transported to till the soils of Western Europe

b. As a market for grain grown in the New World

c. As the primary Old World destination of the silver being taken out of the New World



d. As a supplier of grain, timber, fur, and other raw materials to the West
37. The economic centrality of long distance trade and the lack of long feudal tradition opened a path for which social class to rise to dominance relatively quickly in the New World?

a. Independent farmer/peasant

b. Proletariat

c. Merchant

d. Aristocracy


38. How was racial hierarchy on the North American continent different from racial hierarchy in Spanish Latin America?

a. Intermarriage among Native American, African, and European populations was much less common

b. Enslaved Africans could, as a rule, look forward to manumission upon the death of his or her owner

c. Native Americans were preferred over Africans to perform slave labor

d. European settlers performed a smaller minority of the overall population


39. Which statement best characterizes the political situation in the West around 1450?

a. Highly centralized and powerful monarchies governed linguistically homogenous kingdoms

b. Renaissance ideas had spread, making democracy the preferred political system

c. Small political units led by local and regional aristocrats were the rule, not the exception

d. The nation-state had taken root and monarchy had passed from the scene


40. What was the demographic impact of the Columbian Exchange on the populations of the Old World?

a. Population growth across the Old World based on New World crops such as corn and the potato

b. Massive depopulation of Western Europe due to migration to the Americas

c. Sharp increase in the West African population to furnish individuals for slave trade

d. Sharp decrease in male populations as sailors died at sea


41. Which developments in a contemporary civilization had the greatest impact on the foreign relations of the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires in the period 1450-1750?



a. Movement of the maritime West toward the core of a new global trade network

b. Drive of the Romanov dynasty in Russia for territorial expansion

c. Mounting trade expeditions into the Indian Ocean basin launched by the Ming dynasty

d. Flooding of global markets in precious metals through massive expansion of the gold-salt trade by West African kingdoms


42. The tolerance of Christians within the Ottoman Empire served to

a. force European states to show tolerance for Muslims within their borders

b. enhance the political roles of religious minorities in the Middle East

c. maximize their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the government

d. maintain an uneasy peace between the Ottoman Empire and European maritime empires


43. The first major impetus for European maritime exploration and trade was

a. Admiral Zheng He’s exploration of the Indian Ocean

b. Chinese dominance of the world silk market

c. the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India



d. Spanish sponsorship of Christopher Columbus’ voyages to the New World
44. The development of joint-stock companies allowed European merchants to

a. prevent others from competing against them in the marketplace

b. control access to the government through large voting blocs

c. end mercantilist policies designed to maintain wealth within their empire



d. compete against each other in global trade with minimized risks
Animated by the spirit of this fatwa, conforming to the Quran, the code of divine laws, and wishing on one side to strengthen Islam, on the other to liberate the lands and peoples who writhe under your yoke, we have resolved to lay aside our imperial robes in order to put on the shield and coat of mail [armor]...

45. The letter above written by the Sunni Ottoman Sultan Selim I to the Shia Safavid Shah Ismail highlights



a. the intensification of the split between Sunni and Shia sects of Islam

b. a strong desire to use the Quran to resolve differences nonviolently

c. an increasing tension between Muslims and Jews in the Ottoman Empire

d. a growing united front among Muslims against the spread of Christianity


46. The increasing power of monarchs and other powerful leaders caused

a. a split between those who embraced religion and those who did not

b. civil war among various factions of government

c. an increase in political power for merchants and other non-elites



d. existing political elites to negotiate new power relationships in order to affect policy
47. The term “Manila galleons” refers to the

a. Common currency used for many years in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific



b. Spanish ships that carried New World silver to east Asia

c. Slave groups that were sent from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle Easteast African traders in the Indian Ocean trade network

d. Slave groups that were sent from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East

48. All of the following were brought to the Americas by Europeans EXCEPT

a. sugar

b. potatoes

c. domesticated animals

d. grains
49. The first European country to establish a colony in Asia was

a. Holland.

b. Spain.

c. Portugal.

d. Italy
50. The most significant natural resource exported from Africa in the Early Modern period (1450-1750) was

a. sugar


b. human beings

c. bananas

d. palm oil1450-1750
51. The mesoamerican crop that quickly became the most universally accepted was

a. sugar


b. the chili pepper

c. bananas



d. corn
52. Which was Spain’s Asian colony?

a. Siam


b. Malacca

c. Philippines

d. Java
53. Which of the following belief systems had little to know following in India by 1750?



a. Confuciansm

b. Islam


c. Jainism

d. Christianity


54. Which of the following established a line of demarcation separating Spanish and Portuguese claims in the New World?

a. Treaty of Versailles

b. Edict of Nantes

c. Treaty of Westphalia



d. Treaty of Tordesillas
55. Which of the following choices places Latin America’s racial hierarchy in the proper order, from lowest to highest?

a. Mestizo/mulatto, Native American/African slave, Peninsular, Creole



b. Native American/African slave, mestizo/mulatto, Creole, Peninsular

c. Creole, mestizo/mulatto, Peninsular, Native American/African slave



d. Native American/African slave, Creole, mestizo/mulatto, Peninsular


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