A time to Review – The Thirties and Forties us history/Napp Name



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A Time to Review – The Thirties and Forties

US History/Napp Name: _________________


1. As part of the New Deal, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) were created to

(1) allow for a quick recovery of stock prices

(2) provide direct loans to businesses

(3) protect individual investors from stock fraud and bank failure

(4) allow banks and companies to invest in the stock market
2. Senator Huey Long, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Father Charles Coughlin are best known as

(1) members of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s cabinet

(2) outspoken critics of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal

(3) supporters of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s reelection campaign in 1940

(4) members of the Supreme Court nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
3. The “cash and carry” policy and the Lend-Lease Act were used by the United States to

(1) help fund League of Nations efforts to

maintain peace

(2) encourage British appeasement of Germany

(3) fulfill treaty obligations with Great Britain and France

(4) provide support for the Allies in World War II without entering the war
4. What was a basic cause of the Great Depression of the 1930s?

(1) Too many antitrust laws were passed.

(2) Tariffs on foreign manufactured goods were reduced.

(3) The distribution of income was unequal.

(4) Immigration was not limited.

9. President Franklin D. Roosevelt referred to December 7, 1941, as “a date which will live in infamy” because on that day

(1) Germany invaded Poland

(2) Japan attacked Pearl Harbor

(3) Italy declared war on the United States

(4) the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
10. In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the military order excluding Japanese Americans from the West Coast on the basis that the action was considered

(1) a matter of national security

(2) a necessity for the economy

(3) an attempt to limit immigration from Japan

(4) a way to protect Japanese Americans from anti-Japanese hysteria
11. After World War II, what was one important result of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill)?

(1) Many veterans attended college.

(2) The demand for housing decreased.

(3) Defense industries recruited more women.

(4) Women became eligible for the draft.
12. The League of Nations and the United Nations were both formed with the goal of

(1) preventing wars through peaceful negotiations

(2) prohibiting the development of nuclear weapons

(3) monitoring the world’s monetary systems

(4) supporting the spread of democracy
17. …War criminals and those who have participated in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes shall be arrested and brought to judgment. Nazi leaders, influential Nazi supporters and high officials of Nazi organizations and institutions and any other persons dangerous to the occupation or its objectives shall be arrested and interned…

~ Protocol of the Proceedings, Potsdam Conference, August 1945
This agreement made at the Potsdam Conference led directly to the

(1) creation of the North Atlantic Treaty

Organization (NATO)

(2) trials in Nuremberg, Germany

(3) announcement of the Truman Doctrine

(4) division of Germany into occupation zones
18. The Nuremberg War Crimes trials of 1945–1949 established the international precedent that

(1) the United States should avoid commitments with foreign nations

(2) military leaders cannot be held responsible for wartime actions

(3) individuals may be tried for crimes against humanity

(4) soldiers must obey an order even if it conflicts with basic humanitarian values
19. The GI Bill helped soldiers who served in World War II by

(1) mandating integration of the military

(2) funding college education for veterans

(3) requiring women to surrender their wartime jobs to men

(4) eliminating union seniority rules that hurt veterans

24. During World War II, Japanese Americans were sent to internment centers primarily because they

(1) were considered illegal aliens

(2) had been convicted of spying for Japan

(3) refused to enlist in the U.S. military

(4) were thought to be threats to national security
25. The repeal of national Prohibition in 1933 showed that

(1) alcohol consumption was not socially

acceptable

(2) the government should lower the drinking age

(3) crime rates had fallen to record low levels

(4) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce
26. The Fair Labor Standards Act, passed in 1938,

helped American workers by

(1) banning the closed shop

(2) creating universal health insurance

(3) establishing a federal minimum wage

(4) ending the outsourcing of American jobs
27. Consumer rationing was used during World War II as a way to

(1) increase exploration for natural resources

(2) limit supplies of weapons to American allies

(3) draft men into the armed forces

(4) ensure that the military had essential materials
28. The principal goal of the United Nations has been to

(1) develop military alliances around the world

(2) encourage expansion of international trade

(3) promote peaceful solutions to world problems

(4) regulate the use of atomic energy

34. During World War II, the need of the United States for more war materials resulted in the

(1) easing of government controls on the

economy

(2) use of lengthy strikes by labor unions

(3) rationing of some consumer goods

(4) reduction in profits for defense industries
35.

A. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.

B. Germany invades Poland.

C. MacArthur dictates a democratic constitution to Japan.

D. Allies invade Europe on D-Day.

Which sequence of these events related to

World War II is in the correct chronological order?

(1) D B A C (3) C A B D

(2) B A D C (4) A B C D
36. The Nuremberg trials held at the conclusion of World War II added to international law by

(1) settling boundary disputes in Europe through arbitration

(2) placing the blame for World War II on many nations

(3) ruling that moral and ethical considerations do not apply in wartime

(4) establishing that high officials and individuals are responsible for their wartime actions
37. The primary purpose for the creation of the United Nations was to

(1) maintain an international army

(2) promote peace through international

agreements

(3) free Eastern European countries from

communism

(4) supply food to all member countries


42. Which event led to the other three?

(1) migration of 300,000 people to California to find work

(2) development of Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains

(3) passage of New Deal legislation to conserve soil

(4) publication of John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath
43. In 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt

responded to the start of World War II in

Europe by

(1) asking Congress to enter the war

(2) urging continued appeasement of aggressor nations

(3) attempting to negotiate a peaceful settlement of the hostilities

(4) selling military supplies to the Allied nations
44. Which statement about the United States economy during World War II is most accurate?

(1) Federal economic controls increased.

(2) The manufacturing of automobiles increased.

(3) Worker productivity declined.

(4) Prices fell rapidly.
45. What was a guiding principle of the New Deal economic policies?

(1) Pro-business tax breaks would solve the problems associated with urban poverty.

(2) Antitrust legislation would destroy the free market economy of the United States.

(3) Rugged individualism must be allowed to solve social inequality.

(4) Government must assume more responsibility for helping the poor.

50. One way in which the Pearl Harbor attack of December 7, 1941, and the attacks of September 11, 2001, are similar is that both led to

(1) increasing isolation

(2) the creation of a military draft

(3) the impeachment of the president

(4) major changes in United States foreign policy
51. During the Great Depression, one way New Deal programs tried to stimulate economic recovery was by

(1) raising tariff rates

(2) increasing interest rates

(3) creating public works jobs

(4) lowering the minimum wage
52. Which geographic area is most closely associated with the Dust Bowl of the 1930s?

(1) Great Lakes basin

(2) Mississippi River valley

(3) Appalachian Mountains

(4) Great Plains
53. Which series of events leading to World War II is in the correct chronological order?

(1) Neutrality Acts Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Lend-Lease Act United States declaration of war on Japan

(2) Lend-Lease Act Neutrality Acts United States declaration of war on Japan Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

(3) United States declaration of war on

Japan Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Lend-Lease Act Neutrality Acts

(4) Neutrality Acts Lend-Lease Act Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor United States declaration of war on Japan

58. The Social Security Act (1935) is considered an important program because it

(1) brought about a quick end to the Great

Depression

(2) provided employment for those in need of a job

(3) established a progressive income tax

(4) extended support to elderly citizens
59. The policy of Cash and Carry, the Destroyers for Naval Bases Deal, and the Lend-Lease Act were all designed to

(1) contribute to the success of the Axis powers

(2) relieve unemployment caused by the Great Depression

(3) guarantee a third term to President Franklin D. Roosevelt

(4) aid the Allies without involving the United States in war
60. Rationing was used in the United States during World War II as a way to

(1) ensure adequate supplies of scarce natural resources

(2) increase the number of imports

(3) raise production of consumer goods

(4) provide markets for American-made products
61. The post–World War II trials held by the Allied powers in Nuremberg, Germany, and in Japan set an international precedent by

(1) placing blame only on civilian leaders

(2) forcing nations to pay for war damages

(3) returning conquered territories to their

peoples

(4) holding individuals accountable for their war crimes


66. Which statement is best supported by the information on the map?

(1) Government officials used abandoned mining towns to house Japanese Americans.

(2) Western states did not support the decision to create the relocation centers.

(3) Relocation centers had to be placed near rivers.

(4) The government considered Japanese

Americans a threat to national security.
67. The relocation camps shown on the map were mainly a reaction to the

(1) Japanese military attack on Pearl Harbor

(2) capture of Japanese war prisoners

(3) need to train Japanese Americans for military service

(4) attacks by Japanese Americans on United States military bases

72. A major purpose of the GI Bill was to provide World War II veterans with

(1) educational opportunities after the war

(2) protection against racial discrimination

(3) civilian jobs in the military

(4) increased Social Security payments
73. Congress opposed President Franklin D.

Roosevelt’s plan to increase the number of

justices on the Supreme Court because the plan would have

(1) threatened the principle of checks and

balances

(2) abolished judicial review

(3) violated the elastic clause of the Constitution

(4) given the federal government too much

power over the states
74. The Neutrality Acts of 1935–1937 were primarily designed to

(1) avoid policies that had led to United States involvement in World War I

(2) halt the spread of communism in the Western Hemisphere

(3) promote United States membership in the League of Nations

(4) stop Japan from attacking United States

territories in the Far East
75. In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the

Supreme Court said that the removal of Japanese Americans from their homes was constitutional because

(1) most Japanese Americans were not United States citizens

(2) many Japanese Americans refused to serve in the United States Armed Forces

(3) this type of action was necessary during a national emergency

(4) there was strong evidence of significant

Japanese sabotage on the West Coast

80. United States foreign policy changed following World War II as the United States

(1) became more involved in world affairs

(2) returned to a policy of isolationism

(3) rejected membership in the United Nations

(4) pursued a policy of appeasement toward the Soviet Union
81. The march of the “Bonus Army” and referring to shantytowns as “Hoovervilles” in the early 1930s illustrate

(1) growing discontent with Republican efforts to deal with the Great Depression

(2) state projects that created jobs for the

unemployed

(3) federal attempts to restore confidence in the American economy

(4) the president’s success in solving social problem
82. The New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt changed the United States economy by

(1) restoring the principle of a balanced budget

(2) expanding the trustbusting practices of

Progressive Era presidents

(3) encouraging greater production of agricultural goods

(4) increasing government involvement with

both business and labor
83. A main purpose of government-ordered rationing during World War II was to

(1) increase foreign trade

(2) limit the growth of industry

(3) conserve raw materials for the war effort

(4) encourage women to enter the workforce


87. “…The Director of the War Relocation Authority is authorized and directed to formulate and effectuate [implement] a program for the removal, from the areas designated from time to time by the Secretary of War or appropriate military commander under the authority of Executive Order No. 9066 of February 19, 1942, of the persons or classes of persons designated under such Executive Order, and for their relocation, maintenance, and supervision…”

~ Executive Order 9102, March 18, 1942

Shortly after this executive order was signed, federal government authorities began to

(1) move Japanese Americans to internment

camps

(2) deport German and Italian aliens

(3) detain and interrogate Chinese immigrants

(4) arrest the individuals who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor
88. Which statement about Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program is most accurate?

(1) Protective tariff rates increased.

(2) Social welfare programs were expanded.

(3) Government regulation of business was reduced.

(4) Government support of environmental conservation ended.
89. Which factor contributed to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II?

(1) labor shortage during the war

(2) influence of racial prejudice

(3) increase of terrorist activities on the West Coast

(4) fear of loss of jobs to Japanese workers



5. The entrance of the United States into World War II was preceded by

(1) President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s successful effort to end the Holocaust in Europe

(2) unauthorized presidential use of United

States troops in Japan

(3) American aid to help Great Britain defend itself against German aggression

(4) legislation encouraging the immigration of war refugees
6. As a result of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Constitution was amended to

(1) correct problems with the electoral college

(2) lower the voting age to eighteen years

(3) limit the number of terms a person can serve as president

(4) end the use of poll taxes in presidential

Elections
7. The internment of Japanese Americans during World War II illustrates that

(1) the Supreme Court can be relied on to

defend civil rights

(2) threats to national security are often ignored by the government

(3) minorities are not allowed to enlist in the

United States military

(4) civil liberties are sometimes limited during times of national crisis
8. Which action is an example of international appeasement?

(1) Congress authorizing the Manhattan Project

(2) Japan attacking Pearl Harbor

(3) Germany signing a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union

(4) Great Britain and France agreeing to Hitler’s demand for part of Czechoslovakia

13. Which factor contributed most to the repeal of national Prohibition in 1933?

(1) the inability of government to enforce the law

(2) an improvement in the economy

(3) a decline in organized crime

(4) the start of World War II
14.

Banning loans to nations at war

Prohibiting the sale of armaments to nations at war

Limiting travel by United States citizens on



ships of belligerent nations

These governmental actions of the 1930s were similar in that each was intended to

(1) support efforts of the Munich Conference

(2) protect United States colonies from foreign aggression

(3) limit the influence of Japan in Asia

(4) keep the United States out of international conflicts
15. The major reason for President Harry Truman’s decision to use atomic bombs against Japan was the

(1) potential loss of American lives from an

invasion of Japan

(2) need to defeat Japan before defeating

Germany

(3) plan to bring democratic government to

Japan after the war

(4) failure of the island-hopping campaign

against Japan
16. President Franklin D. Roosevelt said the United States needed to become the “great arsenal of democracy” mainly because he was trying to

(1) increase the number of Supreme Court

justices

(2) assist the Allied nations

(3) limit the influence of the defense industry

(4) gain public support for a third term

20. Changes in policies during the administrations of both President Woodrow Wilson and President Franklin D. Roosevelt demonstrate that

(1) war can influence domestic reform programs

(2) public opinion is usually opposed to deficit spending

(3) presidents often lose power during wartime

(4) United States territorial expansion results in economic growth
21. During the 1930s, poor land management and severe drought conditions across parts of the Midwest resulted in the

(1) formation of the United States Department of Agriculture

(2) creation of wheat surpluses

(3) growth of the Granger movement

(4) development of Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains
22. What was the goal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s plan to add more justices to the Supreme Court?

(1) to help the Supreme Court implement its

decisions

(2) to limit judicial opposition to New Deal

programs

(3) to convince Congress to enact new economic laws

(4) to replace the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
23. To help win World War II, the federal

government found it necessary to

(1) return to the gold standard

(2) outlaw labor unions

(3) impose rationing and price controls

(4) integrate the military
29. The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s reflect the efforts of Congress to

(1) reject the terms of the Kellogg-Briand Pact

(2) avoid foreign policy mistakes that led the

country into World War I

(3) form military alliances with other democratic nations

(4) strengthen the American military against

European dictators
30. During World War II, the Manhattan Project was the name of the plan to

(1) open a second front in Europe

(2) capture Pacific islands held by the Japanese

(3) develop the atomic bomb

(4) liberate German concentration camps
31. Women played a major role on the domestic front during World War II by

(1) becoming candidates for public office

(2) campaigning for woman’s suffrage

(3) demonstrating against involvement in the war

(4) taking jobs in the defense industry
32. The New Deal changed American political thinking because it was based on the principle that the

(1) economy will fix itself if left alone

(2) federal government should attempt to solve social and economic problems

(3) political parties must work together to deal with national problems

(4) states should take a leadership position in solving social issues
33. Many of the songs, movies, and books of the 1930s are similar in that they

(1) romanticized urban life

(2) relived the bad times of the past

(3) helped people escape from the realities of

everyday life

(4) pointed out the mistakes that led to the Great Depression

38. Which action did President Franklin D. Roosevelt take that helped organized labor gain strength during the New Deal?

(1) requiring the American Federation of Labor to admit skilled workers

(2) allowing women to work in government

agencies

(3) signing the National Labor Relations Act

(Wagner Act)

(4) selecting John L. Lewis as his Secretary of Lab
39. What was a major result of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill)?

(1) Millions of veterans received a college education.

(2) Women kept their factory jobs after World War II.

(3) Jobs were created by the Manhattan Project.

(4) Veterans were exempted from gasoline rationing.
40. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) were both New Deal programs developed to address the problem of

(1) excessive stock market speculation

(2) high unemployment

(3) increased use of credit

(4) limited income of senior citizens
41. A major reason that President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed adding Justices to the

Supreme Court in 1937 was to

(1) make the Court processes more democratic

(2) end corruption and favoritism in handling cases

(3) influence Court decisions related to New Deal programs

(4) ensure the appointment of members of

minority groups

46. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937 were intended to

(1) enforce the policies of the League of Nations

(2) stimulate economic growth in the United

States

(3) avoid the policies that drew the nation into World War I

(4) support the use of peacekeeping troops in Europe
47. What was a primary goal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin when they met at the Yalta Conference in 1945?

(1) setting up postwar aid for Great Britain

(2) sharing the development of atomic weapons

(3) protecting the colonial empires of the warring nations

(4) settling major wartime issues of the Allied powers
48. What effect did the end of World War II have on American women who worked in defense industries during the war?

(1) They were invited to join labor unions.

(2) Their jobs were taken by returning servicemen.

(3) Their wages were increased to match those of male workers.

(4) Their contributions were rewarded by the government.
49. The war crimes trials in Nuremberg and Tokyo following World War II established the concept that

(1) nations could be made to pay for wartime damages

(2) pardons should be granted to all accused war criminals

(3) those convicted should be given shorter

sentences than ordinary criminals

(4) individuals could be held accountable for

their actions in a war
54. Which change in American society occurred during World War II?

(1) African Americans were granted equality in the armed forces.

(2) Women were allowed to enter combat units for the first time.

(3) Congress enacted the first military draft.

(4) Women replaced men in essential wartime industries.
55. A major reason for creating the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933 was to

(1) build and manage a turnpike in the valley

(2) provide health care benefits for southerners

(3) encourage African Americans to settle in the valley

(4) improve economic conditions in a poor rural region
56. A major purpose of the GI Bill (1944) was to

(1) replace the draft near the end of World War II

(2) prohibit racial discrimination in the armed forces

(3) provide federal funds for veterans to attend college

(4) increase the number of women working in defense industries
57. President Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that declaring a bank holiday and creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) would help the nation’s banking system by

(1) restoring public confidence in the banks

(2) reducing government regulation of banks

(3) restricting foreign investments

(4) granting tax relief to individuals


62. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s reelection in 1940 created a controversy that eventually led to

(1) the Supreme Court declaring the election

unconstitutional

(2) the establishment of presidential term limits

(3) an effort to increase voter participation

(4) an attempt to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme Court
63. The D-Day invasion in June 1944 was important to the outcome of World War II because it

(1) opened a new Allied front in Europe

(2) avoided use of the atomic bomb against

civilian targets

(3) forced Italy to surrender

(4) stopped Soviet advances in eastern Europe
64. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) affected workers by

(1) protecting their right to form unions and

bargain collectively

(2) preventing public employee unions from

going on strike

(3) providing federal pensions for retired workers

(4) forbidding racial discrimination in employment
65. Prior to the start of World War II, Great Britain and France followed a policy of appeasement when they

(1) rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union

(2) allowed Germany to expand its territory

(3) signed the agreements at the Yalta

Conference

(4) opposed United States efforts to rearm
68. The war crimes trials that followed World War II were historically significant because for the first time

(1) nations were asked to pay for war damages

(2) individuals were given immunity from

prosecution

(3) nations on both sides were found guilty of causing the war

(4) individuals were held accountable for their actions during wartime
69. One major way President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal tried to combat the effects of the Great Depression was by

(1) keeping workers’ wages low

(2) increasing protective tariff rates

(3) giving states more control over the federal budget

(4) funding public works relief programs
70. In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was criticized for his proposal to add justices to the United States Supreme Court because these appointments would have

(1) broken earlier campaign promises

(2) violated the constitutional limit on the

number of justices

(3) threatened the system of checks and balances

(4) established a more conservative Court
71. Which action by the United States best represents United States foreign policy in the 1930s?

(1) passing the Neutrality Acts

(2) creating the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

(3) deciding to create the United Nations

(4) joining the Allied powers

76. Which statement best explains why the United States mainland suffered minimal physical damage in both World War I and World War II?

(1) The United States policy of isolationism discouraged attacks by other countries.

(2) Geographic location kept the United States protected from most of the fighting.

(3) United States military fortifications prevented attacks on United States soil.

(4) Latin America provided a buffer zone from acts of aggression by other countries.
77. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Good

Neighbor policy was designed mainly to

(1) reduce border conflicts with Canada

(2) increase acceptance of minorities within the United States

(3) encourage Germany and the Soviet Union to resolve their differences

(4) improve relations with Latin America
78. One result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was that it

(1) raised the national debt

(2) weakened labor unions

(3) deregulated the stock market

(4) repealed federal antitrust laws
79. In which pair of events is the second event a response to the first?

(1) Truman Doctrine → D-Day Invasion

(2) Manhattan Project → Lend-Lease Act

(3) Holocaust → Nuremberg War Crimes trials

(4) Germany’s invasion of Poland → Munich Conference

84. Which statement most accurately describes the foreign policy change made by the United States between the start of World War II (1939) and the attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)?

(1) The traditional isolationism of the United States was strengthened.

(2) The nation shifted from neutrality to military support for the Allies.

(3) War was declared on Germany but not on Japan.

(4) Financial aid was offered to both the Allied and Axis powers.
85. During President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) were created as a way to

(1) provide jobs to those who were unemployed

(2) raise revenue for relief and recovery

programs

(3) limit risks associated with savings and

investments

(4) implement the new income tax amendment
86. “Arms Sales to Warring Nations Banned”

Americans Forbidden to Travel on Ships of Warring Nations”

Loans to Nations at War Forbidden”

War Materials Sold Only on Cash-and-Carry Basis”



These headlines from the 1930s reflect the efforts of the United States to

(1) maintain freedom of the seas

(2) send military supplies to the League of

Nations

(3) limit the spread of international communism

(4) avoid participation in European wars


90. “…The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. Emphatically we must get these weapons to them, get them to them in sufficient volume and quickly enough, so that we and our children will be saved the agony and suffering of war which others have had to endure…”

~ President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Fireside Chat,” December 29, 1940
In this statement, President Franklin D.

Roosevelt was asking the nation to

(1) support a declaration of war against Nazi Germany

(2) adopt a policy of containment

(3) join the League of Nations

(4) become the “arsenal of democracy”
91. Following World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt was most noted for her

(1) support of racial segregation in the United States military

(2) role in creating the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights

(3) opposition to the Truman Administration

(4) efforts to end the use of land mines
92. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), established during the New Deal, were important because they

(1) increased the supply of money in the

economy

(2) guaranteed loans to failing businesses and banks

(3) attempted to restore public confidence in

financial institutions

(4) provided grants to unemployed workers

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