A these hats were originally worn in the 1920s by school children. Nowadays you see many different types of these hats with bobbles and tassles. B



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Unit 1

Track 2 – Exposure – Exercise C


A

These hats were originally worn in the 1920s by school children. Nowadays you see many different types of these hats with bobbles and tassles.


B

These hats were invented in 1797. They were created for a show of style. Nowadays, you only see these hats at fancy events.


C

This hat was first worn by a baseball team in the USA in 1849. Nowadays you see these hats everywhere and in every situation.


D

This headgear is extremely important for safety but wasn’t worn regularly until the 1980s. Nowadays you even find them with features such as headlights on them.

Track 3 – Task A – Exercise C
The first cowboy hat was created in 1865 by John B. Stetson. Stetson came from a long tradition of hat makers. His father was one too. Stetson invented the cowboy hat on a hunting trip. He was being funny and made cloth from a piece of fur without tanning it. He noticed that this hat was big enough to protect a man from the sun, the rain and the great outdoors.

He went back home and started producing Stetsons, or cowboy hats. They have a wide brim and a high top. It could also be used to carry water.

The first cowboy hat cost five dollars. Nowadays, there are hundreds of different styles and colours of cowboy hats, and the Stetson company still exists today.

Of course there have been many similar types of hats, even before Stetson. Mongolian horsemen wore these types of hats in the thirteenth century. Soldiers from different eras also wore similar hats. And working cowboys of the West were wearing such hats before Stetson marketed them.

Track 4 – Task A – Exercise F
Bamboo is getting a lot of attention as a green material for construction, paper and a breathable fabric that’s soft as silk. You can find bamboo T-shirts, jeans and even lingerie nowadays. Much of the bamboo being used commercially comes from plantations in China. A lot of experts think it could be grown commercially in the US.

NPR’s Wendy Kaufman took a tour of one project aimed at just that with a horticulturalist in Washington State.

Bamboo is eco-friendly. It’s highly efficient at taking in CO2 and holding on to the carbon as it exhales pure oxygen. In the field, it’s typically grown without chemicals and pesticides. That’s in sharp contrast to most cotton. And bamboo, says Adam Turtle of the Earth Advocates Research Farm, grows fast:

“It’s the fastest-growing plant on earth. It will out-yield any other known plant in climates that suit it.”

Track 5 – Task B – Exercise C
1

This person likes to keep things relatively simple. This person likes stripes in different shades of blue.


2

It’s a bit unusual to see someone so young looking so professional. This person has a rather unique look with his tie and his starched collar.


3

This guy looks really cool. He’s got his own look. It’s a little bit alternative. I think he’s wearing a cap and I like the funny T-shirt. Funny T-shirts add character.


4

This person is serious and cool, preferring to wear a bandanna. It makes him look a little bit like a cowboy.


5

This girl is into cyber fashion. Natural hair colour is not for her. The more colourful, the merrier. She likes skirts and funky tops. She likes to wear a lot of eye make-up, too.



6

This person chose to be photographed in a straightforward way, wearing the most normal and inconspicuous clothing. She’s got blond hair that doesn’t need any special tricks. And her glasses make her look a tiny bit severe.

Track 6 – Checkpoint E
Part 1

Take your scissors, and I think we can be quite brutal with this. So now you’re left with your basic shape. Then simply start hacking. You’ve pressed the seam of your lining, now you need to stitch a centimetre in all the way round.

Track 7 – Checkpoint E
Part 2

Next stage is to go back to your raw edge and you just need to zig-zag stitch. This stops it fraying.

The alternative to sewing your hem is to use ‘invisible hem’. This stuff’s brilliant. It’s fuss-free, really strong, doesn’t fall apart in the wash.

Now we need to fill in this neckline that we cut up earlier on. Take the excess fabric from the bottom of your dress, lay this flat, simply start pinning.

All I’m going to do is literally follow the shape all the way round, to make sure that the piece of fabric that we’re stitching in is in really in firmly.

Track 8 – Checkpoint E


Part 3

Now all we need to do is cut the lace to go over the top. You take your lace. You need to fold the piece in half. Take your dress and lay on top. Take your scissors and all we’re going to do is cut an inch away, following roughly the contour of the body so your lace has shape.

Now you’ve completed your lace section. All you need to do is stitch the side seams together and simply stitch to the top of the lace onto the dress.

Take your dress, put it inside the lace shell. Once you’ve done that, all you need to do now is stitch it on.


Track 9 – Checkpoint F
5

My outfit is probably made of cotton or polyester. It’s important that the material is lightweight and breathable, because when you do sports, you need to be comfortable.


6

I really like this guy’s plaid shirt and the cowboy hat’s really cool too.


7

This lady’s outfit is probably made out of silk. The bright orange and the bright yellow make it rather distinctive.


8

This cap looks like it’s made out of cotton or wool and it probably keeps his head pretty warm in the winter.


9

This lady is probably wearing all cotton. I really love the floral prints. She looks a little bit like a gypsy.


10

His sweatshirt is very likely made of cotton. He’s not wearing his baseball cap at the moment, but will put it on when he meets his friends. And no, his cargo pants aren’t too long. They are worn like that.

Unit 2

Track 10 – Exposure – Exercise D


The Bernina Express of the Rhätische Bahn runs from Chur to Tirano in Italy through a truly impressive mountain landscape. A winter journey on the Bernina Express is a special experience. The snow makes the landscape look even more impressive, for example when the Bernina Express passes by the Morteratsch Glacier.

At Ospizio Bernina, the Rhätische Bahn reaches – without the use of cog wheels – the railway’s highest altitude of 7,392 feet or 2,253 metres above sea level. The Bernina Express runs downhill from here to Tirano, which lies at an altitude of 1,407 feet or 429 metres above sea level.

In summer, you can take a bus here for onward travel to Lugano. The Bernina Express is an experience well worth trying at different times of the year.

Track 11 – Task A – Exercise D


Interviewer I’ve come here to Cape Tribulation and the Daintree National Park to explore its wilderness life. What do I have to do in order to see some of that wildlife, Jane? For instance, do you think I’ll be able to spot a cassowary?

Researcher Well, that’s not such an easy thing to do. There aren’t a lot of these birds around nowadays. In 1993, we counted only 54 birds. And that was very alarming, they were close to becoming extinct. But thanks to a few new measures, the cassowary has made a comeback. So now we know that there are probably about 500 of them in the Daintree forest.

Interviewer Is that so? Well, congratulations. And why was it so endangered?

Researcher A number of reasons. More roads had been built, and paved, so there was faster traffic, and quite a number of birds were killed by vehicles. You see, they can’t fly, they have to cross the roads on foot. And then there were some cassowaries that got caught in traps, ugly iron things which hurt their feet. The traps were meant for pigs which had become wild and were destroying the habitats. And dogs can kill cassowaries too, if they’re let loose.

Interviewer That’s a sad story. What do these famous creatures look like?

Researcher First of all, they’re tall, as tall as you, in fact they can be as tall as 1.8 metres and weigh as much as a human adult. They have long black feathers, and a pale blue head. And there are two red things called wattles that hang at the front of the neck.

Interviewer But even though they’re so big, they’re hard to spot, aren’t they?

Researcher Yes, they’re quite shy. They normally live a secret life in the jungle, and they wander around. And that’s actually good for people, because if such a huge bird got scared, it might become aggressive. Male cassowaries, especially, are very protective of their young, and they might well attack you with their sharp claws. People have been badly hurt.

Interviewer Wow. So I should avoid them?

Researcher If you see one, you’re lucky in the first place, because few people do. Just don’t go any nearer, and don’t turn your back on it. Face the bird and back away slowly. And never feed a cassowary, either. They know what’s good for them.

Interviewer Thank you very much for this information, Jane.

Jane You’re welcome.

Track 12 – Task B – Exercise A

1

These fish are generally striped, they can be red, brown, orange, yellow, black, maroon or white. I said they’re poisonous, and they use the poison to kill their prey. For human beings, the poison is very painful, but not deadly. But look at these spines again, they look rather like wings, don’t they?


2

People say that you can see the Great Barrier Reef from outer space. That’s actually true. It’s the biggest structure on earth that has been made by living organisms.


3

Now why do we call it a structure made by living organisms? Well, there are billions of tiny animals, called coral polyps. They give off a substance and the reefs are made up of this substance.


4

More than half of the reefs are in danger nowadays, especially those that are near the coast. And now we have global warming. Warmer ocean temperatures could lead to coral bleaching: this is when corals lose their colours due to stress.


Track 13 – Task B – Exercise D
1 Don’t litter! Take your rubbish with you.
2 Don’t touch or break off corals.
3 Don’t sit or stand on corals.
4 When you go hiking, please stay on the marked trails.
5 Observe animals, but don’t touch or handle them.

Track 14 – Task B – Exercise E


Announcer The Queensland state government in Australia announces a new plan to protect the Great Barrier Reef from agricultural pollution. The iconic reef is being damaged by pesticides and sediment from farms that seep into waterways.

The Queensland government is to spend an extra 30 million dollars to reduce this hazardous run-off. Farmers also will face tougher environmental regulations.

Queensland premier Anna Bligh says that man-made threats present serious challenges to the reef, which is a World Heritage site.

Anna Bligh We know that there are many contributing factors to the water quality of the reef. We are already addressing a number of those activities particularly around increased population levels, sewage treatment etc. But what the science is telling us is that the highest levels of damaging chemicals and nutrients are in those areas that have intense farming activity.

Announcer Environmental groups welcome the Queensland plan to protect the Great Barrier Reef. Farmers, however, argue that they have already taken significant steps to stop the spread of pollutants from their land. The Great Barrier Reef stretches for more than 2,000 kilometres along Australia’s northeast coast. It’s not only an ecological marvel, but generates billions of dollars for Australia’s tourism industry, drawing in thousands of scuba divers and others who want to see the marine animals that live along the reef.
Track 15/16 – Focus on skills – Exercise C
Report 1
Announcer The islands of Hawaii are surrounded by coral reefs. Those reefs are still mostly intact. Earlier this year, a large tanker ran aground off the coast of the island of Oahu. It caused major damage on a large coral reef. Now an effort has been made to repair the damage done by the ship and its anchor to the delicate coral reef growing in the offshore waters.

Nearly every day for two months, divers have been working underwater. They work like road construction workers, transplanting and re-attaching broken coral. Here’s what one diver said about the repair work:

Diver It’s true that some of the coral was broken off, but the base was still there. We feel those corals will come back as long as they’re made stable and they’re not moving around. The new tissue will grow over the damaged ends where they were broken off, so we left those alone. But we gathered up the big pieces that were broken off in some cases, and those we stuck around into clusters so … and those seem to be doing fine too, so it was very encouraging. I think we’re going to be successful after all.

Report 2
Faith Now there is a new threat facing coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. The threat comes from another sea creature.
A recent study found that a certain kind of fish, by the name of damselfish, are killing corals here. Researchers say this is creating even more problems for the area’s coral reefs, which are already troubled.
Damselfish live in ocean waters throughout the world. They kill parts of coral colonies. The result is that simple organisms like algae will grow. Damselfish use these new gardens of algae for feeding and producing young fish.

Les Kaufman is a biologist from Boston University and Conservation International.

Kaufmann The damselfish had to find new grounds for algae after another coral species had disappeared. Unfortunately, the damselfish are now killing off parts of slow-growing coral. This coral is not able to recover from the destruction very well. It could take these slow-growing coral as long as one hundred years to recover.

Track 17/18 – Checkpoint D


Part 1

Bob Coral reefs exist in underwater colonies. These communities make up some of the largest living structures on earth. Some are so large that they can be seen from space.

Coral reefs were listed as plants until seventeen fifty-three. That year a French biologist who had been studying reefs in the western Atlantic discovered that they are animals.

Faith Corals are non-moving animals. They stay positioned in one place. They capture food by seizing it with their long tentacles.

Each coral polyp releases a hard calcium carbonate skeleton that serves as a base. The base grows as more calcium carbonate is released. This creates the main structure of the coral reef.

Several different species of coral can be present in the different colonies that form the reef structure. Soft corals do not form reefs, but may be present in a coral reef ecosystem.

Bob Coral reefs are extremely important to the earth’s environment. They are home to millions of species of sea life that depend on coral reefs for their survival. This makes reefs an important source of food for millions of people around the world.

Coral reefs also protect coastlines from storms and flooding. And, they are important for the travel industry in some countries. Experts say a continuing reduction in coral reef populations will have harmful effects for people worldwide.


Part 2

Bob Scientists have identified thousands of different species of reef-building coral. They have also discovered hundreds of species of soft corals and deep-sea corals. Progress in science and technology is leading to the identification of even more species of coral each year.

Two years ago, scientists discovered more than one hundred corals in the Great Barrier Reef and on a reef near northwestern Australia. The scientists said that about half of the coral species were new to them.

The four-year study looked at the health, diversity and biological make-up of the reef. The scientists investigated the effect of pollution and climate change on what they called the rainforests of the ocean.

Faith The study was part of a larger ten-year project called the Global Census of Marine Life. More than two thousand scientists from eighty nations have taken part in the project. The goal is to produce the first detailed list of sea creatures. The scientists are expected to release their findings later this year.

Unit 3


Track 19 – Exposure – Exercise B
1

This man, Ed Balls, is talking nonsense. Surely it would be better to have the kids at home and in bed by midnight! Our youngsters need to be taught respect and family values, not the finer points of basketball late at night. This government person hasn’t got a clue.


2

I’m afraid Mr Balls doesn’t realise that the people who cause all the troubles do not even go to school. They play truant or have dropped out. So how are they going to stay behind for after school sports? The idea is basically good, but it’s just so naïve. It won’t prevent crime, I’m dead sure. So let’s not experiment with this American idea.


3

Basketball is not very popular in this country so I’m not sure if it will take off. But the game can be played by boys and girls in the same team, not like hockey or football, for instance. It also doesn’t necessarily require a lot of skill, so that people of all sporting ability can take part. Well, I hope it’ll be successful.

Track 20 – Task A – Exercise D
Monday, 26th July

For a few days now I’ve been back in Lyon after about a month of vacation, and it already feels like I never left ... Last season ended great with the 4th win of the French championship. So in the end we got at least one important title after we had lost the final of the UEFA Women's Champions League against Potsdam in May. It felt great to have success after such a long season. We worked hard from the beginning to the end and were so close to winning all the titles we set ourselves as goals.

I think I would have deserved a holiday, but first I went to play two World Cup qualifiers with Switzerland in Russia and Kazakhstan. We absolutely had to win in order to be able to finish first at the end of the group stage. We expected a strong, fast combining, Russian side as in the first game at home. However, it was us that controlled the game largely and we had the better chances. We ended up winning 3-0 and I was proud of my team mates.

But afterwards it was important to stay focused on the Kazakhstan game that was coming up. After some problems in the first half, we managed to control them better and the final score was 4-2 for us. Happily and with lots of great memories and surprises we arrived home.

Now I am back in Lyon. We have been back in practice since Saturday with an almost new coaching staff, which is really exciting. Our focus right now is to prepare ourselves as well as possible in order to improve from last year and to reach the high goals we are setting again for this year. It’s great to work in such an ambitious and challenging environment.

Track 21 – Focus on language – Exercise D


1

A Roger Federer had won Wimbledon five times.


B Then he lost the final against Rafael Nadal.
2

A She ate a huge plate of spaghetti.


B Not surprising, she had just run a 20 km race.
3

A At the last tournament, I met an old friend of mine.


B I hadn’t seen her for five years, just imagine.
4

A I went to bed with my eyes burning.


B No wonder, I had watched the whole 4-hour game.
5

A The game had been rough and full of dangerous tackles.


B The footballers still shook each other’s hands at the end.
6

A The game ended in a 3-3 draw.


B I had never seen a more intense match in my life.

Track 22 – Focus on language – Exercise E


Some sports people were extremely lucky to avoid the collapse of a roof. The volleyballers had their weekly training in a sports hall in St. Gallen, Switzerland, on Monday evening. It was a day that brought nearly half a metre of heavy snow.

Only 8 hours after they had left, the roof of the huge sports hall collapsed. The hall was built 3 years ago at a cost of 11 million Swiss francs. A police investigation has started.

Track 23 – Task B – Exercise A
1

Boys all over the world dream of becoming professional soccer stars.


2

They hope they will one day make it to a big European league.


3

Every year, hundreds of players between the ages of 15 and 22 travel to Europe.


4

Agents and clubs try to make a profit from these talented players.


5

There is a dark side to the football business that seems to be one of its best-kept secrets.

Track 24 – Task B – Exercise C
There are a lot more foreign players in the football leagues of Europe than there used to be. It is no surprise that some of the best African stars can be found in top teams. England and France are among the countries with African players.

Now for the season’s best African players in Europe. Let’s count down the top three players that have the biggest impact currently.

In third place, there’s Emanuel Adebayor. The Togolese striker used to play for Arsenal, but then he moved to big spenders Manchester City after the club was taken over by Abu Dhabi Group. Adebayor has played 21 games for City, and he scored eleven times.

Perhaps you will remember that Adebayor was involved in a horrific incident in Angola after a terror attack on his team bus, when the Togo national team was on their way to the African Nations Cup. This incident was the reason why the 26-year old retired from international soccer in 2010.

At number 2, we have Samuel Eto’o who made his name at Barcelona, winning almost everything there is to win as a team. He scored over a hundred goals for Barcelona and belonged to the most dangerous striking attack in Europe together with Messi.

A year ago, he moved to Inter Milan in a swap deal, but he has failed to achieve what he did at Barça. Samuel, who is now 29 years old, still continues to be a great striker.

On the top of the list for this season, we have Didier Drogba. The captain of the Ivorian National team and No.1 hit man for Chelsea has just won his third Premier League title. Drogba has made his name in Europe and is among the most feared strikers in world football. He transferred from Marseille to the Blues in 2004 for a fee of 24 million pounds. Drogba scored 29 goals in the league, three more than Rooney. At 32 years, he has tremendous experience and is still quick on his feet.

Track 25 – Task B – Exercise E


That’s an excellent point.
I agree with you.
I still wonder …
Absolutely, and I would add …
Well, what would happen if …
I agree with you on this …
… but not really on that.
That’s a good point, but in my opinion …
That could be true, but what about …
I understand your point, but what about …
I see what you mean, but maybe you should think about …

Track 26 – Focus on skills – Exercise C


1

Alan The world record for high jump is 2.45 m, set up in 1993 by Javier Sotomayor.

Betty Sorry, can you say that again?

Alan Sotomayor jumped 2 metres 45 centimetres in 1993.

Betty But you said it differently just before.
2

Betty What is the longest jump that any triple jumper has ever made?

Alan What do you mean by “longest jump”? Do you mean the longest triple jump?

Betty Of course, that’s what I mean.

Alan I think it’s about 18 metres.
3

Betty So there’s high jump, there’s long jump and then there’s triple jump.

Alan Let’s not forget pole vaulting.

Betty What’s that?

Alan Well, athletes use a long pole, like a stick, that’s flexible, as a help to leap over a high bar.

Betty Right. I think I know what you mean.


4

Alan Now, did you know that there are only 17 pole vaulters who have jumped higher than 6 metres?

Betty Okay, no, I didn’t know that.

Alan They’re called the 6 metres club. They could also call themselves 6 M club. Do you see what I mean?

Betty Not really.

Alan Well, they’re all men, there’s only one woman who reached higher than 5 metres.


5

Betty Here’s something you won’t know. My grandfather has a book from the 1912 Olympics. They had a sporting event then called “standing long jump”.

Alan Uh-uh.

Betty Are you with me?

Alan Standing long jump? What’s that?

Betty That’s when you jump as far as you can, but without running, stupid.

Alan I see. And what’s the point?

Betty Well, what’s the point of pole vaulting?


Unit 4


Track 27 – Exposure – Exercise C
1

I think I could play her really well. I may not be very dark-skinned, but her character suits me. I mean ... I grew up in a slum and I’m kind of tough too. I have a big voice. And I can be really wild if I feel like it.


2

I think someone who is fashion-conscious is perhaps not very confident, you know, a bit insecure. I could do that very well. I look innocent, don’t I? Well, I don’t have blue eyes, that’s true, but my voice sounds young and I’m pretty enough for this role, I think.


3

The character I’ve been asked to play is basically a friendly guy, even though he looks dangerous. I’m big, too, and I can walk like a body-builder, you see this? This is all muscles. I trained in the gym, you know. Well, some of it’s fat, okay. But I can get rid of it.


4

I really, really want to be this guy. He’s so cool. I mean the way he uses slang in the book, it’s exactly what I’ve heard on the streets of Hounslow, and I can do a real good imitation of it. Well, yes, I may not look Punjabi, but I’m Asian, my mother is from Japan and my father from Korea.


5

I’ve always wanted to play a teenager from the ghetto, whatever his race is. I mean this guy’s light-skinned, so I can pass for Jamaican. I do sports, and I can hold my own in a fight. I’m basically a calm person, but I can act a hot temper, too. I’ve done lots of school plays.


6

Personally, I’m not lazy at all. But I do like to get a good night’s sleep. So you see, I can put on this sleepy look very well. Plus I can talk like a book. You can’t see it with this baggy T-shirt I’m wearing, but really I’m skinny, like this character.

Track 28 – Task A – Exercise E
1 I don’t think you should do that.
2 I wouldn’t do that if I were you.
3 Why don’t you do it like this?
4 I wouldn’t do that.
5 I think it could be too dangerous.
6 Wouldn’t it be better to do it like that?

Track 29 – Focus on language – Exercise F


Billy calls the Crew together. Some of them would like to visit the girl in hospital, and Billy agrees to go there the following day.

She is already a bit better. She tells him that she was tortured and injected with drugs. Billy also asks her about Claire, but the girl just mutters that it’s too late. The same afternoon, Claire is reported dead on TV.

At home, Billy’s mum suggests calling the police, but her boyfriend Nanny and Billy plan to go after the gangsters themselves, because they don’t trust the police. Nanny arranges to meet an old friend who promises to help them.

Although Billy’s mum insists on calling the police, the others continue following their own plans, because they expect to find the person who is behind the kidnapping.

Will they manage to do this without any help from the police?

Track 30 – Task B – Exercise D


On the way to the community centre, I sent Jas a text, confirming that we were on our way. He didn’t reply, but then I hadn’t expected him to. We reached the community centre just after quarter to ten but Jas hadn’t arrived. I dialled Jas’s number and waited. The connection took ages and when it did hook up with Jas’s phone, the answer service came on. “He must be on his way,” I said, “it’s on answer.” Suddenly, a young Asian lad on a mountain bike rode up to us. “Which one of you guys is Billy?” he asked, his face all serious. I moved towards him. “I am,” I said. “What do you want?” – “I don’t want nuttin’ from you, guy.” – “What do you want?” I asked again, getting a bad feeling in my stomach. “Man jus’ tol’ me to give you this letter, you know.” He handed over an envelope. I tore it open and pulled out a sheet of A4 paper.

I read it. The letter told us that someone had Jas and said that I would be next – unless I came up with the money. My mind was going haywire. Who had Jas and what had happened to him? This was serious. First Ellie and now Jas. The Crew was in deep, man. I shivered as I remembered Claire. They had already killed her. What would stop them from doing the same to Jas? Just the thought nearly made me puke.

Track 31 – Checkpoint D – Step b
1

This guy’s dressed a bit more informally. He’s got a grey T-shirt on. He’s got dark brown hair.



2

I don’t know if I’d mess with this guy. Maybe he hasn’t slept in a few days. He’s bald and has a scar on his head.


3

This guy looks cool. He’s probably a rock star because he has a guitar on his shirt. He’s got dark brown hair that looks pretty thick.


4

This guy looks as though he’s dressed for work. He’s wearing a nice shirt with a collar. He’s dark-skinned and has short black hair.

Track 32 – Checkpoint D – Step c
1

This boy has a really great smile even though he has a pretty hard life. It looks like he works with carpets or rugs – we can see some in the background.


2

This young boy must live in a hot climate as he isn’t wearing much. It looks as if he’s a bit tired from carrying that heavy object. His face is friendly, but he looks worried.


3

He might have been in a boat and what he’s carrying could be the oar for rowing. Then again, we don’t know. His teeth are white and clean and the skin above his greenish T-shirt is smooth and brown.


4

Now this one seems definitely older than all the others. He’s smiling in a slightly arrogant way. I don’t know if I like him. He’s wearing a flashy kind of shirt, but there’s a tear in the collar. Maybe he’s been in a fight.


5

I wonder what this boy is so worried about. Could it be the person behind the camera or the camera itself which makes him stare in this distrustful way? Anyway, he must have a reason. But he’s dressed in what looks like a nice checked jacket. He could be up to something, couldn’t he?

Unit 5

Track 33 – Exposure – Exercise F


A I had a look at the timeline illustrating New York’s history, and I wanted to find out how some of these events compare with Switzerland. So I did some research on the Internet.

B And what did you find out?

A Well, for example, the timeline says that the first newspaper was published in New York in 1725, and in Switzerland there’s a newspaper which was first published in 1780 and which still exists.

B Which one?

A The Neue Zürcher Zeitung – at the time, it was called only the Zürcher Zeitung.

B OK. Anything else?

A I looked for famous old bridges, like Brooklyn Bridge in New York. Switzerland’s most famous bridge is probably the Chapel Bridge in Lucerne, and that was built in 1333.

B That’s a lot older then!

A Yes, it is! There are also hospitals in Switzerland that are much older than the New York Hospital. There’s one in Berne called the Inselspital which was founded in 1354.

B Gosh, let’s hope their equipment in the hospital isn’t as old as that …

A Ha, ha. But not everything is older in Switzerland. You can see in the timeline that New York was the first capital of the USA, and that was 13 years before Switzerland had its first capital city which was … can you guess?

B Berne? … No? … Basle? … Zurich? … Geneva?

A No … it was Aarau. Surprising, isn’t it. But only for a couple of months … in 1798.

B Oh, I didn’t know that. And did you find out anything else where New York was first?

A Well, sort of. The headquarters of the United Nations have been in New York since 1946, and Switzerland only joined the UN in 2002.

B Right. And is there also a Swiss Statue of Liberty?

A No, there isn’t. But there is some sort of statue on the money … on the coins.

B Oh yes. But then, Switzerland and money … that’s a different story.

Track 34 – Task A – Exercise C
I moved to Manhattan in 2003, and I’ve been living in the same apartment in the East Village ever since. And would you believe it, over that period of time I’ve had ten different room mates. No, actually eleven if I count my dog, Frita. My hobbies include: carpentry, problem solving, home and clothing repair, dog-grooming, basketball, watching the New York Mets baseball team, cooking extravagant meals, buying fish and vegetables in Chinatown, and of course cycling.

My cycling in the City is split in two ways: when I guide a bike tour for Bike The Big Apple, the pace is slow and laid back. But when I cycle all over Manhattan as a bike messenger, the rhythm is hectic. I’ve been doing this off and on for 5 or 6 years. As a bike messenger, I’ve developed a love for knowing the exact location of every possible street address in Manhattan, locking and unlocking my bike very quickly and finding new restrooms. I also manage to complete a crossword puzzle entirely in elevators and reception areas.

I started university in 2008, but after a few days I decided that law school was not for me. I love a good argument, but I also have an extreme fear of sitting at a desk and being indoors all day. It’s not quite clear what the future holds for me, but at the moment I try to be the best New York City tour guide I can be – on my bike.

Track 35 – Focus on language – Exercise D


1 Keira

One day I’ll win the lottery. Then I’m going to buy my family a big house.


2 James

I think I’ll be a famous football player, and then I’d play for Arsenal.


3 Cindy

My dream is to go to university and study medicine. And after I finish, I could go to Africa and help sick children.


4 Mario

I watched the movie Billy Elliott the other day. Ballet is great but it’s really for girls, isn’t it? Still, I think I would like to try it out. They always need male dancers on the big stages. I have no idea how far I’ll get in this career.


5 Neela

My great-grandfather was a farmer in Sri Lanka. My dream is to become a farmer too, but in England. My family don’t own any land, but I could marry a farmer’s son, couldn’t I?


Track 36 – Task B – Exercise D

1

This area is not very densely populated. In fact it’s probably the least densely populated area in the world. You do see some areas of high concentration on the east coast. But the north and the central regions are extremely sparsely populated.


2

This area of the world is densely populated in general and the concentrations are spread all over the place. There seem to be fewer people living in the north-west, but the population’s not really sparse there either.


3

This isn’t a country, it’s a continent. There seem to be very few people living in the northern part of the continent, probably because there’s a huge desert there. People tend to live along the coasts and there is a huge concentration of people in the north-west.

Track 37 – Focus on skills – Exercise D
In New York Harbor lies Ellis Island, which was once an immigration center so prominent that it was known as the Gateway to America. At the height of its activity between 1901 and 1924, inspectors on Ellis Island processed 12 million newcomers to the United States. One in four Americans today can identify at least one ancestor who entered the country there.

But when the immigration station closed for good in 1954, the buildings stood empty, slowly rotting in the sea air. Then in 1976 when the nearby Statue of Liberty was restored following a fund drive tied to the U.S. Bicentennial, Ellis Island’s main building was also fixed up and opened to visitors. Now it’s the nation’s immigrant museum, loaded with artifacts like photographs, clothing, religious icons, and household goods, which often amounted to all of an immigrant’s worldly possessions.

Track 38 – Focus on skills – Exercise E
And now a non-profit organization has enlisted the help of prominent Americans to raise funds so that the rest of the Ellis Island immigration complex can be rehabilitated.

Ordinary Americans are telling the stories of their relatives’ sometimes terrifying experiences there. When steamships from Europe entered New York Harbor, inspectors would sail out to briefly check the paperwork of first- and second-class passengers. But third-class and steerage passengers got quite a different welcome. They were off-loaded and ferried over to Ellis Island for intense scrutiny.

Up to 5,000 immigrants a day were required to walk, one by one, up a flight of stairs to waiting physicians, who administered what became known as the 30-second medical: a physical and mental exam that could spell a quick end to these newcomers’ stay in America.

The island’s hospital, where some of the unfortunate were quarantined before being deported, is one of the crumbling buildings that will soon be restored.

Among the men and women who made it through the ordeal were actress Claudette Colbert, aviation pioneer Igor Sikorsky, and composer Irving Berlin. It was Berlin who took poet Emma Lazarus’s words, which are engraved on the base of the Statue of Liberty, and turned them into a song:

The words go, in part:

Give me your tired, your poor.

Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free.

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.

Track 39/40 – Checkpoint D
Step 1

This state is highly agricultural. You find a lot of farms in the northernmost part of the state, and also on the western coast. However, there are still quite a few farms in other parts throughout the entire state.


Step 2

The majority of the Welsh-speaking people live in the northernmost part of the country on the west coast.

Track 41 – Checkpoint F
1

We got out of the cab and onto the bus at Grand Central Station.


2

From there we got off the bus at MoMA, we went into the building and we walked around the gallery for a few hours. We then hopped into a cab and got out at the Hard Rock Café for lunch.


3

After lunch, we were so full that we decided not to get into a cab but rather to walk around Central Park and digest all that food a bit before heading off and getting on the subway.


4

We got on the subway and got off in the Bronx. There we decided to walk down City Island for a bit. We didn’t stop at the zoo because we thought we could see a zoo anywhere. After that we were pretty tired, so we took a taxi and asked for recommendations for a good deli. We got off at a really good one and then got on the subway to go back to our hostel. What a day!

Unit 6

Track 42 – Exposure – Exercise B


1

Major problems on the M62 this morning, if you’re heading for the West Yorkshire area: the eastbound side from Manchester heading towards West Yorkshire has been closed due to a lorry on fire.


2

Tonight, we have an amazing story to tell you from the territory of Nunavut in the far north of Canada. She’s pregnant, and she managed to save a native Canadian family from their burning house. What’s more amazing is that she’s a dog.


3

Just as he approached a few hundred metres before the finish line, he surprised them all by running to the front of the pack and it looked for a very few moments as if Simon Whitfield would capture his second gold medal at the Olympic games. But it was not to be. Frodeno from Germany came in first and won gold, what an unbelievable performance!


4

PEP is opening a brand new PEP Stop store. You know what that means, right? That means you now have a cellular store with more give-aways, more great deals on cellphones, starter packs and even contracts. And of course, you get all your add-ons as always at discount prices.


5

We want to send your old football kits to underprivileged children and adults across Africa and Eastern Europe. The “Get your kits off” appeal with BBC Radio Lancashire. Shirts, boots, shorts, even socks, any size, please donate them to our “Get your kits off” appeal.

Track 43 – Exposure – Exercise C
1

On the trains there are still problems on Virgin Trains heading down to London Euston being affected by problems in the Cheshire area, near Addlington, there’s an overhead power failure.

For safety reasons, members of the public are warned not to enter the marked areas during these times.
2

Tonight, we have an amazing story to tell you from the territory of Nunavut in the far north of Canada.

So make sure you get your hands on some opening specials and discount items at the PEP store opening Friday August 15th at 7.30 at Nyanga Junction.
3

Simon Whitfield was trailing his competitors, hanging in fourth for the last two laps in the running race of this triathlon.

“Hi. I’m Stephen Warnock of Blackburn Rovers. Please donate all of your old football kit to BBC Radio Lancashire’s “Get your kits off appeal”.

Track 44 – Task A – Exercise E


1

Reporter Now let’s have a walk into the room. We’re just by the door, let’s go past the wardrobe into the main area. We can see beds, lamps, tables, windowsills, TV, drawers and a small desk. I imagine that’s where loads of stuff gets left.


2

Reporter People tend to leave worthless things behind, don’t they? I mean … an empty book of matches, cigarettes, perhaps part of a newspaper.


3

Carol Pretty much anything, to be honest … erm … anything from phone chargers, which is the most popular thing to be left behind, to jewellery, to lots of personal belongings. Underwear is a great favourite to be left. I think because people just drop things on the floor by the side of the bed. But … erm … we even had one lady who left 30,000 pounds worth of jewellery in the bedside drawer and didn’t even realise she’d left it.


4

Reporter I mean you expect yeah the 30,000 pounds worth of jewellery, yes … guests like that come and stay at the Panorama, and obviously they will get back to you and ask, won’t they? But a plastic coat hanger? You get all sorts here, don’t you?


Track 45/46 – Focus on language – Exercise D/E
Reporter We’ve now entered the store room of the Panorama Hotel. This is where the hotel keeps all the items that are not claimed.

Carol As you can see, we’ve put every item in a separate plastic bag and we’ve labelled them all, so that we can say immediately where we found them.

Reporter It all looks very orderly, well done. So what have you found over the last few months, Carol, you and your staff?

Carol Well, we’ve found the usual things, you know, that people typically leave behind: handbags, CDs, headphones, three umbrellas, a white dinner jacket, various items of luggage such as suitcases and backpacks.

Reporter That makes you wonder, though, how can anyone forget a suitcase?

Carol Yes, really. Here are some more unusual things. Someone has left behind a dangerous-looking knife, here we have a camera that looks antique and valuable. And here’s a tennis racket with a signature on it, but no one has been able to read it. It could be Roger Federer’s for all we know.

Reporter Really, do you think so?

Carol No, I’m only joking. And this is a child’s bicycle, I don’t know where we found it. Ah, on the label here it says: in the hotel park. But the most surprising find is this.

Reporter What is it? A toy cat?

Carol: It’s actually quite a sad story. We had an elderly lady who came to stay with us each summer. She was quite special, eccentric really, and her only company was this cat. The cat was dead, you know it had been taxidermied, or stuffed. She used to take it all round the hotel with her. She took it to breakfast and sat it down beside her at the table and talked to it.


Last summer, she was taken to hospital while she was staying with us. We’ve kept all her things here. Sadly, we’ve just heard that the lady died.

Reporter And what are you going to do with her cat?

Carol Well, we’re going to try to find her relatives, I suppose.

Track 47 – Task B – Exercise B


The police are requesting the public’s help in finding Rod Westhuis, a 14-year-old boy, who went missing more than two weeks ago. Police spokesperson Stephen Knapp said the boy was last seen on 19th June about 2.30 in the afternoon in Woodstock, New Market Street. According to Knapp, Rod is about 1 metre 50 tall, weighs approximately 45 kilos, has short black hair, dark brown eyes and a dark brown complexion. Before he was reported missing, he was wearing a blue top with a zipper, grey denim jeans and white trainers. Rod is a member of a breakdance group. He is known to skip school lessons occasionally. The police request anyone with information to contact the investigating Officer, Inspector GJ Arendse at the Grassy Park Police Station at 021 700 3953.

Track 48 – Focus on skills – Exercise C


1

Hello, is this Lost and Found?


Great, thank you. I’m quite sure I left my watch on the number 65 bus. I can’t remember the time, but I think it was just after lunch.
What does it look like? It’s made of plastic mostly, and it has a small display. It’s quite elegant, really, white or, rather, beige.
No, it’s not digital, it’s the old-fashioned type.
2

I want to report the loss of a pair of very expensive sunglasses. They cost about 80 pounds. I lent them to a friend of mine and he says he left them on a bench near the river. I mean, right alongside the river where there’s a bridge.


They are fashionable sunglasses, kind of round. They have thin metal frames. The brand is Ray Ban R-A-Y, B-A-N. The things that go behind the ears – now what do you call them? – they’re black or dark brown. As I said, they cost me a fortune.
3

I would like to ask you if you happen to have my watch. It’s a small lady’s watch, with a green or yellow strap.


Yes, green or yellow because I can change the strap. I can’t say where and when I lost it, it must have been last week.
Well, it was definitely somewhere at the public swimming pool, I just don’t know where, you know, could have been on the lawn or in the water.
That’s not important, is it? Main thing is, it’s lovely ... oh, and I believe the watch face is as wide as the strap. Do you think you’ve got it?


4

My sunglasses are easy to recognise. They’re not very dark, and they are an elegant shape. They have a kind of blue, blue-ish … I don’t know what you’d call it, like a shine. I bought them in Spain in the eighties, they are quite dear to me because they remind me of my first holidays with my wife there.


Sorry, not easy to recognise, you’re saying? You’ve got hundreds of them? No, that won’t do, you have to find them. Somebody must have picked them up. I know I took them off because it was so dark in the post office and I had to see the stamps.
Unit 7

Track 49 – Exposure – Exercise E


We climbed down from the Harbour Bridge and shopped for some souvenirs in the area that is called The Rocks. This is full of lovely old buildings, warehouses that have been turned into pubs and shops.

Then we took a taxi to Woolloomooloo Wharf all the way on the other side of the centre. We had heard that this was a nice building, but it turned out to be quite ordinary and our lunch there was expensive.

We wanted to walk for a bit and so we set out through the park. There’s a great swimming pool right beside the water, it’s called Andrew Charlton Pool. The children wanted to have a swim, but we didn’t have any swimsuits. So we continued on to a place called Mrs Macquarie’s Point. Here we had an excellent view of the whole harbour with the Opera House right in front of us.

The problem was that we were now a long way away from everything, and we had no choice but to walk back through the park. We had some refreshments at the kiosk there and then decided to go to the botanical gardens. This was great too, but we were really getting tired. The funniest thing was the flying foxes, some kinds of bats, which were hanging upside down in lots of the trees.

It was already getting dark when we finally reached the Circular Quay train station.

Track 50 – Task A – Exercise E


1

The first important thing about my life is that I learnt to speak different languages. I speak some minority languages: I know my own Tatar language and then Uigur, Kasak and Chinese Han and a little bit of Japanese and a little bit of Russian, but it’s not that good. My best foreign language is English. I learnt all of my English in China.


2

Another thing that has shaped my life is that my parents, who are both medical doctors, were always very busy. When I was a little girl I normally played by myself and I talked to myself because there was no other companion. My grandma brought me up. My parents used to take me to her house and she took care of me. Sometimes I feel that I’m pretty lonely but sometimes I think it’s alright.



3

What were the turning points in my life? The three events that changed my life? The first thing can be traced back to school year 12. There is a lot of pressure to take the entrance exam for college and at that time I didn’t want to study. I didn’t know what the problem was so I just went to my dad and talked to him. I said that I didn’t really want to go to school anymore. He didn’t get angry, he just looked at me and said: “So tell me what you want to do.” I said: “Actually I don’t know.” And he said: “But when you’re older and we’re not around anymore, who is going to take care of you?” He talked to me for about two or three hours and in the end I decided that I’d better go to college. It’s quite different in China, if you want to have a pretty good job, at least you have to be a college student, you have to have a Bachelor’s degree.


4

The second thing was when I went to university I came across a very, very good professor. I’m not the sort of person who is really immersed in studies – sometimes I’m pretty lazy – and she encouraged me from the first day that I went to the university to the last day. She was always there for me. I learnt a lot of things from her and she is a person who really changed my life. The fact that my English is pretty good has something to do with her. She pushed me to enter a debating competition. I hate talking to so many people. First I said no, but then I actually went to the competition and I got the first prize for the whole northwest region and I went to the capital city to the main competition. That was great.


5

The third turning point was that I came here to Australia and I’ve met a lot of different people and have come across a lot of different things and cultures. I like living here. Compared to China it’s a pretty free country and I like the climate here because I really don’t like the cold.

I’ve made a lot of friends here, mainly by chatting on MSN and in forums where we exchange addresses and meet for real. I’m staying with a family, a homestay, and they’re great and very kind. I love to have connections with different kinds of people.

Track 51 – Focus on language – Exercise D


1 She moved to my neighbourhood. I see her a lot now.
2 I went to school. It was mostly fun.
3 He did his homework. He went shopping first.
4 They played a game of cards. They drank apple juice.

5 The bridge nearly collapsed because a tanker had hit one of the posts.
6 My train stopped in the tunnel for 20 minutes and because of the delay, I missed my connection.
7 The teacher asked the pupils to study some words and abbreviations for a test the next day.

Track 52 – Task B – Exercise C


Dear Remi,

I completely understand where you’re coming from. I have lived in the US since I was 5, too. I hardly remember living in India. Although we have lots of Indian friends and family around, most of my friends are not immigrants. I try to bring them home with me as much as I can – not only because they love our Indian food, but also because like this, my parents have become used to how people think here.

So slowly, over time, an arranged marriage is no longer a question in our family! Maybe you can try to get your parents together with some less traditional families from Bangladesh. And also just give it some time – go to the university, do well and then you will be independent and can decide more what YOU want for your life!

Take care, Prajakta

Task 53 – Task B – Exercise D
A I’m new to this country and I’d like to go out and discover as much as I can.
B I don’t believe that my own child would do something which is so much against our traditions.
C I just think my parents should loosen up a bit and make some compromises. You know what I mean?

D As their parents we just have to say that these things aren’t always good, but we’re glad it’s worked out for the best.
E The way we have always done things in our country – I mean in my old country – is that we talk to the parents of a suitable boy and we just work it out among adults, you know, people who are reasonable and mature.


© 2012 Lehrmittelverlag Zürich




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