1.

A polling company conducted a survey of voters to obtain data for a political campaign. They selected 3500 voters randomly from the 168,000 names on the voter registration lists of the county and found that 1372 intended to vote for candidate Doe. The 3500 voters represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

2.

A polling company conducted a survey of voters to obtain data for a political campaign. They selected 3500 voters randomly from the 168,000 names on the voter registration lists of the county and found that 1372 intended to vote for candidate Doe. The 168,000 names represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

3.

A marketing company conducted a survey of college students to obtain data for an advertising campaign. They selected 1421 students randomly from campus directories of 132 colleges and universities. The 1421 students represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

4.

A marketing company conducted a survey of college students to obtain data for an advertising campaign. They selected 1421 students randomly from campus directories of 132 colleges and universities. The students in the directories at the 132 colleges and universities represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

5.

To determine the proportion of voters who favor a certain candidate for governor, the campaign staff phones 2500 residents of the state chosen from the state property tax rolls. The 2500 residents represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

6.

To determine the proportion of voters who favor a certain candidate for governor, the campaign staff phones 2500 residents of the state chosen from the state property tax rolls. All property owners in the state represent


A) the population. B) the sample.

7.

In order to determine the mean weight of bags of chips filled by its packing machines, a company inspects 50 bags per day and weighs them. In this example, the population is

A)

the 50 bags inspected each day.

B)

all potato chips produced by the company.

C)

all bags of chips produced by the company.

D)

the weight of the 50 bags inspected.

8.

To estimate the proportion of voters in a town likely to favor a tax increase for road repair, a random sample of people chosen from the voter registration list is surveyed and the proportion who favor the increase is found to be 43%. The actual proportion in the town is 40%. This difference is most likely an example of sampling


A) bias. B) variability.

9.

To determine the proportion of students at a university who favor the construction of a parking garage, a sample of people driving through the student center parking lot is surveyed and it is found that 45% favor the garage. The actual proportion of the student body who favor the garage is 40%. This difference is most likely an example of sampling


A) bias. B) variability.

10.

To determine the proportion of students at a university who favor the construction of a parking garage, a sample of people on the current enrollment list is surveyed and it is found that 45% favor the garage. The actual proportion of the student body who favor the garage is 40%. This difference is most likely an example of sampling


A) bias. B) variability.

11.

To estimate the mean income of all residents in a town, a sample of people chosen from the telephone directory is surveyed and the mean is found to be $43,000. The actual mean income in the town is $40,000. This difference is most likely an example of sampling


A) bias. B) variability.

12.

A polling company surveys 200 people outside a county courthouse concerning tighter restrictions on smoking in public buildings. Their results indicate that 34% of those surveyed favor tighter restrictions. The actual proportion of county residents who favor tighter restrictions in 65%. The difference is most likely due to

A)

variability in sampling.

B)

bias due to the use of a convenience sample.

C)

confounding variables in the survey.

D)

the wording of the survey.

13.

You wish to survey the students at your college to determine their feelings about the quality of services in the Student Center. Which of the following sampling designs is best for avoiding bias?

A)

Place an ad in the student newspaper asking all readers to mail in their opinions.

B)

Obtain a list of student names from the registrar and select 250 names to contact.

C)

Air an announcement on the campus radio station asking all listeners to phone in their opinions.

D)

Survey every tenth student who enters the Student Center.

14.

To determine the proportion of students at a university who favor the construction of a parking garage, a student senate member surveys students as they leave the student union. This type of sample is a

A)

convenience sample.

C)

multistage random sample.

B)

simple random sample.

D)

voluntary response sample.

15.

In order to determine the proportion of voters in a small town who favor a candidate for mayor, the campaign staff takes out an ad in the paper asking voters to call in their preference for mayor. This type of sample is a

A)

convenience sample.

C)

multistage random sample.

B)

simple random sample.

D)

voluntary response sample.

16.

A marketing company conducts a survey of college students to obtain data for a marketing campaign. They randomly select five instate colleges and then randomly choose 100 students from the registration lists of these colleges. This type of sample is a

A)

convenience sample.

C)

multistage random sample.

B)

simple random sample.

D)

voluntary response sample.

17.

To estimate the number of motorists likely to favor a tax increase for road repair, a polling company chooses 1000 names at random from a list of registered car owners provided by the county license office. This type of sample is a

A)

convenience sample.

C)

multistage random sample.

B)

simple random sample.

D)

voluntary response sample.

18.

Which of the following sampling techniques is most likely to produce biased results?

A)

Multistage random sampling

C)

Voluntary response sampling

B)

Sampling using a random digits table

D)

Simple random sampling

19.

A polling company conducted a survey of voters to obtain data for a political campaign. They selected 3500 voters randomly from the 16,800 names on the voter registration lists of the county and found that 1365 intended to vote for candidate Doe. The sample percent is


A) 8.1%. B) 20.8%. C) 39%. D) 13.65%.

20.

A poll of 80 students selected at random at Midtown University found that 20 were in favor of a fee increase to support extra maintenance of gardens on campus. In the example, the sample proportion is


A) 20%. B) 8%. C) 80%. D) 25%.

21.

A sample of 50 people at a local fastfood restaurant found 15 in favor of new fatfree menu items. In this example, the sample proportion is


A) 15%. B) 25%. C) 30%. D) 50%.

22.

A poll of 60 students selected at random at State University found that 12 were in favor of higher parking fees to support extra police patrols of campus parking lots. In this example, the sample proportion is


A) 20%. B) 12%. C) 5%. D) 60%.

23.

A random sample of 600 voters in Centralville indicated that 48 of them believed their congressional representative was honest and trustworthy. The sample proportion is


A) 8%. B) 12.5%. C) 48%. D) 80%.

24.

A soft drink bottler selects 80 cans at random from a production line and finds that 32 are underfilled. The sample proportion of underfilled cans is


A) 2.5%. B) 4%. C) 32%. D) 40%.

Use the following to answer questions 2531:
Use the following random digits to answer the question(s) below:
101

01033

08705

42934

79257

89138

21506

26797

102

49105

00755

39242

50772

44036

54518

56865

103

61589

35486

59500

20060

89769

54870

75586

104

08900

87788

73717

19287

69954

45917

80026

105

75029

51052

25648

02523

84300

83093

39852

106

91276

88988

12439

73741

30492

19280

41255

107

74008

72750

70742

67769

72837

27098

07049

108

98406

27011

76385

15212

03806

85928

76385

25.

A large group of people are eating dinner at a Chinese restaurant. They are very hungry. The menus are printed in Chinese but no one in the group can read Chinese. Use the portion of the random digits table above, starting at line 105 to choose five dishes from the menu numbered 01 to 50.

A)

2, 5, 7, 9, 10

C)

02, 10, 23, 25, 30

B)

02, 10, 23, 25, 25

D)

02, 05, 09, 25, 30

26.

Beginning with line 102 of the random digits table above, select three individuals from the list below to serve on a student affairs committee.
01 Crosby

06 Jones

11 Turner

16 Bush

02 Hunter

07 Smith

12 Baker

17 Thompson

03 Cooper

08 Davis

13 Wilson

18 Goodman

04 Grant

09 Ewing

14 Adams

19 Stevens

05 Riley

10 Doe

15 Hill

20 Williams


A)

Cooper, Doe, Smith

C)

Doe, Smith, Smith

B)

Doe, Ewing, Grant

D)

Crosby, Ewing, Grant

27.

Beginning with line 104 of the random digits table above, select three individuals to receive a prize in a contest.
01 Anderson

06 Hall

11 Opus

16 Thompson

02 Butts

07 Hunsaker

12 Parson

17 Ubet

03 Calvin

08 Jones

13 Quayle

18 Watson

04 Ernest

09 Miller

14 Riley

19 Wilson

05 Gaynor

10 Norton

15 Stone

20 Ziggy


A)

Jones, Jones, Ubet

C)

Jones, Ubet, Wilson

B)

Hunsaker, Jones, Miller

D)

Butts, Jones, Ubet

28.

Use the random digits table above, starting at line 102, to choose five people from a list numbered 001 to 500 to receive a survey.

A)

491, 050, 075, 242, 403

C)

49, 10, 50, 07, 55

B)

491, 007, 392, 440, 354

D)

49, 61, 08, 75, 91

29.

Use the random digits table above, starting at line 103, to choose five people from a list numbered 01 to 99 to receive a survey.

A)

01, 03, 30, 87, 05

C)

61, 58, 93, 54, 86

B)

10, 36, 15, 89, 35

D)

61, 58, 35, 48, 59

30.

Use the random digits table above, starting at line 104, to choose four people from a list numbered 001 to 500 to call for a poll.

A)

089, 008, 778, 873

C)

089, 008, 77, 88

B)

089, 008, 192, 445

D)

089, 192, 459, 256

31.

Use the random digits table above, starting at line 105, to select four people from a list numbered 00 to 99.


A) 75, 02, 95, 10 B) 75, 51, 25, 02 C) 10, 57, 50, 29 D) 01, 00, 05, 07

32.

Random selection of subjects in a survey is used to eliminate variability in results.


A) True B) False

33.

Random selection of subjects for surveys is used to avoid


A) placebo effects. B) variability. C) double blindness. D) bias.

34.

A 10year study of lowbirthweight babies is performed to determine if birth weight affects IQ and performance in elementary school. Children are identified in hospitals at birth and their performance is tracked until they are 10 years old. This type of study is a(n)

A)

comparative experiment.

B)

experiment with compounding variables.

C)

observational study.

D)

biased survey.

35.

A group of 200 students are identified, half took Latin in high school and half did not. The students are compared to see if those students who took Latin received higher SAT verbal scores than those who did not take Latin. This type of study is a(n)

A)

comparative experiment.

B)

experiment with compounding variables.

C)

prospective study.

D)

simple random sample.

36.

A group of 100 students are randomly chosen and divided into two groups: one group is taught typing using a set of new materials and the other using traditional methods. After instruction, typing speeds are compared to determine if the new materials improve learning. This type of study is a(n)

A)

comparative experiment.

C)

prospective study.

B)

observational study.

D)

biased survey.

37.

Consider the following situation: A group of 300 students are randomly selected at a local high school and required to fill out yearly questionnaires on family income. Students' performance on standardized tests is then followed throughout their high school years to determine if socioeconomic status affects SAT scores. This describes an experiment.


A) True B) False

38.

Consider the following situation: Doctors identify 500 women, half of whom had mothers with breast cancer and half of whom did not. The medical records of the women are followed for 20 years to determine if heredity plays a role in breast cancer. This describes a prospective study.


A) True B) False

39.

Consider the following situation: Doctors question 5000 women who have had breast cancer to determine if there is a genetic factor that increases the likelihood of cancer. Each woman is asked about her family background and incidences of breast or other types of cancer among her relatives. This describes a prospective study.


A) True B) False

40.

A prospective study may be used to show cause and effect.


A) True B) False

41.

An observational study may be used to show cause and effect.


A) True B) False

42.

An experiment may be used to show cause and effect.


A) True B) False

43.

A dummy medication (such as a salt tablet) will often help a patient who trusts the doctor who administers the medicine. This is called

A)

confidentiality.

C)

confounding variables.

B)

double blindness.

D)

the placebo effect.

44.

A study gathered data on 1000 randomly selected students and showed that students who took Latin in high school had much higher scores on a test of verbal English skills than those who did not take Latin. The study cannot conclude that taking Latin improves verbal English skills because

A)

the study was not an experiment.

C)

of the placebo effect.

B)

the study was not double blind.

D)

the verbal English test was faulty.

45.

A survey is sent to 100 employees at a community hospital asking if they support a law requiring motorcycle riders to wear helmets. The results indicate 88% support the law. If the actual proportion of the community's residents who support the law is 72%, the difference is most likely a result of

A)

sampling bias.

C)

an insufficient sample size.

B)

sampling variability.

D)

a poorly worded questionnaire.

46.

A physical education researcher wishes to determine if walking every day affects the health of middleaged men. The researcher randomly identifies 400 participants in two groups. Members of one group belong to a health club and walk on its track and members of the other group do not. After two months, the researcher decides the group who walks daily is healthier and concludes that has a positive effect on men's health. This conclusion is of questionable validity because

A)

of the placebo effect.

C)

the study is not double blind.

B)

of confounding variables in the study.

D)

the researcher is not a doctor.

47.

In a medical study that is double blind, participants do not know whether or not they are taking the experimental drug. This is to avoid

A)

selection bias.

C)

having too small a sample.

B)

the placebo effect.

D)

statistical significance.

48.

In an experiment, an observed effect is called statistically significant if

A)

the experiment will help a large number of people.

B)

the study was double blind.

C)

the experiment was well designed.

D)

the effect is too large to attribute to chance.

49.

The type of statistical study that can show cause and effect is

A)

an experimental study.

C)

a prospective study.

B)

an observational study.

D)

a survey study.

50.

Nonresponse occurs when

A)

all participants surveyed answer "no" to a question.

B)

a sample for a study is not chosen at random.

C)

an individual selected for a sample cannot be contacted.

D)

a study does not produce statistically significant results.

51.

A flashlight manufacturer sets aside a production line for the assembly of 2000 flashlights to fill a special order. Ninety of these flashlights are selected at random from the production line to be tested, and 15 are found to be defective. The population is

A)

the 15 defective flashlights.

B)

the 90 flashlights tested.

C)

the 2000 flashlights produced for this order.

D)

all flashlights produced by the manufacturer.

52.

The executives of an accounting firm plan to survey a random sample of clients to determine how satisfied they are with the service they have received. Of the firm's 5412 regular clients, 500 are surveyed and 435 claim to be very satisfied with the service they have received. The sample is

A)

the 5412 regular clients.

C)

the 435 satisfied clients.

B)

the 500 clients surveyed.

D)

the 65 clients that were not satisfied.

53.

The Whitman County Fire Department conducted a survey to determine how the 40,000 residents of the county feel about the fire department's ability to meet their needs. A random sample of 690 citizens was selected, and 627 of them said that they feel confident about the fire department's service. The population is

A)

the 627 confident citizens.

B)

the 690 citizens surveyed.

C)

the 40,000 residents of Whitman County.

D)

the employees of the Whitman County Fire Department.

54.

You must choose a simple random sample of 25 of the 314 members of your fly fishing club. How would you label the population in order to use a table of random digits to make your selection?

A)

1, 2, 3,
, 24, 25

C)

001, 002, 003,
, 313, 314

B)

1, 2, 3,
, 313, 314

D)

000, 001, 002,
, 313, 314

55.

A poll asked 956 licensed drivers whether they supported a nationwide lowering of the drunk driving limit to 0.08% BAC (blood alcohol content), and 72% said they did. Estimate a 95% confidence interval for actual percentage among all licensed drivers.


A) 70.5% to 73.5% B) 69% to 75% C) 71.8% to 72.2% D) 70% to 74%

56.

A national poll asked 1581 adults whether they were satisfied with their jobs, and 54% said they were. Estimate a 95% confidence interval for the actual percentage among all adults.


A) 53% to 55% B) 52% to 56% C) 51.5% to 56.5% D) 50% to 58%

57.

As part of a research project, a student wishes to survey members of the workforce to determine whether they prefer male or female bosses. Presuming that about half of the workforce prefer female bosses, estimate how many people the student must survey to have a margin of error of 4%.


A) 25 people B) 50 people C) 625 people D) 1025 people

58.

Five people need to be selected from the list of names below.
Agee

Harris

Jones

Rao

Boyd

Hayes

King

Riggins

Clayton

Herndon

Lewis

Ruse

Dillon

Hogan

Martin

Smith

Genz

Jensen

Millham

Wallace

Use the following portion of a table of random digits.
134 19862 54700 18777 22218 25414 13151 54954 80615
135 96282 11576 59837 27429 60015 40388 39435 94021
136 17463 26715 71680 04853 55725 87792 99907 67156
137 44880 55285 95472 57551 24602 95311 63293 58110
Starting at line 134 and numbering the names beginning with 01, which five people are selected?

A)

Boyd, Genz, Martin, Riggins, Ruse

C)

Agee, Clayton, Genz, Millham, Riggins

B)

Agee, Harris, Millham, Ruse, Smith

D)

Boyd, Dillon, Harris, Rao, Ruse

59.

Use the following portion of a table of random digits, starting at line 135, to choose five people from a list numbered 001 to 500.
134 19862 54700 18777 22218 25414 13151 54954 80615
135 96282 11576 59837 27429 60015 40388 39435 94021
136 17463 26715 71680 04853 55725 87792 99907 67156
137 44880 55285 95472 57551 24602 95311 63293 58110

A)

080, 098, 172, 256, 298

C)

018, 182, 198, 222, 470

B)

048, 076, 174, 246, 257

D)

001, 157, 274, 296, 388

60.

If the confidence interval is determined to be from 56% to 62%, then the margin of error is


A) 6% B) 3% C) 1.5% D) 12%

Answer Key
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