A. Objectives of the Basic Skills Category



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A. Objectives of the Basic Skills Category
Basic skills in composition, oral communication, critical thinking, and mathematics are needed to express ideas easily and effectively, to understand and utilize quantitative data, and to think clearly in everyday settings. All basic skills courses have mutually reinforcing objectives to ensure that these skills are practiced and refined in many different contexts. Classes in composition, oral communication, and critical thinking have been specifically designed for the small class size format in order to maximize the exchange of ideas among the students and between students and instructors.
1. Criteria for the Written Communication Section

Courses meeting this requirement should teach students how to:


a. Use writing as a tool for critical thinking: that is, for formulating thoughtful responses to reading material and for exploring ones own ideas;
b. Discover and then develop a controlling idea for each essay assignment;
c. Recognize that writing is an on-going process of evaluation and revision. In other words, be able to show the willingness and ability to accept feedback from others (both students and teachers), give critiques, and engage seriously in substantive revisions;
d. Synthesize the basic structures of writing; that is, compose intelligible sentences, arrange them in coherent paragraphs, and organize paragraphs within a developed essay;
e. Write essays, both in and out of class, that are free of serious error in grammar, organization, and style;
f. Demonstrate the ability to write coherently in a variety of rhetorical modes, from narration/description to definition and analysis, etc.;
g. Develop a personal style of writing that communicates ones own ideas and emotions clearly to specific and diverse audiences;
h. Use the library to aid in the discovery of ideas and their incorporation in essays; in particular, use the card and computer catalogues, periodical indices, and reference collections to find relevant materials; plan strategies for evaluating the quality of materials that one has found; and coordinate these materials within the framework of a properly annotated research paper.
2. Criteria for the Oral Communication Section

Courses meeting this requirement should teach students how to:


a. Understand the roles of oral communication in Western culture;
b. Understand the basic rhetorical elements of oral communication, particularly audience analysis;
c. Find and use effective supporting evidence for persuasion and argumentation;
d. Organize main and subordinate ideas in original oral messages;
e. Use effective verbal and nonverbal delivery techniques;
f. Give effective, informative, and persuasive speeches;
g .Listen critically to the speeches of others;
h. Develop self-confidence in a variety of public communication settings.
3. Criteria for the Mathematics Section


After successfully completing the mathematics component of the general education program, the student should have acquired substantive skills in quantitative and abstract reasoning in the use of mathematics as a computational and analytical tool. These skills are important for an individual to function as an effective member of a technological society. They are essential skills for success in other coursework in the natural sciences. The quantitative and abstract reasoning skills will be helpful throughout the entire general education program.
a. Beginning Skills. The student is required to demonstrate competency in beginning mathematics skills by obtaining a passing score on the Entry Level Mathematics (ELM) exam. Failure to take this exam within two quarters of admission will lead to administrative probation, which may lead to disqualification from future attendance. This exam assesses competency in the beginning skills of:
i. arithmetic;
ii. elementary algebra;

0 iii. elementary geometry.


Appropriate pre-collegiate remedial mathematics courses or tutorial-type assistance programs are available for students failing this exam. Such remedial coursework does not satisfy a general education requirement.
b. Intermediate Skills. Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of intermediate skills in mathematics by obtaining a suitable score on a placement test administered by the Department of Mathematics. To obtain a suitable score, the student must demonstrate competency in:
i. solving linear and quadratic equations;
ii. solving linear and quadratic inequalities;
iii. using algebraic fractions and rational equations;
iv. using exponents, radicals and radical equations; and
v. applying the above concepts to solving word problems.
Appropriate pre-collegiate remedial mathematics courses or tutorial-type assistance programs are available for students failing this exam. Such remedial coursework does not satisfy a general education requirement.
c. College Skills. To satisfy the general education requirement for the acquisition of college skills in mathematics, the student completes a course listed in the Mathematics Section of the Natural Sciences Breadth Area. Such courses shall assume mastery of and build upon the beginning and intermediate skills that are acquired as a part of a pre-collegiate preparation or remedial instruction. Based on the students interests, academic goals, and score on a placement exam, four options are available for instruction in college-level skills in mathematics:
i. Ideas of Mathematics. The objectives of a course in this option are to acquaint the nonspecialist with areas of mathematics which illustrate interesting applications and to develop quantitative reasoning skills. Topics will be chosen from finite or discrete mathematics.
ii. Introduction to College Mathematics. The goals of a course in this option are to sharpen mathematical skills introduced in high school, introduce more advanced topics, and provide applications. Topics will be chosen from college algebra.
iii. Advanced College Algebra and Analytic Geometry. The goals of courses in this option are to sharpen mathematical skills introduced in high school, introduce more advanced topics, and provide applications. Topics will be chosen from advanced college algebra, analytic geometry, and trigonometry.
iv. Calculus. Here the close connection between algebra and geometry is studied from an analytic point of view.
4. Criteria for the Critical Thinking Section

Courses meeting this requirement should teach students how to:


a. Identify, analyze, evaluate and present oral and written arguments;
b. Distinguish fact from judgment, belief from knowledge;


c. Identify and understand common fallacies (such as, but not limited to, straw man arguments, false dilemma, and appeal to authority);
d. Recognize common techniques of persuasion and propaganda;
e. Understand how cause is determined, including the limitations of correlational evidence;
f. Apply skills of critical thinking to everyday life as well as to course related assignments.

B. Objectives for the Natural Sciences Breadth Area
In the last three centuries, and especially over the past 100 years, there has been an explosive expansion within the scientific and technological areas of human knowledge. These areas have grown to become an integral and essential part of our modern culture. The overall goal of General Education within the Natural Sciences is to assist the student in understanding the tools and methodologies of the natural sciences, in learning some of the most important results of scientific inquiry, and in becoming conversant with the major consequences of scientific and technological developments. Each natural sciences lower division breadth course must satisfy the criteria within the appropriate section of the breadth area.
1. In addition, each natural sciences lower division breadth course must satisfy the following general criteria:
a. Provide instruction in the use of the scientific method, including hypothesis, observation, experimentation, and deductive reasoning as applied within the natural sciences area;
b. Explore the philosophical presuppositions and examine the social and historical context of scientific developments within the natural sciences; and
c. Provide reinforcement for the fundamental computational skills taught in the Mathematics Section and, where appropriate, for the other basic skills of written and oral communication, and critical thinking.
2. Criteria for the Life Sciences Section

Life Sciences courses shall emphasize a knowledge of the life forms in nature, the rules governing their ecology, the experimental basis for current knowledge and future exploration in the Life Sciences area, and the impact of scientific and technological developments on the biosphere.


a. These courses shall be at the introductory level and provide a breadth of knowledge concerning a major area in the life sciences.
b. Each course shall include a three-hour laboratory experience reinforcing the experimental basis for scientific inquiry in the life sciences. These laboratories shall be integrated with the lecture material and provide exposure to the usual techniques and apparatus of the life sciences.
3. Criteria for the Physical Sciences Section

Physical Sciences courses shall provide instruction in the fundamental rules governing matter in the universe, the methodology by which these rules are studied, and the consequences of the scientific and technological development of the physical sciences.


a. These courses shall be at an introductory level, provide a breadth of knowledge concerning a major area in the physical sciences, and incorporate supportive facts and concepts from the other major areas in the physical sciences.
b. Each course shall include a three-hour laboratory experience reinforcing the experimental basis for scientific inquiry in the physical sciences. These laboratories shall be integrated with the lecture material and provide exposure to the usual techniques and apparatus of the physical sciences.
4. Criteria for the Special Topics in Science and Technology

The goal of this section will be to create an awareness of the importance of the natural sciences to a modern technological society through the examination of an important current issue from a perspective that relates scientific principles to the societal impact of the problems under examination.




a. Courses meeting this objective shall be in a small lecture/discussion format with laboratory optional. Each course shall deal with a case study of a current scientific, health-related, or technological issue relevant to the natural sciences. The issue must have substantial societal impact. An issue that is primarily of theoretical interest will not be appropriate. Suitable topics might include, among others, the biology of sexually transmitted diseases, consumer chemistry, technology and environmental pollution, computer-based technology, societal uses of nuclear technology, and the exploration, colonization and industrialization of space.
b. Courses meeting this objective will examine the impact of the specific issue on society, the important principles in the natural sciences underlying that particular issue, the societal and historical context of the issue, and the dependence of society on scientific and technological developments as they relate to the issue being studied.
c. Where appropriate, such courses shall consider the impact of the issue under discussion on minorities and on the roles, conditions and experiences of men and women.
C. Objectives for the Humanities Breadth Area
The principal objectives of the Humanities courses are to expand students understanding and appreciation of the arts, literature, and philosophical inquiry as well as to cultivate imagination and nurture empathy. In addition, such courses should:
a. Exhibit a representative sample of the forms and subjects of art, expression, and thought within particular disciplines (while courses in the major often concentrate on one or two genres and/or topics, Humanities General Education courses must present a broader sampling of creative production and strive to balance breadth and substance);
b. Acquaint students with some of the standard techniques of analysis and appreciation in one or more disciplines of the Humanities, demonstrating that what people see is largely determined by how they see it;
c. Attempt to put the text in context by helping students to see that art and expression are productions of people in social and cultural settings, thereby providing insights into the contextual structure within which culture develops and thrives;
d. Introduce students to the complexity and relativity of Western culture by
i. attending to gender issues and/or the role of minority groups within various cultures, and/or
ii. taking a comparativist approach to Western and non-Western cultures in order to illustrate the ways in which cultural achievements are related to race, class, sex, region and epoch;
e. Encourage students both to differentiate and to integrate objective and subjective responses to art, philosophy, and expression, thus nurturing in students an appreciation of the varieties--and degrees--of quality and distinguishing between empathy and sentiment, genius and dexterity;
f. Nurture an openness to the new and unfamiliar, demonstrate the relationship of past achievements and present culture, and thereby illustrate both the on-going processes of cultures and the lifelong relevance of the humanities;
g. Help students to see the disciplines within the humanities as keys not just to academic knowledge--to abstract contexts, networks, and methodologies--but to self-knowledge as well. This end can be achieved through (a) readings, discussions, and written/oral assignments that compel students to examine the nature of their own empathy and their knowledge of others; and (b) a sequence of readings, discussions, and assignments that encourage students to assess, during the course of the term, not just what they have learned but also how this learning has affected their preconceptions and values; and
h. Reinforce, where appropriate, the basic skills of composition, oral communication, and critical thinking.
1. Criteria for the Arts Section

Courses meeting the Arts requirement should, in addition to the above general humanities objectives:


a. Introduce students to the fine arts (particularly some combination of painting, architecture, sculpture, and photography) or to one of the performing arts (theater, music or dance);
b. Concentrate on analytical skills and methods of appreciation and not on the acquisition of artistic techniques in studio experiences (although such acquisition can be a component); and
c. Define and analyze the visual, aural, and plastic qualities--as well as the instruments and methods of composition/construction--that distinguish media in the Arts from Letters and Philosophy.

2. Criteria for the Literature Section

Courses meeting this requirement ought NOT to concentrate substantially on syntactical forms or skills of composition. In addition, they should NOT emphasize the acquisition of the techniques of creative writing, although these subjects can be subordinate components of these courses. Rather, these courses ought, in addition to the basic humanities objectives, to focus on analytical skills and methods of appreciation AND meet the following three criteria:


a. Provide a basic typology of forms and genres within the particular field of study;
b. Introduce students to the elemental and compound parts of the forms and genres as well as the standard critical terminologies for analyzing and describing them; and
c. Analyze the works within an appropriate context of cultural ideas and values, giving particular attention to the development of that cultural context and its influence on those works over an extended period of time.
3. Criteria for the Foreign Language/Foreign Literature in Translation Section

Students may select which they wish to take--a course on foreign literature in translation or a course in a foreign language, and that language may either be a new one or the one in which they have accumulated two years of high school seat time. Whichever choice is made, the intent is to ensure that all students have some experience at their undergraduate level with either foreign language or foreign culture.


Language classes will be available for students with different competency levels, and those levels will be determined by entrance examinations to be developed. Introductory courses will be offered for those wishing to begin a new language. Intermediate language courses will be available for those passing the language entrance exams at appropriate levels for such courses.
a. Introductory language classes will focus on the acquisition of language skills through pronunciation, grammar, composition and conversation and will be exempt from Criteria 1 and 2 under the objectives for the humanities breadth area, but must include a cultural component; and
b. Intermediate language classes will concentrate on culture and/or literature and refine skills in grammar, composition and conversation.
i. Literature-oriented classes should conform to the basic criteria for the literature section described above: that is, focus on basic analytical skills and methods of appreciation and the basic typology of forms and genres;
ii. Courses focusing more on culture, or a combination of culture and literature, should either incorporate, as appropriate, the criteria for the arts section described above, or concentrate on the intellectual history of the artistic and cultural forms under consideration;
OR

iii. Courses may introduce students who already possess intermediate level language skills to the application of a foreign language within particular social and economic contexts, such as the media, commerce and technology.


c. Courses on Foreign Literature in Translation should meet the criteria for the Literature section described above.
4. Criteria for the Philosophy Section

Courses meeting this requirement should, along with the other humanities objectives, introduce students to a variety of the classical problems in epistemology, metaphysics, social/political philosophy, aesthetics, values and language.


HUMANITIES INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSES WILL BE CLASSIFIED UNDER ONE OR MORE OF THE ABOVE THREE SECTIONS, AS IS DEEMED APPROPRIATE according to the subject matter.
Such courses within the General Education program should conform to the basic Humanities objectives AND treat the content, analytical skills, and methods of appreciation of at least two of the following disciplines: theater, fine arts, music, dance, communication, English, foreign language, and philosophy. This interdisciplinary alternative is designed specifically to encourage departments to contribute personnel and intellectual support to subjects such as film.

D. Objectives for the Social and Behavioral Sciences Breadth Area


The Social and Behavioral Sciences embrace a wide variety of disciplines. Collectively, therefore, the courses included in this area embrace a broad number of principal and secondary goals. The inter-wovenness of these fields and their uniquenesses are essential concerns that students need to understand as well as the relative usefulness of each discipline in analyzing and responding to individual, social, economic, political and cultural institutions and problems. Such breadth is viewed as indispensable knowledge for educated persons who will function within--and indeed provide the future leadership for--a society that continues to be increasingly technological, complex, racially and ethnically diverse, and evolving in terms of the roles of men and women.
Principally, these courses are designed to enhance students understanding of
a. the nature and inter-relatedness of social, political, economic and cultural institutions and behaviors;
b. the complexity and diversity of institutions, cultures, and human behavior in various civilizations;
c. the values and cultures shaping human behavior and various societies;
d. the historical and contemporary developments that have shaped and are shaping human behaviors;
e. the nature of contemporary social problems, the forces shaping them, and possible avenues for coping with and/or solving them;
f. the inextricable association of the many racial, religious, nationality and regional groups that comprise the American nation;
g. the evolving roles of men and women (and the changing attitudes towards human sexuality); and
h. the myriad contributions of both men and women to the development of culture, values and institutions.
Secondarily, the courses in the breadth area are intended to acquaint students with the nature of the diverse disciplines in terms of the themes, theories, methodologies, and modes of thought, inquiry, analysis, research, and application which they share and which they individually and distinctively use.
It is also recognized that, in pursuing these primary and secondary general education goals, ALL social and behavioral sciences G.E. courses share the university-wide responsibility to further the development of student skills in oral communication, writing, and quantitative and critical modes of thought.
1. Criteria for the American History and Civilization and the American Institutions Sections

In so far as it is appropriate and practicable, courses meeting the American History and Civilization and the American Institutions requirements should:


a. Introduce students to the concepts, theories, and modes of thought and analysis necessary for understanding the particular social science approaches used to present American history, institutions and civilization;
b. Provide a balance between breadth and substance on a level appropriate for general education students--in other words NOT be so narrowly defined and discipline-oriented as to be designed primarily for those in the major;
c. Include materials on the roles and contributions of men and women and relevant issues and problems that have been and/or are related to the factor of gender;
d. Include materials on the diverse ethnic groups that have affected (and/or been affected by) the development of American society, culture, and institutions as well as relevant issues and problems that have been and/or are related to the factor of ethnicity;
e. Where the time frame of the course is appropriate, relate historical developments to contemporary conditions, issues and problems; and
f. Depending upon the discipline perspective of the particular course offered under American Institutions, explore various social, political and economic institutions in American society and culture, including their origins, interrelationships, historical and contemporary roles, and impact on American development.


g. In addition, where the courses in American History and Civilization include various materials that satisfactorily meet the American History and Constitution requirements as specified in Sec. 40404 of Title V, they shall be so designated; those American Institutions courses that include materials that satisfactorily meet the Constitution, State and Local Government requirements of Title V will be so designated. (Some overlap is inevitable where one has history and political science courses that must all deal with the constitution and constitutional issues.)
2. Criteria for the World Cultures Section

Courses designed to meet this requirement should:


a. Introduce students to the concepts, theories and modes of analysis necessary for understanding diverse aspects of world cultures;
b. Provide a balance between breadth and substance on a level appropriate for general education students;
c. Present an international perspective that places the evolution of either Western civilization or non-Western civilization within the context of larger world developments (e.g. cultures, societies, institutions, gender roles, etc.);
d. Include materials on the diverse racial, religious and cultural groups that have affected (and/or have been affected by) the development of Western civilization and/or non-Western civilizations;
e. Incorporate materials on the roles and contributions of men and women and relevant issues and problems that have been and/or are related to the factor of gender; and
f. Where the time frame of the course is appropriate, relate historical developments to contemporary conditions, issues, and problems.
3. Criteria for the Discipline Perspectives Section

Courses meeting the Discipline Perspectives requirement should:


a. Introduce students to the concepts, theories, methodologies, and modes of thought, inquiry, research, analysis and application necessary for understanding the orientation and focus of that discipline--without so narrowly defining the scope of the course as to fail to provide the balance between breadth and substance appropriate for general education students (Thus, courses designed exclusively as an introduction to the major are NOT suitable for this section.);
b. Acquaint students with
i. the history of intellectual thought that has directly influenced the development of the particular discipline;
ii. the types of data used and the processes for collecting and analyzing such data on social and behavioral sciences phenomena;
iii. where feasible and appropriate, the ways in which quantification and statistical methods are used in the social and behavioral sciences;
iv. the differences between scientific methods and the role of value judgments in the analysis of social issues;
v. the interrelationship of the particular discipline with the other social and behavioral sciences; and
vi. the actual and potential role of the social and behavioral sciences in dealing with contemporary issues.
c. Include, from the perspective of the particular discipline, materials on the roles and contributions of men and women and relevant issues and problems that have been and/or are related to the factor of gender; and
d. Incorporate, from the perspective of the discipline, materials on diverse ethnic and/or cultural groups, particularly in terms of the ways they have affected, and been affected by, the developments of their respective societies, cultures, and institutions, and on contemporary issues involving diverse groups in this and/or other societies.

E. Objectives for the Lifelong Understanding Category


The Lifelong Understanding component stresses the importance of students understanding the human being as an integrated psychological, social and physiological organism. In particular, attention should be given to such issues as human sexuality, human behavior, nutrition, health, components of physical fitness, physiological functions of the body during exercise, stress, the relationship of people to their environment, and matters of death and dying. Providing this requirement of one course of physical activity and two courses that focus on a selective exploration of the interconnectedness of the many facets of the whole being addresses most directly the conviction that physical activity and an understanding and appreciation of the integral place of peoples physical and mental well being in their overall education ought not to be limited to persons of any particular age--or even of any particular physical condition. Therefore,
a. Physical activity courses should introduce students to skills that can be utilized throughout their life and which contribute to the development of the total person;
b. Activity courses and courses dealing with physical and physiological issues should provide information on the values, merits and components of selected fitness programs;
c. Special activity programs and coursework alternatives to activity classes shall be available to students with special needs;
d. Courses on the whole person should focus on aspects of peoples lifestyles, living conditions, and environments that interact to affect their whole condition, their sense of well being, levels of stress, nutrition, and the relationship between their behavior, activity and performance in daily life, with one course focusing on physical and physiological issues and one course focusing on social and psychological issues; and
e. Courses on the whole person should also, where appropriate, cover gender and ethnic/racial differences in terms of how the various factors of nutrition, exercise, physical and social environment, stress, etc., affect individuals and their responses to those factors.
F. Objectives for the Integrative Capstone Courses
The integrated learning intended with these courses is to provide students with an understanding of the interrelationships among disciplines and their applications to contemporary complex environments. Such courses will integrate, develop, and explore the implications of the skills and knowledge acquired in the lower division courses, in effect providing a culminating experience in each school by building upon that knowledge and those skills taught in the lower division General Education courses. In so doing, as with the upper division electives, the Integrative Capstone courses are expected to provide a higher level of analysis than lower division courses. More specifically, these Integrative Capstone courses should also:
a. Be at the upper division level and in the large-lecture format, except when small classes are needed for off-campus offerings;

b. Extend, apply and integrate skills and knowledge gained in the basic skills and one or more of the lower division breadth areas, with prerequisites limited to the relevant basic skills or breadth courses required within the General Education program;


c. Be interdisciplinary, integrating knowledge across disciplines within and across the breadth areas, and placing each area in the broader context of human thought and social development (The cross-listing of such courses could also be done, but all must be classified within at least one of the three breadth areas.);
d. Consider possible arrangements in clusters for thematic purposes, with the understanding that students must still meet the requirement of completing one such course in each of the three breadth areas. (Capstone courses may also be designated as meeting the Multicultural/Gender requirement.);
e. Avoid the narrowness and specificity more appropriate to advanced courses in the program of a major, but, on the other hand, consider innovative directions and subject matter not easily included in the lower division courses;
f. Where appropriate to the specific theme, incorporate multicultural and/or international issues from a comparative perspective that goes beyond a single country, culture or social system;
g. Where appropriate, also include perspectives on human behavior, gender roles, and human sexuality as they relate to the theme topic, for example, either the impact of these on that topic or vice versa;
h. Where appropriate, consider technological and organizational developments in relation to the theme topic; and


i. While breadth, integration of knowledge and skills, and topic areas that go beyond the scope of traditional courses or disciplines are key objectives for these courses, each school may determine the extent to which it wants its integrative Capstone courses to more specifically expand upon what has been taught in its lower division courses. For example, Natural Sciences courses are expected to broaden students knowledge of fundamental laws, theories, and facts that comprise our understanding of the contemporary physical world, of the origins of scientific discovery, and the implications of scientific and technological developments.
G. Objectives for the Multicultural/Gender Category

California is a society on the Pacific Rim, rooted in the West and facing East--a bridge between Western and non-Western worlds. More and more we are becoming a society with a leadership made up truly of men as well as women, a society where non-whites will soon comprise the majority. Students educated in California should recognize the contributions to knowledge and civilization that have been made by members of various cultural groups. Well rounded, educated individuals NEED to possess an appreciation and understanding of the multicultural richness of American society, the dynamics of the interaction between such diverse cultural groups, the international dimensions of American ethnic life, and the destructive impact of stereotyping, racism, and discrimination as well as the evolving roles of men and women within the larger socio-cultural matrix. The invisibility of minorities and women in many segments of American life needs to be understood if it is ever to be eradicated.


While all G.E. courses are to consider such materials where appropriate, this will not be sufficient to ensure for all students some in-depth exposure to these subject matters. A requirement that includes courses specifically focusing on some combination of multiculturalism and gender will provide this needed in-depth analysis on these subjects. Important, too, is the fact that such a requirement also makes a statement about what this university recognizes as important in its students education. Therefore, the broad integration of such course materials and the provision for a separate course requirement are complementary. The flexibility in terms of the specific content of the courses meeting this requirement (viz., more multicultural or more gender oriented, or an equal focus on both) will provide students with a variety of choices.
Courses approved for this requirement should principally have a contemporary emphasis that includes materials on several American ethnic groups (defined by race, religion, or nationality) AND on gender, OR provide a focus on the evolution of those groups and issues. (Identifiable regional groups might also be included.) Individual courses may emphasize different (and even changing) combinations of groups or focus on gender more than on ethnicity, but both components SHALL be essential parts of all courses designated as meeting this requirement. All such courses shall also share in the university-wide responsibility to further the development of student skills in oral communication, writing, and critical thinking.
1. Criteria for Multicultural/Gender Courses

Courses designed to meet the upper division multicultural/gender requirement should also:


a. Specify the particular emphasis of the course in terms of multiculturalism or gender, that is, which will be the primary focus and which the secondary one (or if both are to be treated equally);
b. Indicate what particular discipline approaches are being used in this course and how they particularly contribute to an understanding of multiculturalism and gender issues in contemporary American society--bearing in mind that the Upper Division Electives and Integrative Capstone courses are intended to be cumulative, integrative, and particularly the Integrative Capstones, inter-disciplinary;
c. Define the concepts of culture and ethnicity and identify at least some of the different approaches to defining those terms-and similarly with respect to gender;
d. MULTICULTURAL FOCUSED COURSES should describe and analyze the values, cultures, and various institutions of the selected ethnic groups in terms of:
i. How they function within or affect the lifestyle of the particular groups and the sex roles of men and women within those groups;
ii. How they relate to or compare one with the other;
iii. How they compare with parallel values, culture, and institutions within the dominant society;
iv. How they have influenced the cultural development of the respective groups and contributed to the cultural (and perhaps institutional) development of American civilization; and
v. Present issues and problems that relate to the historical experience of the selected ethnic groups, to their current conditions and concerns in American society and to the particular experiences, conditions, and concerns of men and women within those ethnic groups and, by comparison, with the larger society.

e. GENDER FOCUSED COURSES should, while not excluding the factor of multiculturalism, relate their issues and problems more to:
i. Human sexuality and gender roles (particularly as they reflect contemporary developments), and

ii. The experiences and perspectives of women and men and the issues of gender (such as those that are health related, economic, physiological, etc.) as well as the extent to which those conditions and concerns exist among women and men in selected ethnic groups; and


f. HUMANITIES OR LITERATURE FOCUSED COURSES should explore the relationship of those works either to the culture, values, institutions and contemporary issues and concerns of the selected American ethnic groups or to gender related issues and concerns in contemporary American society (recognizing that components of both are EXPECTED but that the particular emphases may vary from course to course).



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