A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for Mt Diablo Unified School District



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Teaching

American History

For All

A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for



Mt Diablo Unified School District

5th, 8th, and 11th grade teachers,

in partnership with

University Of California- Berkeley

History-Social Science Project
8th Grade Lesson: The Mayflower Compact

Cathleen Foster, MDUSD 8th Grade Teacher



Teaching American History for All

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

8th Grade Lesson: The Mayflower Compact
Developed by: Cathleen Foster
Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:

How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?


8th Grade Year-long Focus Questions:

How did federalism shape the roles of the national and state governments?

How did the rights of citizens expand and contract during the 18th and 19th centuries?
Unit Focus:

Our Colonial Heritage and the American Revolution


Unit Focus Question:

How did America develop and change from its earliest inhabitants through its colonial periods to a new independent nation?


Unit Working Thesis:

The Americas changed through exploration and conquest as the first inhabitants migrated from Asia and developed diverse cultures, Europeans “discovered” and explored the New World, and various European nations vied for power and empire.


Lesson Focus Question:

How did the Pilgrims use the Mayflower Compact to justify forming a new colony in North America?


Lesson Working Thesis:

The Pilgrims drafted the Mayflower Compact to justify forming a new colony in North America because they knew they were going to land far north of Virginia and thus the Virginia charter would not apply to their settlement.



Reading Strategy:

  1. Holt textbook Chapter 2 Section 2 (p. 43): “The Mayflower Compact.” Cause and Effect Chart. The focus of the activity is to emphasize why the Pilgrims drafted the Mayflower Compact.

  2. Mayflower Compact. Functional Grammar Chart that separates out the verb phrases in a particularly difficult piece of text. The true focus of the activity is making the document accessible to all readers.


Writing Strategy:

  1. Evidence Selection Worksheet


Suggested Amount of Time:

One day.
Textbook:

Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 2: The English Colonies p. 43
Other Resources:


  • Overhead projector & document camera



Context of the lesson in the unit:

The class should have some familiarity with the Pilgrims, either from elementary school or from previous lessons. This lesson examines the Mayflower Compact. It also begins setting the stage for the creation of colonial and state governments.


Concept of citizenship embedded in the lesson:

This lesson provides content about one of the first groups of American colonists and their attempt at self-government. It also leads students to consider which colonists will be allowed to be citizens in the future. Teachers should remind students that the drafters of the Mayflower Compact were all male, even though there were female colonists with the group.


Lesson Procedures:

Day One: 45 minutes

  1. Review what students already know about the Pilgrims.

  2. Introduce the focus question. Focus the students on the Pilgrims’ motivations for drafting the Mayflower Compact.

  3. Textbook, Chapter 2, Section 2, page 43 Cause and Effect Reading Strategy:

  • Introduce the concept of a cause and effect chart if students have never worked with one before.

  • Read the first paragraph of text in the section entitled: The Mayflower Compact

  • Have students look at the cause and effect chart. Have them either copy directly or paraphrase from the reading the answer for the effect column.

  1. Textbook, Chapter 2, Section 2, page 43 Functional Grammar Handout:

  • Student volunteers or the instructor read the text out loud.

  • The students fill in the action words column either together as a class or as individuals.

  • There are questions in the right column to anticipate some of the obstacles students will face with this text, but comprehension may require more teacher guidance than just these questions.

  • Encourage students to paraphrase the meaning and then confirm the correct interpretation.

  1. Writing Strategy: Choosing Evidence

  • This culminating activity may be used as a close to the class session or assigned as homework.

  • Students will select the three pieces of evidence that best support the provided thesis statement.

  • The teacher may instruct students to then rewrite the thesis and evidence in paragraph format, writing a conclusion sentence independently, in pairs, or as a whole class.


California’s Common Core Content Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Text Types and Purposes 1b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
Text Types and Purposes 2b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
Key Ideas and Details 2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
History-Social Science Content Standards:
8.2 Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.

1. Discuss the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact.
Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Historical Interpretation


  1. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.


Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:
1.0 Writing Strategies

Organization and Focus
1.1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices.
Name Period Date

Chapter 2: The English Colonies Section 2: The New England Colonies

Page 43:

The Mayflower Compact

After two months of rough ocean travel, the Pilgrims sighted land far north of Virginia. The Pilgrims knew that they would thus be outside the authority of Virginia’s colonial government when they landed. Their charter would not apply. So, they decided to establish their own basic laws and social rules to govern the colony they would found.


Cause and Effect

Cause

Effect

After two months of rough ocean travel






[Because] they would be outside the authority of Virginia’s colonial government when they landed





[Because] their charter would not apply




Question: Why did the Pilgrims draft the Mayflower Compact?


Name KEY KEY KEY KEY Period Date

Chapter 2: The English Colonies Section 2: The New England Colonies

Page 43:

The Mayflower Compact

After two months of rough ocean travel, the Pilgrims sighted land far north of Virginia. The Pilgrims knew that they would thus be outside the authority of Virginia’s colonial government when they landed. Their charter would not apply. So, they decided to establish their own basic laws and social rules to govern the colony they would found.


Cause and Effect

Cause

Effect

After two months of rough ocean travel



the Pilgrims sighted land far north of Virginia.

[Because] they would be outside the authority of Virginia’s colonial government when they landed


their charter would not apply.

[Because] their charter would not apply


they decided to establish their own basic laws and social rules to govern the colony they would found.

Lesson Question: Why did the Pilgrims draft the Mayflower Compact?



The Pilgrims drafted the Mayflower Compact because they knew their colony would be outside the authority of Virginia’s colonial government and their charter would not apply.
The Mayflower Compact
We whose names are underwritten…having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and the honour of our King and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof, to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices…as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony unto which we promise all due…obedience.
Vocabulary Terms:

by these presents: by this document

covenant: promise

civil body politic: group organized to govern

aforesaid: mentioned above

virtue: authority

ordinances: regulations

meet: fitting

Name: _________________________________________ Date: ________________



-Time marker

-Connector words

-Prepositional phrase

-Circumstances

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?




We whose ________ are underwritten

having ___________

for the glory of ____, and advancement of the __________ faith, and the honour of our ______ and _______, a voyage to plant the first _______ in the northern parts of _________.

Why do the Pilgrims want to establish a colony in North America?




[we]

covenant and __________

ourselves together into a civil body _______ for our better ordering and ____________ and furtherance of the ends aforesaid

What do you think a civil body politic means?

and by virtue hereof,




to enact, _________, and frame

such just and equal _____, ordinances, _______, constitutions, and offices




As




shall be

thought most meet and convenient for the _____ ____ of the _______



Who is going to benefit from the Mayflower Compact?


Name: KEY KEY KEY KEY_____________________________________ Date: ________________



-Time marker

-Connector words

-Prepositional phrase

-Circumstances

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?




We whose names are underwritten

having undertaken

for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and the honour of our King and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia.

Why do the Pilgrims want to establish a colony in North America?

to give glory to their king, country, and God






[we]

covenant and combine

ourselves together into a civil body politic for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid

What do you think a civil body politic means?

group organized to govern; government



and by virtue hereof,




to enact, constitute, and frame

such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices




As




shall be

thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony



Who or what is going to benefit from the Mayflower Compact?

the colony




Name: _______________________________ Date: _____________
8th Grade

Choosing Evidence
Read the thesis statement below and circle the three best pieces of supporting evidence.

Question: How did the Pilgrims use the Mayflower Compact to justify forming a new colony in North America?
Possible thesis: The Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact to provide a government for their new colony.

  1. The Pilgrims intended to establish a new colony in Virginia for religious freedom.

  2. When their ship, the Mayflower, landed far north of Virginia, they realized that their colonial charter would be invalid.

  3. The Pilgrims sailed to North America on the Mayflower.

  4. Over half of the colonists died the first winter.

  5. They drafted the Mayflower Compact because they believed that they needed laws for the good of their community.

  6. The Mayflower Compact was the first attempt at self-government in the colonies.


Name: KEY KEY KEY KEY____________________ Date: _____________
8th Grade

Choosing Evidence
Read the thesis statement below and circle the three best pieces of supporting evidence.

Question: How did the Pilgrims use the Mayflower Compact to justify forming a new colony in North America?
Possible thesis: The Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact to provide a government for their new colony.

  1. The Pilgrims intended to establish a new colony in Virginia for religious freedom.

  2. When their ship, the Mayflower, landed far north of Virginia, they realized that their colonial charter would be invalid.

  3. The Pilgrims sailed to North America on the Mayflower.

  4. Over half of the colonists died the first winter.

  5. They drafted the Mayflower Compact because they believed that they needed laws for the good of their community.

  6. The Mayflower Compact was the first attempt at self-government in the colonies.

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