A. P. World History Unit 1 Review



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  • tokugawa bakufu tried to reform did not work

  • foreign pressure to open up japan to trade, U.S. sail fleet into bay and demand entry, japan give unequal treatment

  • rebellion, Meiji restores order (Mutsuhito or Meiji) open to foreigners

  • yukichi studies western constitution and education

  • hirobumi build constitutional government, got rid of feudal order

  • changed tax system from grain to $

  • emperor stays in power gift was constitutional gov’t, less than 5% of men could vote, legislature calld Diet

  • industrial- rails, phone, ships, education, public and university, private capitalism, weight of development put on backs of Japanese people, became industrial power in one generation

    chapter 33 building global empires


    foundations of empire

    • Imperialism-when a industrial country uses its military and or economic power to extract resources and finances from a smaller or less developed country

    • Types: colonies ruled by migrants, controlled by imperial powers without settlement

    • Motives: $ and resources, political-harbors, supply stations, use to defuse internal tensions, social- religion, civilizing mission, white man’s burden

    • Tools-transportation- ships, railroads, military, guns, telegraph

    European

    • Britian in India

    • Start with trading post, went to English east India company

    • Used military to get control, took part of gov’t let Indians run on the ground, did not interfere with culture or Hindu religion

    • Introduced crops- tea, Ceylon, coffe and opium built rails, telegraph, canals, harbors and irrigatin

    • Great Game- between Russia and Britian over central asia

    • Dutch had Indonesia

    • Britian took Burma, Singapore

    • French Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos

    • Africa, Dutch in South Africa, Berlin Conference, hard and expensive, gave control to companies who were on ground, direct rule or indirect rule base on the $ being made in country

    • Pacific, whalers

    United States

    • Took control of latin America and Pacific, Monroe doctrine- America is the police in the West

    • Spainish American war- U.S. fights for cuba so we can control sugar and not Spain, took Puerto rico, guam and Philippines- wanted to be free we helped then did not let them be free

    • Panama canal- was part of Columbia, used rebels to start own country so canal could be built

    • Japan-did not want to be controlled so it tried to be the controller, attacked and won at korea, china and Russia and became a power in asia

    Legacy of Imperialism

    • Outside manipulation of local crops cost farmers $, used locals for foreign labor benefit, major migrations around the world fee from oppression to freedom

    • Numerous rebellions and boycotts

    • Scientific racism develops, gobineau divides humans into four groups with traits, Darwin survival of fittest justifies European domination

    • National and anti colonial movements develop, ram mohan roy India, Indian National congress

    Unit Six 1900-present

    Chapter 34 THE GREAT WAR: THE WORLD IN UPHEAVAL

    Chapter 35 THE AGE OF ANXIETY

    Chapter 36 NATIONALISM AND POLITICAL IDENTITIES IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND LATIN AMERICA

    Chapter 37 NEW CONFLAGRATIONS: WORLD WAR II

    Chapter 38 THE BIPOLAR WORLD

    Chapter 39 THE END OF EMPIRE

    Chapter 40 A WORLD WITHOUT BORDERS
    Key Concepts


    1. Science and Environment

    2. Global conflicts and their consequences

    3. New conceptualization of gobal economy, society and culture

    Important topics:



    • New thinking patterns in science: theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, big bang theory, psychology

    • Medical innovations: polio vaccination, anitbiotics, artificial heart

    • Poverty diseases: malaria, tuberculosis, cholera

    • Pandemic diseases: flu of 1918, ebola, hiv and aids

    • Lifestyle change diseases: diabetes, heart disease, alzheimer’s

    • Improved military: tanks, airplanes, atomic bomb

    • New military tactics: trench warfare, firebombing

    • Cities that suffered from these attacks, Nanjing, Dresden, Hiroshima

    • Collapse of old empires: sue to $ hardship, political and social discontent, stagnant technology, military defeat

    • Independence gained through negotiation and armed struggle: India, gold coast, Algeria, Vietnam, Angola

    • Nationalist leaders that led these rebellions: Mohandas Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, Kwame Nkrumah

    • Religious or ethnic rebellion: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quebecois separatist movement, Biafra secessionist

    • Transnational movements, communism, pan-arabism, pan-africanism

    • Resettlement of groups: India/Pakistan, Zionist jews to Palestine, divide up middle east

    • Ethnic violence against rival groups, Armenia, the holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda

    • Peoples displaced Palestinians, darfurians

    • People’s challenged war:Picasso in Guernica, antinuclear movement, thich quang duc by self-immolation

    • Nonviolence leaders, Gandhi, MLK

    • Alternatives to economic lifestyles: lenin and Zedong communist, anti apartheid movement, Tiananmen Square

    • Movements who used violence: Ira, Eta, Al-qaeda

    • Popular culture that influence war: Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism, Video games

    • Gov’t control of state economies: 5yr plan, great leap forward, New Deal, Fascist corporatist, Nasser in Egypt

    • Politics encourage free market: Reagan, Thatcher, Deng Xiaoping, Pinochet

    • International organizations: league nations, united nations, international criminal court

    • Economic institutions: International Monetary Fund (IMF), world bank, world trade organization (WTO)

    • Humanitatian organizations, UNICEF, Red Cross, Amnesty International, doctors without borders, world health organization (who)

    • Regional trade agreements, The European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur

    • Multinational coroprations: Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-Cola, Sony

    • Protest movements, Greenpeace, Green Belt in Kenya, Earth Day

    • Human rights- Universal declaration of Human rights, women’s rights, the end of the white Australia policy

    • Negritude ???

    • Xenophobia

    • Race riots

    • Citizenship restrictions

    • New forms of religion: new age religion, hare Krishna, falun gong

    • Sports reflect society- soccer, world cup, Olympics, criket

    • Music-reggae, Bollywood

    Chapter 34 World War 1

    Beginning of war



    • Nationalism- ethnic groups wanted sovereign state, Slavic nationalism, serbs wanted own country, Russia promoted pan-slavism, Germany backed Austria hungry

    • Naval race between Germany and Britain, Germany and France almost fight over morocco

    • Alliances- central- Germany, Austria-hungary, ottoman, allies, Britain, france and Russia

    • Strategies: Germany-schlieffen plan-attack france defensive on Russia,

    • France plan-offensive moves and attacks

    New war

    • Archduke killed

    • War breaks out

    • Western front-stalemate on Marne river between Germany and France

    • New weapons-poisonous gas, mustard gas, armored tank, airplane, submarines, no man’s land( between the trenches)

    • Eastern front-more fluid-Austria/german take Serbia, Albania, and Romania, Russia invades Prussia

    • Civilians become targets, air raids

    • Total war-all of economy used to fight and prepare for war

    • Women entered workforce

    • Propaganda- to keep support for the war

    • Allies outside Europe enter war- Japan took german land in china, new Zealand and Australia took german land in pacific

    • Japan tried to take china, 21 demand, Britain stopped it

    • Allies target german assets in Africa, togoland

    • Attack ottoman- lost Caucasus to Russia,

    End

    • Revolution in Russia, food shortage, new government did not withdraw from war

    • Unstable situation, new gov’t not working, lenin was kicked out for being trouble maker, Germany sent him back in hopes that he could be put in charge and take Russia out of the war.

    • He led the Boshevik Party, took over in October, withdrew from war and gave up 1/3 of Ukraine

    • American involvement-neutral at first, selling goods to both sides, german submarines sinking ships, sank Lusitania killing 1198 people

    • Extra help opened stalemate and advance on Germany

    • Paris Peace Conference

    • Dominated by U.S., France and Britain, wilson’s 14 points, no german army, central powers had to pay for war and accept guilt, Austria-hungary lost empire

    • Turkey formed-Mustafa Kemal

    • League of Nations to maintain world peace

    • New countries: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia,

    • Mandate system: to decolonize central powers territories, three classes

    • Europe weakened by war-inflation, debt, loss of oversea investments and foreign markets

    • U.S. now on top

    Chapter 35 Age of Anxiety

    Social changes



    • Known as lost generation- uncertainty and pessimism, science tarnished by so much killing during war, freedom and rights given to all men and women

    • Science- Einstein- theory of relativity-space and time relative to the person measuring it, Heisenberg-uncertainty principle-can not state positon and velocity of subatomic particle at same time, Freud-psychoanalytic theory-psychological cause for mental illness,

    • Art and architecture –Picasso, Gropius

    Depression

    • Weakness of global economy, Germany and Austria borrowed $ from U.S. and had to pay reparations, U.S. withdrew $ from Europe, industrialization reduce demand for raw materials, farming depressed, crash of 29, stocks on margin, lenders call loans no $ problem

    • Business lose $ close down, trickle down effect, people lose jobs, no $ to buy stuff, other smaller business go down and on and on

    • Price for good go down, countries start tariffs to help own country rebound

    • Personal suffering, women lost jobs, no food

    • Economic fixes-keynes-gov’t should get involved in spending $, new deal Roosevelt spend $ on infrastructure

    Anti capitalist gov’t

    • Russia-civil war red vs. whites, red wins, lenin set up communist system, national banks, industry and church, private trade outlawed, did not work production went down, lenin changes and tries to open back up a little, dies while trying to fix, struggle for power, Stalin takes over, man of steel, kills rivals, 5yr plan- set production quotas, focus on heavy industry instead of customer goods, collective farms to feed people, gave all people jobs and housing but no luxuries during depression, great purge-killed all who doubted him, 3 million died

    • Fascist-Italy, Germay- submit ones life to the state, extreme nationalism

    • Italy-Mussolini-took over used blackshirts, banned political parties, became one party state, supported business

    • Germany –Hitler-Nazi party-got power, one party system, praised race of germans, women key, wanted more babies, kill jews

    • Nuremberg law-jew can not be citzen, Kristallnacht-night of broken glass, attack on Jewish business

    Nationalist Asia

    • India, INC (Indian National Congress) ML (Muslim league) wanted independent India, Gandhi leader of movement, opposed caste system, encouraged non cooperation and civil disobedience

    • India Act of 37, killed 379 protesters, India demands, princes would not agree to partial freedom, muslim wanted own country got Pakistan

    • China- wanted to be free, WWI thought they would be free through paris peace treaty, Japan got the good stuff, students and people protest ( may 4th movement. Some move toward communism, CCP( chinese communist party) leader Zedong, guamindang leader-Sun yat-sen favored democracy, he dies Jiang Jieshi (JJ) takes over Japan attacks both work together to win, JJ attacks ccp and long march and eventually ccp wins

    • Japan-became world power, wanted china, Mukden incident Japanese blown up train tracks say it was china so they could fight, military took Manchuria with out gov’t approval

    Chapter 36 Nationalism Asia and Africa and Latin America
    Africa

    • Participated in war, challenge European authority during war, revolts

    • Europe in Africa after war wanted two things: 1. Colony paid cost of doing business, 2. Develop in such a way that exports go to home country and not colony

    • Farming and mining two main ways to make money

    • Nationalism, want own land/country

    Latin America

    • Did not like being taken advantaged of by Europe and then U.S.

    • After war many students in latin America read up on Marx and lenin

    • Mariategui, raul haya de la torre, castro,

    • U.S. dealt with Latin America with $ (dollar diplomacy)

    • Read chapter on Latin America

    Chapter 37 World War II

    Origins


    • Japan- before the war they wanted to be imperial like Europe and the U.S., tried to take china but the communist and nationalist work together to fight invasion, rape of Nanjing

    • Left league of nations and set up an alliance with Italy and Germany

    • Europe- Italy felt slighted by WWI, economy did not recover went into recession, Mussolini brought change, took Libya and attacked Ethiopia

    • Germany- blamed for WWI, had to pay reparations and restrictions, hitler takes over, rebuilt german economy, started to take land in Europe with no opposition, blamed jews for situation, withdrew form league of nation, rebuilt military, took Rhineland, Austria, munich conference, Germany promise to stop taking land, took Czechoslovakia

    Total war

    • Blitzkrieg- lighting war unannounced surprise attacks, Poland taken in less than one month, uboats in atlantic between german and Britain, france next, denmank, Norway, Belgium, netherlnds all fall, turn to Britain, air raids, then turn and try to invade Russia- operation Barbarossa, wanted land to resettle for german people, Russia withdraw, had big industrial complex that was moved east and made it hard for german’s to win, caught in Russian winter

    • U.S.- sold supplies to british, Russian and chinese, Japan expanded into asia, taking or messing with U.S. $, U.S. froze Japanese assets, oil embargo, demand that japan withdraw from china and southeast asia

    • Japan decided to attack, pearl harbor, hawai’I, took Philippine, indies, Indochina, Burma, Singapore, slogan “asia for asia”

    • U.S. enters war-brought supplies to war, Russia wins against german’s, U.S. fights in Europe and pacific, drop atomic bomb on japan to force surrender

    Life during

    • Holocaust- experiment and kill jews and minority peoples

    • Women worked in factories- roles in families changed,

    • Comfort women-sex for soldiers

    End that did not end

    • U.S. and Russia come out of war as two major powers

    • Russia did not like the fact the U.S. took too long to invade Europe to open up a second front on Germany

    • Russia supports U.S. against Japan, divide up losers territory,

    • Tensions build over who gets what territory in Europe, Germany split in two, iron curtain between Russia and west

    • Truman doctrine- U.S. would support any country trying to be free from oppression

    • Marshall plan- U.S. $ spent to loan and rebuilt Europe, Russia-soviet do the same ( COMECON) council of Mutual Economic Assistance

    • War pacts: Nato, warsaw pact, regional alliance for U.S. and Soviet protection

    Chapter 38 Cold war



    Origins

    Europe


    • Capitalism vs Communism, west Europe vs east Europe

    • Germany divided into 2 parts where 4 countries control

    • Soviets(Russia) refuse to withdraw, tries to block aid to west berlin, U.S. airlift supplies in, Soviets build wall to separate east from west

    • Arms race ensues to protect each side from the other with regional alliance pacts, NATO and Warsaw pact, MAD ( Mutually Assured Destruction)

    Korea/Cuba

    • Korea-north communist , south democratic, north supported by china U.S. supports south, agree to stop fighting on 38th parallel

    • U.S. response is to “containment” stop the advance of communism in the world, fear of the domino theory- if one country in a region falls, all will fall

    • Cuba- castro takes over in 59, takes U.S. property and kills thousands of people, accepts $ resources from Soviets

    • U.S. tries to invade in 61- bay of pigs fails, U.S. loses reputation in Latin America

    • Soviets convince Cuba to allow nuclear missiles into country to threaten U.S.

    • U.S. demand the remove of missiles or there would be war, Soviets move them out

    Sub societial problems

    • Society says women should be home and take care and raise kids

    • Women not happy want equality and rights in work force

    • Afro American want equality, bob marley, martin luther king, Malcolm X

    • Civil rights movement

    • Contrast in economies, wealth vs poverty or lack

    • Race to space: first to space then to moon, yuri Gagarin first man to orbit earth, john glenn first american

    World influence

    • Countries that did not want to participate in cold war

    • France-De Gaulle- wanted to be free of superpowers

    • Yogoslavia-Tito-formed independent communist state

    • Khrushchev dialed down stalin’s extreme communism, free prinsioners

    • Czechoslovakia- tried to be democratic, failed

    China

    • Zedong out maneuvered JJ name china, People’s republic of China

    • Reorganized politics, communist at front, killed opponents, started his own 5 yr plan, land redistribution, collective farms, women could get divorce, no more foot binding

    • Worked with Russia, both did not like U.S.

    • Did not like U.S. helping Japan, south korea or taiwon

    • Soviets gave instruction and weapons to support early chinese communism

    • Friendship strained, competition for land and resources

    • Détente??-decline of power and cooperation between countries

    • Salt talks( strategic arms limitation talks)

    • Soviet invade Afghanistan end to dentente

    • U.S. lose war in Vietnam

    • Soviet lose in Afghanistan

    Decline and end

    • Reagan out spends soviets to bankrupt them in regards to military spending and arms build up

    • Gorbachev-restructure soviet system, satellites countries own their own, rapid collapse of communist countries, reforms went into politics and economy, Perestroika-reform economy, Glasnost-openness to criticism

    • Soviet collapse in December 1991

    • Communist countries now are Cuba and North Korea

    Chapter 39 End of Empire or Imperialism in the third world

    Asia


    • India-

    • vivisection- partitioned independence

    • Had to separate hindu and muslims into two countries, India and Pakistan

    • Millions died during migration to Pakistan

    • Two countries fought over province of Kashmir, Pakistan lost

    • Pakistan aligned with U.S., India took aid from both sides

    • Wanted to not get involved in Cold War, Nehru took third path

    • Tried to set up Bandung conference of non alignment countries, 29 came, movement lacked unity many got $ from one of the two sides

    • Vietnam-

    • Get French out, japan invade French out, Ho chi Minh declare independence, France tries to take back over take Saigon and south Vietnam in 45, took Hanoi and Haiphong by bombs, ho and his followers go to guerrilla warfare on countryside, got $ from China, viet Hinh won in 54

    • Partial independence, split on 17 parallel, south did not want elections thought they would lose to communist, U.S. supported French then South, North got aid from China and soviet, north attack south, U.S. comes to aid of south and 8yr war

    • Arab-

    • All state free after war except Palestine

    • Zionist Jews want land in Palestine, Britain supports , Balfour declaration 1917, feuds between Jews and Palestinians in 20’s and 30’s over land

    • During WWII many jews came to area running from Hitler, were armed

    • After war, Britain let U.N. handle, they wanted to create 2 states for both, Palestinians said no, civil war broke out Israel won and took more land than was offered

    • Nasser, leader of Egypt, wanted to stay neutral in cold war and get rid of Israel, wanted to control suez canal so $ could go to Egypt, british and French attack to keep control, U.S. made them give it back,

    Africa


    • French in Algeria, war fighting became too costly $

    • Nationalism grew in Africa, all wanted to be free

    • Europe did not think Africa was ready, white settlers opposed black independence, anticommunist fears as well, instability in politics and economy did not help

    • Ghana- first to gain independence, Kwame Nkrumah leader

    • Kenya- labeled as communist was taken over eventually won independence in 63

    • South Africa

    • Free in 1901, no rights to blacks, economy strong- mining and industry, apartheid set up in 48 to keep races separate, 87% land for whites rest they could have, Mandela opposed put in jail got out 27 yr later became president

    • Congo

    • Leader killed by cia communist

    • Mobutu dictator took all $ for self, killed then kabila came in ran killed, son run no elections

    Post colonial era

    • China-

    • Mao unites china

    • Great leap forward- industrial catch up, famine did not work

    • Cultural revolution- tries to kill all smart intellectual people, set them back

    • After death, Deng opened china up to foriegners

    • India stable, democratic

    • Islam in asia

    • Did not like west culture, did not like Israel in region, wanted all out, jihad- holy war

    • Iran

    • U.S. help Shah get power over thrown by muslim Khomeini takes hostages, encourages other muslims in other countries to do same against U.S

    • Iraq attacks Iran, war for 8 yrs, stalemate

    • Iraq invade Kuwait, oil refineries, U.S. gets involved

    Latin America

    • Mexico- constitution, redistribute land, subsoil assets owned by gov’t

    • Argentina-military rule-Juan pe_on killed military take over

    • Guatemala-Arbenz took land from United Fruit Company, Cia overthrow him put armas who lets U.S. get $ back

    • Nicragua- Somoza, mean, kills, but is cool with U.S., killed by Sandinistas, they are communist not good for U.S. so U.S. support small group called contras to overthrow Sandinistas

    Chapter 40 World without Borders



    Global $

    • GATT-(general agreement on Tariff and trade) to promote free trade, members create WTO( world Trade organization) result global corporations, which seek cheapest labor and resources and prefer lax laws and taxes

    • Asia

    • Japan

    • Support of U.S. started with export focus, reinvest $ in technology, hong kong, Singapore, South korea, taiwon follow japan’s model

    • China- rise since death of Zedong, open to investors, shift from planned economy to free market, lots of cheap labor, large markets, joined WTO 2001

    • Regional trading blocs: EU (European Union), OPEC ( organization of petroleum exporting Countries), ASEAN (associaltion of southeast Asian Nations) NAFTA (North American free Trade Agreement)- all were set up to make trade easier and more profitable for neighboring countries

    Exchange of ideas

    • Westen ideals seen in products all societies do not like

    • Barbie- Iran- saw as a threat to muslim values, same in japan

    • Access, internet, no isolation

    • China tries to firewall to keep people out

    Problems

    • Population grows, how many people can the earth support

    • Using up natural resources

    • Poverty

    • Labor servitude

    • Human trafficking

    • Disease-AIDS

    • Terrorism

    • Global problems, hunger, disaster, NGO (nongovernmental organization)- red cross, greenpeace

    • United Nations maintain peace

    World with no rules

    • Women’s rights, want to be treated =

    • Domestic violence

    • Women leaders in $ and politics

    • Migration- legal illegal, move for $ to escape war

    • Travelers- vacation and fun spend $- largest industry in world, low paying jobs, exploit natives and animals in certain areas



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