A: Soldiers/warriors (started at the age of 7)



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Q: From an early age, Spartan boys were trained to be…



A: Soldiers/warriors (started at the age of 7)

Q: What conclusion can you draw about Spartan women?



A: They were strong and healthy
Q: What was the result of the Peloponnesian War?

A: Sparta became the most powerful city-state in Greece.
Q: How did Alexander work to spread Greek culture throughout his empire?

A: Alexander admired and enjoyed Greek culture and ideas.
Q: What can you infer (educated guess) about the ancient Athenians based upon their achievements?

A: The ancient Greeks valued philosophy and art.
Q: What is the Parthenon?

A: A Greek temple dedicated to the Goddess Athena.


Q: A unit of soldiers mounted on horses.

A: Cavalry
Q: An agreement to work together.

A: Alliance
Q: Governors of Persian provinces.

A: Satraps
Q: A group of warriors standing close together in a square.

A: Phalanx
Q: Greek-like (culture, arts, architecture, etc.).

A: Hellenistic
Q: Clear and ordered thinking.

A: Reason
Q: Greek Historian that tried to tell history in a neutral way (wrote about the Peloponnesian War).

A: Thucydides
Q: This device brought water from a lower level to a higher level (made by Archimedes).

A: The water screw

Q: How did Darius restore order to the Persian Empire after he took control? (Give two ways)



A: 1) He divided his empire into 20 provinces

2) Each province was ruled by a governor called a satrap (Darius made sure they were loyal).

3) Called himself the “king of kings” so everybody knew he was the boss!
Q: What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War?

A: Greek city-states feared Athens would control Greece. Athens dominated the Delian League and treated

other city-states as their subjects (slaves). Athens forced city-states to join and used the league’s money

for their own benefit. Sparta declared war to stop the Athenians.
Q: Why did Greece agree to make Phillip II their leader after he defeated Thebes and Athens?

A: Greece was in turmoil for more than 30 years when Philip became king. Athens and Thebes were defeated

easily. Smaller city-states were scared of Philip II and didn’t want to go to war with Macedonia.
Q: Explain how Cyrus the Great was able to rule his huge empire with success. (Two main reasons)

A: 1) Allowed the people he conquered to keep their customs and religions (happy people=less rebelling)

2) Cyrus had a strong, organized and loyal army.
Q: Describe some of the major Greek achievements that greatly influenced western civilization.

(minimum of two achievements)(hint: think back to Greek art, architecture and important people)



A: -Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) -Life like Statutes

-Realistic Paintings -Greek architecture (pillars with triangular top)

-Archimedes Water Screw -Euclid (advances in geometry, Euclidean geometry)

-Writing dramas, comedies, tragedies & History!

Q: Alexander the Great enjoyed Greek culture and ideas. What did he do in his empire that reflects his

admiration for their culture? (how did he show that he liked their culture/art?)

A: 1) He built cities modeled after Greek cities.

2) Built theaters and temples like those in Greece.

3) Encouraged Greek settlers to move to new cities (settlers spoke Greek and spread the language).
Q: Compare and contrast the cultures of Athens and Sparta. What are the differences and similarities

between the cultures of Athens and Sparta? (hint: education, military training and treatment of women)



A: Differences-

1) Education: Athens valued education, the arts, and staying physically fit. Men in Athens had more

education than Spartan men. Spartan men had minimal education (basic reading and writing skills).

Most of their education was military in nature.

2) Military: Athenian men spent only 2 years in the military (ages 18-20), and after age of 20 would only

need to serve in times of war. In Sparta training and education focused strictly on the military. Spartan

soldiers started training at age 7 and served until they were 60 years old or killed in battle.

3) Women: Athenian women had almost no rights at all and were not educated. Athenian women couldn’t

leave their house without permission, couldn’t vote or own land. They had to take care of the house,

weave and sew. Spartan women had more rights. They could own land and were expected to be

physically fit (wrestling, throwing javelin, hunt, etc).

4) Similarities: Both fought and defended Greece in the Persian Wars.

Both had a strong military.

Both had physical training and some type of education.


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