A terrifying legacy



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The World Wars
Roosevelt Middle School

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A TERRIFYING LEGACY

The rich i____________________ nations of the t________________ century developed destructive t__________________ that came close to d__________________ the e________. The *s__c__n__ of two worldwide *c__n__l__c__s ended with the i________________ of a nuclear w__________ that had the p__________________ to destroy the entire *p_________. An uneasy “C_____ War” between the U________ States and the S________ Union followed the w______.

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1. What is the dictionary definition of legacy?















2. Define and describe the policy of “Mutually Assured Destruction.”
















*3. Several nations have had the ability to destroy the earth as we know it for close to a half-century, but a nuclear weapon has not been used in war since August 1945. Why do you think the nations of the world have not used their most deadly weapons?















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A POWDER KEG IN EUROPE

By 1914, E__________ had not seen a multinational w____ in almost a *c__n__u__y. Many Europeans were filled with *n__t__o__a__i__t__c pride, and hoped to show the *s__p__r__o__i__y of their *c__u__t__y. The killing of the A________________ of A____________ in S_______________, fueled by n__t__o__a__i__m and diplomatic a_________________, led to the first of two *g__o__a__ wars. \\

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4. How did the many nations of Europe expand their borders in the nineteenth century?












5. What twentieth century empire was the final remnant of the Holy Roman Empire?







6. What event “lit the fuse” that resulted in the Great War?










*7. Who is your heir? Explain your answer.










*8. If you were a Serb teenager living in Sarajevo, would you have been a member of the Black Hand? Defend your answer.
















*9. Write a paragraph that explains why global war was likely in 1914 even if the Archduke had not been assassinated. Your paragraph must have a topic sentence, at least two supporting sentences, and a conclusion.






















*10. George Washington gave a Farewell Address when he left the presidency in 1796. Washington urged Americans to avoid alliances with foreign nations. Do you think this is good advice more than two hundred years later? Defend your answer.











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ALLIANCES LEAD TO WORLD WAR


Military a________________ allowed a small conflict in *S__r__j__vo to mushroom into *g__________ war. An alliance is an a________________ to a____ together. Austria-H_____________ declared war on S__________ after the a__________________ of the A______________ of Austria. Russia agreed to join the w____ if A____________-H____________ attacked S__________. Germany joined the w____ because it had an a______________ with Austria-Hungary. F__________ entered the war because of its a_____________ with R_________.

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*11. Write a paragraph that explains why Austria declared war on Serbia in 1914.


















*12. Write a paragraph that explains why Russia entered the Great War in 1914.
















*13. Write a paragraph that explains why France entered the Great War in 1914.
















*14. Why did nationalism make it impossible for powerful nations like France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia to agree to stop the war?















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THE CONFLICT WIDENS


Almost all of E__________ was at war by the *s__m__e__ of 1914. The A__________ Forces included G________ Britain, F__________, Serbia, and R__________. Their rivals, the C____________ Powers, included G____________, Austria-Hungary, T__________, and B______________.


Turkey was then known as the O____________ Empire, a feeble empire whose holdings stretched from A____________ to M__________________. A group of idealistic m______________ seized control of the O____________ Empire in 1908. The “Y________ Turks” joined the G________ War on the side of the C____________ Powers because they believed that G____________ could defeat the two nations that posed the greatest threat to their empire: R__________ and Great B____________.

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15. Why was the Ottoman Empire known as the “Sick Man of Europe” in the years leading up to the Great War?












*16. What is a “warm water port?” Why would Russia be very interested in having a warm water port?
















17. Why were the Turks fearful that Britain would expand its empire into Turkish holdings?













18. Why did Bulgaria enter the Great War?









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THE GREAT WAR


T__c__n__l__g__c__l advances made war more deadly in the t________________ century. The i_______________ of the m____________ gun and rapid-fire a________________ forced armies to fight from deep t______________ dug into the e________. Thousands of s______________ drowned in the m________ trenches. Others died from *d______________ like trench foot. Soldiers in the t______________ also had to fear c______________ weapons like m____________ gas.

The battlefield moved to the s____ in the Great War. A p__l__t was far more likely to be k__________ than a s____________, but there was never a *s______________ of *v__________________ to join the *a____ war. A pilot controlled his destiny in q________ and d______________ battles, while the s______________ below faced a horrendous existence among the lice and vermin in the m________ trenches.

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*19. Why were the armies fighting in the Great War forced to dig trenches instead of fighting on a battlefield?















*20. Write a paragraph that explains why many young men risked their lives as pilots in the Great War.






















*21. Many of the soldiers left young families behind. If you could make a choice, would you have chosen to be a soldier or a pilot? Would your family want you to make the same choice? Defend both decisions.















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NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN BLACK AMERICA

The outbreak of the Great War caused a great *m__g__a__i__n of b________ Americans from the *r__r__l South to c__________ in the North. F____________ jobs were usually filled by i________________ from E__________, but the w____ temporarily stopped the flood of immigration, and created o_______________________ for b________ people. Many farmers and businesspeople in the South d______________ on black w____________ to fill l____ paying jobs. There were many *a______________ to keep Black A_______________ in the S________. Those B________ Americans who did reach the North found j______, but they also found *b__g__t__y. They were barred from joining most u__________, and often faced v______________ from other *w____________.

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22. Why did many Black Americans leave their homes in the rural South when the Great War broke out?















23. Why did A. Phillip Randolph oppose participation by Black Americans in the Great War?













*24. Why did W.E.B. DuBois argue that Black Americans should “close ranks” with their “white fellow citizens” during the Great War?













*25. Describe the roles of Black service members of the American army in the Great War.














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A SEPARATE PEACE

Russia was the f________ nation to l________ the G________ War. Two c________ wars in 19____ forced the R____________ people to focus on internal problems. Russia agreed to a “s______________ peace” with Germany in 1918. R__________’s new g__________________ lost a great deal of l______ in the *p________ agreement, but Russia would eventually develop into a m______________ empire known as the S__________ Union. The “separate p________” allowed G____________ to move *s______________ to their w____________ front in time to face fresh troops arriving from *A____________.

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26. Why did Russia agree to a “separate peace” with Germany in the Great War?














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AMERICA ENTERS THE GREAT WAR

The United S__________ hoped to *a__o__d entering the Great W____. Many Americans had strong feelings of i______________________, and A___________ included many citizens of F__________, English, and G__________ ancestry. American P________________ Woodrow W________ was n_____________ re-elected by using the s_________, “He K_____ Us O___ of W____,”

Several events drew A____________ into the G________ War. A G__________ submarine sunk the B____________ luxury liner L________________, killing 128 A_______________. The British d____________ a m____________ from G___________’s Foreign Secretary. The “Z________________ Note” urged M__________ to declare w____ on the U__________ S__________. On April 2, 1917, President W__________ asked C______________ to d____________ war on Germany. Wilson said he wanted to keep the world “s______ for d________________.”


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27. How did the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War” help President Woodrow Wilson win re-election in 1916?















*28. Why do you think many Americans had strong feelings of isolationism in the years leading to the Great War?













*29. Did the Germans make the correct decision when they sunk the Lusitania in 1915? Defend your answer.













30. What did the Zimmerman note promise Mexico in return for joining the Great War against the United States?













*31. What do you think might have happened if Mexico agreed to the provisions of the Zimmerman note?













32. What did President Wilson mean when he argued that America should enter the war in order to keep the world “safe for democracy?”












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THE DOUGHBOYS

The first A______________ soldiers reached France two m__________ after C______________ declared w____ in 1917. The weary F__________ people were *d__l__ght__d to see A________________ march through the s____________ of P________; many showed their g__a__i__ude by throwing c________ or c__________________. When the Parade reached the tomb of the M____________ de L__________________, Col. Charles Stanton announced in French, “L___________________, W__ A____ H______.” The phrase suggested that A______________ was about to r________ an old d______ to the F__________ nobleman who helped t________ George W__________________’s troops almost 150 *y________ earlier. The A_______________ forces fought under the direction of General John J. P______________, who insisted that A________________ fight t________________ and not be s___________ among A__________ forces. The American “d______________’s” fighting s__________ helped the A__________ forces to v____________ in the G________ War.

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*33. Why do you think many Americans had to be persuaded to join the Great War?


















*34. Approximately how long has France been at war when the American soldiers arrived?







*35. Why did General Pershing insist that American soldiers fight together instead of being used as “replacements” for fallen British and French soldiers?















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ALLIED VICTORY

The Great W____ lasted far longer than anyone expected; by 1918, many of the nations had lost the w______ to fight. R________ was first to leave, followed by B______________ and the O_____________ Empire. The many e__________ groups within A____________-H____________ caused that e__________ to dissolve into several *i__d__p__n__e__t nations. Germany continued to fight the A__________ Forces alone, but by the fall of 1918, they no longer had the i__________________ capability or the m________ to continue fighting. Germany and the A__________ Forces agreed to an armistice that ended the G________ W____ on *N______________ 11, 1918.

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*36. What did Mustafa Kemal believe would happen to his nation if he did not begin a modernization program?












37. Why did Austria-Hungary leave the Great War?










*38. Why did Germany leave the Great War?










*39. America is often referred to as the “arsenal of democracy.” Find the dictionary definition of arsenal, and explain how America’s arsenal led to victory in the Great War.










*40. America celebrated “Armistice Day” for several years after the Great War. Use an American calendar of holidays to identify the holiday observed on the first Monday in November in the United States.









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THE RISE OF HITLER

The G________ War lasted far longer and exacted a greater toll than anyone expected. The v__________________ European nations wanted v______________ on Germany. American President Woodrow W__________ wanted to form a L__________ of N____________ to prevent future w______, but the American *C______________ refused to join the organization. The *A__l__e__ forced Germany to *a__c__p__ the T__________ of V__________________. Germany was s______________ of its c______________ in *Af________. Additionally, Germany was also l____________ to a small a_______, forbidden to b________ large s________, and forced to pay F___________ and G________ B____________ for the d__________ caused by the w____.

The terms of the T__________ of V__________________ led to a severe d__________________ in Germany. Many frustrated G__________ people believed a strong l__________ could r__________ their n__________ to g________________. Some G____________ began to listen to the c____________________ voice of Adolph H__________, who blamed o________________ for the p______________ facing the nation. H__________ argued that pure G____________ he called A__________ could return the nation to greatness. He placed the b________ for many of G____________’s problems on the J______. Hitler and his N______ party took c____________ of Germany in 1933. The ruthless N________ outlawed all other political parties. Soon after, H__________ became the d______________ of G____________.


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*41. Why do you think the Americans were less interested in vengeance after the Great War than the French or British?















42. How did an economic depression in America in 1929 lead to an ever greater economic depression in Germany?















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*43. Why were many German people initially attracted to Adolph Hitler’s ideas?


















44. What book did Adolph Hitler write while in prison?










*45. Describe how Adolph Hitler and his National Socialist party gained complete control of Germany in the 1930s.













*46. Why do you think Adolph Hitler and the Nazis focused their propaganda teenagers rather than adults to follow their beliefs? (Your answer must show evidence that you understand the meaning of propaganda.)
















*47. In your opinion, is it possible for another leader like Hitler to come to power somewhere in the world? Defend your answer.


















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THE HOLOCAUST

Adolph Hitler argued that G____________ would r__________ to g________________ if “o________________” were purged from the nation. His N______ party began to e____________________ people who did not fit H__________’s view of the perfect A________ race. Jews, S________, the R______, homosexuals, and the h____________________ were considered unfit by the N________. The Nazis forced the people they considered to be unfit into c________________________ camps where *pr_________________ were often worked to death. The Nazis performed many cruel experiments on the concentration c______ prisoners, often without a__________________. As many as s____ million J______, and f______ million others p______________ in what became known as the H________________.

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48. What was Kristallnacht? Why was the event significant?















49. What is the dictionary definition of atrocity? (See atrocious if the dictionary leads you there.)













50. What is genocide?










51. Approximately how many people perished in the Holocaust?







52. Why have the survivors of the Holocaust implored the people of the world to not forget the lessons of the Holocaust?















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GERMANY ATTEMPTS TO DOMINATE EUROPE

Adolph H__________ began to *r____________ Germany after he came to power in 1933. Hitler i____________ the T__________ of V__________________ by seizing A____________ and part of C__________________________. British Prime Minister Neville C____________________ believed H__________ would be appeased with his conquests, and averted war with the G__________ dictator. The following year, H__________ and S__________ leader Josef S__________ invaded P__________, beginning *W________ War II. Soon after, the German B________________ swept across most of *E__________.

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53. How did Hitler ignore the Treaty of Versailles?















*54. Why did British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agree to allow Hitler to occupy Austria and Czechoslovakia? Do you believe this was a wise decision? Defend your answer.













*55. Why did Josef Stalin refuse to join an alliance with Britain and France? Was this a wise decision? Defend your answer.













56. Describe the German Blitzkrieg.















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THE EMPIRE OF THE RISING SUN

Japan became an i__________________ leader in the beginning of the twentieth century. The archipelago nation had few n___________ resources, so they decided to build imperial *c______________ in Asia as the European powers did in A______ and A__________. Japan expanded into K________, C________ and I_________________ by the beginning of World War II. The U__________ S__________ demanded that the J______________ leave I________________. When J________ refused, A___________ halted the sale of much needed o____ to Japan. Japan needed a new source for oil, and the D________ colonies in East A______ were the perfect target. The Dutch were busy fighting G____________, but Japan knew they would face w____ with A___________ if they attempted to conquer the Dutch colonies. They decided to neutralize America with a s______________ attack on a n________ base at P________ Harbor in H__________.

Japanese f______________ and b____________ completed a__________ on D______________ 7, 1941. American President Franklin R_______________ later said the date would “l______ in i__________.” The J_____________ hoped to d____________ America’s a____________ to contain their e__________, but they did not counNeville Chamberlain t on A______________ resolve or i__________________ might.


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57. Why is Japan known as the “Land of the Rising Sun?”












*58. What do you think was the eventual goal of the military leaders of Japan?













*59. Why did the Japanese attack the American Naval Base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii?















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AMERICA RESPONDS

*60. Why do you think many Americans opposed the United States’ entry into World War II before the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor?













*61. Write a paragraph that describes how World War II shaped American society in the twenty-first century.



















*62. What effect did World War II have on racial and gender equality? Defend your answer.













AMERICA RESPONDS

*63. Why do you think the American focused on Germany rather than Japan upon entering World War II?















*64. Why was 1942 a crucial year for the Allied Forces?










*65. In a 1980 poll of German teenagers, Adolph Hitler was described as the most despised man in history. Describe how you would have felt as a German in 1945.









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THE MANHATTAN PROJECT

The G____________ were the first to discover the potential of *n____________ energy. A G__________ born J__________ scientist named Albert E______________ warned American President F______________ Roosevelt of the *c__n__e__u__n__e__ of Germany creating a nuclear b______.

The American m______________ decided to attempt to build a n__c__e__r weapon. They began working s______________ on the “M______________ Project” at a secluded location in N____ M__________.

The first testing on an a__________ occurred on a summer morning in 19____. Once scientist believed the test would i__________________ the entire s________. The test produced a *n__i__e heard more than 150 miles away, and light b______________ than anything ever seen before on e________. The leader of the M________________ Project, J. Robert O____________________, later remarked, “We k______ the w________ would n________ be the s______ again.”

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66. What is nuclear fission?












*67. Why did Albert Einstein describe the potential of a nuclear bomb to Franklin Roosevelt in spite of his opposition to nuclear weapons?













*68. Why do you think the military insisted that the laboratory that housed the Manhattan Project in a sparsely populated area more than 200 miles from Canada, Mexico, or the shoreline?


















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THE MANHATTAN PROJECT

*69. Why do you think many American scientists were willing to subject themselves and their families to secrecy and loss of privacy in order to work on the Manhattan Project?













*70. Describe how Hitler’s anti-Semitism might have kept him from learning the formula to create a nuclear bomb before the United States.
















*71. Why was the governor of New Mexico alerted that an evacuation of the state might be necessary?













*72. What did Robert Oppenheimer mean when he said, “We knew the world would never be the same again?” (You do not have to rewrite the quote in your response.)













JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

*73. Do you think the American Congress made the right decision when the provided monetary payments to the Japanese-American interred during World War II? Defend your answer.

















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HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI

When American P________________ Harry T__________ gave the o________ to b______ the J_____________ city of H________________ in the *s__________ of 1945, many American s_________________ were u__________ of what would h__________. The a__________ bomb that d_______________ Hiroshima created an e________________ as b__________ as one thousand s______. An estimated 80,000 people were *k__________ within an instant. Japan s____________________ a week after a s__________ bomb d________________ the c______ of N______________.

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74. How did Harry Truman become President of the United States?












*75. America unleashed a horrific weapon that killed hundreds of thousands of innocent Japanese civilians. An estimated 80,000 died instantly, and more than one million people died of painful radiation after the war. Most experts agree that as many as one million soldiers would have died if the war with Japan continued. Did Harry Truman make the correct decision when he ordered the bombing of Hiroshima? Defend your decision.






















*76. Write a paragraph that explains why American did not warn Japan before dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Your paragraph must includes a topic sentence, at least two supporting sentences, and a conclusion that restates, but does not repeat, the topic sentence.





















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*77. Imagine you are Harry Truman in the summer of 1945. A year earlier, very few Americans knew who you were. Now you are faced with what might be the important decision in history. Describe at least two people you would call on for advice as you decided weather or not to become the first person to order the use of an atomic weapon.





















*78. Why did General Dwight Eisenhower oppose using nuclear weapons in Japan?



















*79. If you were the parent of an American soldier fighting the Japanese in World War II, would you agree or disagree with the decision to bomb Hiroshima? Defend your answer.
















*80. Do you think Douglas MacArthur made the right decision when he insisted the Japanese people be treated with respect after their surrender?















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POSTWAR


Europe was in ruin at the end of W________ W____ T____. More than f________ million people died, and b________ destroyed large portions of the c________________. Two military s____________________ emerged from the war: the U__________ S___________ and the S__________ U________.

The victorious A________ Forced occupied the defeated A______ nations after war. Britain, France, and America gradually allowed self rule to return to the lands they controlled, but the S__________ U________ imposed t__________________ governments throughout the land they o_______________ in E____________ E__________. America responded to the t___________ of Soviet e________________ by providing more than $35 b____________ in a____ to E__________.

Representatives of 51 formed the U__________ N___________, an i________________________ body designed to resolve d______________ through d________________ rather than a__m__d c______________. More than ______ now belong to the U__________ N____________. The organization has not p________________ war, but it has made many c_______________________ to world p________.

The few remaining European J______ had no place to go after the war. Instead of returning to the c_________________ that p______________________ in H________________, many wished to live in their t____________________ homeland on the eastern s________ of the M________________________ Sea. In 1948, the U__________ N____________ created the n__________ of I__________ from land c__________________ by the B____________ and o______________ mainly by A________. After more than two t______________ years, the J__________ people once again had a h______________, but one that would continue to be in c______________ with it’s A______ neighbors to this day.


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*81. Contrast the governing of the defeated nations of World War II by the two military “superpower” nations.














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*82. Was the Marshall Plan a good idea? Defend your answer.


















*83. What is the dictionary definition of totalitarianism?










*84. Woodrow Wilson first proposed a “League of Nations” many years earlier. He said, “Friendship is the only cement that will hold the world together.” The United States refused to join the League of Nations, and the organization eventually dissolved. Why do you think the nations of the world were more receptive to the United Nations than the League of Nations?
















*85. Write a paragraph describing why the United Nations created a Jewish homeland in the modern nation of Israel. Your paragraph must have a topic sentence, at least two supporting sentences, and a conclusion that restates but does not repeat the topic sentence.






















*86. Please reread the first paragraph from “A Powder Keg in Europe.” In your opinion, have we learned anything from the events of the previous century? Defend your answer.



















*A higher order learning question. I will accept any reasonable answer.

2001-2004 Mike Dowling, The Electronic Passport at www.mrdowling.com. All rights reserved.




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