2014 AP US History Review: Busch
A note… this is not a complete history…. just my observations of what has been tested on the Multiple choice in the past… use this wisely
A lot longer than I thought…. but I will work at eliminating and formatting this as the weekend progresses just keep checking on the website
Pre-Columbian Indigenous cultures and Spanish/ French/ Dutch Early colonization
Most Archaeologists believe the first peoples to colonize the Americas came from Asia across the Land-Bridge.
North America’s population @ the time of Columbus’s arrival, 1492, is most dense in areas that become New Spain. Other areas of interest are the Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois Confederacy p. 40 in text) South Central ( five civilized tribes- Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole) Southwest (Hopi, Navajo, [Pueblo]. Maize (corn) is a huge influence, over 2,000 different languages spoken, rich and sophisticated cultures abound… Spanish Horses influence many of the formerly settled cultures and begin the Plains Indians nomadic existence.
The Spanish begin to settle their “Borderlands” area… New Mexico – California- Texas…. To protect their main concern to the South from French and later English incursions… St. Augustine is settled in 1565, the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in what is now the USA.
In New Mexico, Santa Fe is settled in 1610… following the example of the earlier southern settlements… they incorporate; Encomiendas, Presidios, and Missions. The Battle of Acoma in 1599 defeats the native tribes… as an example the Spanish cut a foot off each survivor. By 1680, led by the tribal healers, the “Pueblo Revolt” destroys the Spanish settlement in New Mexico and for 20 years the Spanish are gone.
California is settled by Father Junipero Serra, and the Catholic Church establishing missions along the coast beginning in the early 1700’s… San Diego-San Francisco among many others.
San Antonio…Texan is settled later in the 1700’s with the Alamo among the earliest Missions settled.
The French begin with Quebec in 1608. Samuel de Champlain, Father of New France, and others such as Jesuit Priests (black robes) , couriers de bois (runners of the woods), Marquette. La Salle, and Joliet begin to explore the Great Lakes, Ohio River Valley, and eventually down the Mississippi River and throughout the west. The Huron Indians become their closest allies, thus the Iroquois their enemy, and they foster very good relationships with the indigenous cultures (best of all euro invaders) Only Catholics could settle in New France and the Government was very autocratic so the French have the smallest group of the Big Three euro’s. The fur trade becomes a very profitable venture for the French…as the English find out later.
The Dutch, Netherlands, Holland ? – The Dutch East India Co. sends Henry Hudson to explore he finds what today is called the Hudson River… New Netherlands and New Amsterdam are settled in 1626 for a profit, very autocratic government… huge plantations are granted called patroonships. By 1664 the English take the colony and rename it New York….
Three sister farming: beans, squash, corn… Southern Central tribes
Matriarchal Societies in Iroquois and Cherokee
Political and Linguistic differences hinder natives ability to resist settlers
English Colonization 1607 – 1700
many failed attempts..ie… Roanoke by Sir Walter Raleigh.
Southern Colonies by 1775 are Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Jamestown 1607 – settled by Virginia co. (joint stock co. for profit) with all men…temporary…however, the Va. Co. Charter promises all settlers, applied to all future settlers, the same rights as if they were in England…1st Africans sold in Jamestown 1619, House of Burgesses created 1619 (property qualifications to vote in a County system, John Rolfe introduces tobacco which saves colony economically…. Obviously has huge influence over development… 70% of early settlers are indentured servants who serve for an agreed period of years… Life was certainly difficult… The 1st and 2nd Anglo-Powhatan wars led by Lord de la Warr… beginning in the 1620’s eventually virtually exterminate and push all remaining natives into back country… the end of these wars creates the model for the “reservation system.” Neighboring Maryland is founded in 1630 for Lord Baltimore as a haven for Catholics, persecuted in England, and they too look to Tobacco for economic salvation… as more non Catholics move to Maryland … in 1649 the Act of Toleration is passed, which actually allows for Catholicism, yet makes Maryland LESS religiously tolerant than before. In 1618, the Headright system was begun to encourage settlers to Virginia… the person who paid for the passage of the indentured servant was entitled to usually 50 acres of land… for each servant brought over… eventually this eliminated the land included in “Freedom Dues” and some say led to Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676, when Farmer Bacon led a mixed race, Africans were not initially property in perpetuity, rebellion due to the lack of protection from the Indians in the backcountry… after burning and looting Bacon eventually dies and many are hanged…This led to a push to make African slavery permanent and bring in more African slaves due to the fact they would not be trouble like the newly freed indentured servants…. The Barbados Slave code became a viable model… and African Slavery became permanent in Virginia in 1705. Schools and Churches are limited due to vast distances between communities and individuals… Women initially scarce … lifespan shorter than in New England.
New England Colonies by 1775 are Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
Plymouth is settled in 1620 on the coast of what is now Massachusetts by appx. 100 settlers, SEPERATIST PILGRIMS, on the Mayflower. Before departure they agree to the “Compact” not a constitution, just an agreement on some ideas. William Bradford, who writes the earliest of “American lit” of Plymouth Plantation, is elected Gov. in annual elections 30 times.
The Bay colony, Boston is hub, is settled in the 1630’s… by PURITAN NON-SEPERATISTS, The Great Puritan Migration brings an astounding 30,000+ settlers to the Bay colony. Most famously, John Winthrop, on board the Arabella, gives the “City upon a Hill Speech,” to the new arrivals asking to create a “Beacon to the World,” of a model community. The Puritans spread out across the New England countryside creating numerous townships based on this ideal. See p. 51 in text for the map of Rowley, Mass. for a visual of a typical NE town… Calvinism was the focus of their faith and they ESTABLISH the Congregational church in their communities…. The “Elect” or Visible Saints could be members of the Church… and only Church members could initially vote or hold public office… After the initial settlers began to become less pious and older the “halfway covenant” was established to allow children and “Grandchildren” of members to be baptized and attend church. This greatly expands the role of Women in New England Churches in 1662. NE women produced goods for the family and did a large amount of farm labor and when married were restricted from owning property to protect marriage…Each township with a resident of 50 beginning in the 1630’s were required by law to have primary schools, beginning the expectation of free public education, in 1636 the 1st Corporation is founded, Harvard University to train young men to become ministers. Town Meetings were the focus of each community with Direct democracy established, Jefferson calls these the “schools of political liberty”… the economy of NE was very diverse due to the weather and rocky soil… They came for religious freedom and found hard work paid off… the beginning of the “Puritan Work Ethic.” Dissent occurs from most notably Anne Hutchinson in 1637 and Roger Williams in 1636, They advocate for a “liberty of conscience”, both challenge the governance of the Bay colony believing it was improper for them to judge matters of faith…they wanted religious freedom to practice their faith… both are expelled and RW goes on to found the Colony of Rhode Island, a haven for “free thinkers.” Conn. Founded by Joseph Hooker and puritans from the Bay Colony write the 1st written Constitution in the colonies called the Fundamental Orders. The First attempt at Unification or alliance was the New England Confederation which grouped together various puritan settlements for the main purpose of a common defense against the Indians and Dutch… Later, in 1689, a forced unification is attempted briefly called the Dominion of New England led by tyrannical Sir Edmund Andros and foreshadowing the brutish conditions that will lead to the revolution some 80 years later… after a 2 year experiment…it is trashed, however, some significant changes are brought to the colonies such as eliminating the church membership requirement for voting in Massachusetts and putting all of the NE colonies under Royal Control.
The Middle Colonies are by 1775 Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware.
Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn as a haven for Quakers ( Society of Friends… unique due to their anti-Slavery stance, 1st anti slavery society in Philly 1775,-Women can speak at church- great relationship with the natives- and an anti-war stance), becomes the best planned and advertised of all of the colonies… NYC and Philadelphia are major seaports and thus become very cosmopolitan fairly quickly… Delaware is part of Penn…until the revolution. The Middle colonies take characteristics from both NE and S colonies… New York with its established Anglican church and large landholdings (patroonships) is most similar to the S, wheras Penn, and NJ become economically very diverse similar to NE… they together are called the Bread Colonies… The only 4 colonies without “Established Churches,” (meaning all citizens regardless pay taxes to that particular church…congregational in NE and Anglican in S/NY) are the Quaker colonies of Penn., NJ, and Delaware and the NE colony of Rhode Island.The future Bill of Rights has an establishment clause as part of the Freedom of Religion… that forbids states from having “established churches,” although Mass. does not disestablish the church until the 1830’s officially.
Salem Mass. had the witch trials in 1692…reflecting jealousy of the rural young women who struggled financially…in that they charge some town women who were much better off..
90% of ALL COLONISTS were farmers…
SLAVERY existed in ALL colonies by 1700.
Colonists were LOYAL British subjects for the most part until late… 1776, due to: Commerce with England and the British Goods they used, Warfare against and protection from neighboring Indians, French, and Dutch over the years, and the consistent communication with London through Newspaper etc…
MERCANTILISM is the economic foundation of the English colonies… That the colonies exist for the sole benefit of enriching England… this concept is legally applied with the various Navigation laws… 1st passed in the 1650’s and continuing to be adjusted until they are a main cause (being enforced finally, previously a condition of ”Salutary Neglect “ is in effect) of the Revolution.
1700 -1754 IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES
By 1700 the 12 (Ga. founded 1733) are coming upon their 100th anniversary… Firmly planted and successful the individual colonies in the next 100 years are going to experience dramatic change… a middle class develops, towns and cities especially along the coast become trading centers with the growth of the Atlantic trade(Triangle Trade) and the growth of the backcountry trade intermixing at the coastal cities to disseminate not just trade but news and information from around the world. Ben Franklin begins his experiments in electricity and a new stove…Newspapers develop that begin to create and discuss a “public opinion”… The Zenger case illustrates the power of the “press” in that at that time one could not criticize the gov’t even if it were true… “Deference” to your leaders was important… however, the verdict in the Zenger case showed that the people of America did not follow that Idea and ruled that there should be a freedom of speech… ideas… especially if it is true, regardless of the current law and yet still, under “Salutary Neglect” enjoys being part of the British Empire up until the beginnings of Independence. The Navigation Acts…Iron, wool, Molasses(1650’s – 1733) acts as well attempt to stop the colonies from trading with other nations or to allow them to create their own industries, however, from 3,000 miles away it is difficult to enforce and smuggling is commonplace… A Unique American character begins to develop due to a lack of a rigorous aristocracy…. One that allows anyone to be successful… (unless you were a woman, black, or native American) . Socially in the colonies we see a dramatic occurrence the 1st great awakening… the 1st mass movement within the colonies… and it led to; separation and secession from established churches (Methodists and Baptists grow), a growth in Universities ( many “new light” schools Dartmouth, Yale, Penn, etc…) , a flourishing of missionary spirit, and a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith… George Whitefield traveled through the colonies spreading the word with EMOTION… Hellfire sermons like Jonathan Edwards, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” “The path to hell is littered with skulls of unbaptized children , emotionally inspired many to convert . Generally by 1750; all colonies had slavery, there was no hereditary aristocracy, there was a growing group of non-english settlers (esp. Africans becoming 20% the largest of the non-english immigrant groups by 1775 and permanently slaves… the first recorded slave rebellion “Stono Rebellion” in SC in 1739 where a mixed group tried to make it to Spanish Florida and freedom), and the growth of many religious denominations. Another feature of the 18th century is war… the colonists participate in many battles with the French as conflict grows along the long boundary separating the FR and BR… this sets the stage for the ultimate conflict the 7years war or French and Indian war which will dramatically change the Americas beginning in 1754. Politically by 1775 all of the colonies had their own elected legislatures most with two houses, one based on population-one based on property ownership, all restricted voting to white males who owned a various amounts of property, and all paid the salaries of their Royal Governors (power of the purse). On the eve of the American Revolution all of the colonies had similarities such as; they were English in customs, Protestant in Religion with some degree of ethnic and religious freedom, social mobility, self-gov’t, and communication and transportation among the colonies was improving…. Setting the stage for a conflict largely based upon not necessarily self-rule …but WHO of the selfs should rule… and based on a fundamental idea from the Va. Co. Charter… that ALL who came here would have the same rights here that they had in England, citizens …. But… how …. When Mercantilism rears its ugly head… so were they citizens or slaves to an imperial mercantilistic mother country to exist only to enrich England….
1754-1789…Crisis…. French and Indian War (7 years War) through the Revolution, Articles of Confederation, Constitutional Convention, and ratification and 1st Gov’t under the Constituition.
1754, In the Ohio Valley, George Washington commanding a small force of Virginia Militia and surveyors is sent to western Virginia to survey the area just below a confluence of three rivers where the French had built Ft. Duquesne… Modern day Pittsburgh ( named after leader of Britain during their victory). GW defeats a small French and indian force and builds Ft. Necessity in a hasty manner…. Later the French come back with a much larger force and crush the Virginians… the Va.’s surrender and are allowed to leave as long as they promise not to return…. They lie and a World War begins…
Immediately the British want to make sure their allies the Iroquois are ready to fight… so they call they Albany congress in 1754 with the short term goal of gaining the indian allies agreement to fight the French and the long term goal of also uniting the individual colonies behind them as well. Ben Franklin comes up with the Albany Plan of Union with the representatives from 5 colonies… (1st unification attempt since the NE confederation in the 1650’s) This plan would give the colonies a form of home rule… and they agree to this… however, individually in their congress’s they refuse to sign. BF does an early political cartoon with a snake in pieces…stating… Join or DIE..the British when they received news of this plan also reject the idea of limited home rule….
The F&I war took place from 1754 -1763 across the world… Initially the war in America went poorly, Gen. Braddock with Washington as an aide is routed by the French and their indian allies, and the colonials are treated like crap by the British… the colonials notice that the British are not invincible and the unique fighting styles of the Indians that at times is successful….William Pitt comes to power after the early fiasco’s of the British and put the focus on taking Montreal and Quebec… The Battle of Quebec, on “the plains of Abraham,” The British defeat the French and later take Montreal… leaving the French cut off… thus victory goes to the British and the colonists… and the French in the Treaty of Paris 1763 are moved completely off the North American Continent…. The colonists rejoice, however a rebellion by Chief Pontiac and a coalition of Tribes causes chaos on the Frontier and due to the ENORMOUS DEBT Britain is in after another world war… after the Pontiac is crushed… the British beginning their NEW COLONIAL POLICY(NCP)… passes the Proclamation of 1763 with forbids the colonist from moving across the Mountains into the new territory evacuated by the French… thousands of colonists respond by gathering in Salisbury, NC and follow Daniel Boone across the mountains disrespecting the new law… foreshadowing their actions upcoming…
1764 Br. NCP now has to ask the colonies to pay their own way…. And passes REVENUE ACTS…and attempts to enforce for the first time the NAVIGATION LAWS… Note: Revolution Not inevitable until after the Dec. Of Ind. In July, 1776…certainly not after Stamp Act in 1765….
The Sugar Act is passed in 1764, 1st ever for revenue… the Stamp Act and Quartering Acts in 1765 as well…. The colonists raise hell….creating the Stamp Act Congress, Boycotting English goods, creating the Sons and Daughters of lIberty, wearing homespun clothes… “ No Taxation Without Representation,” ….Britain due to their dependence on trade from the Americas eventually in 1766 repeals the Stamp Act…. Yet in response to the colonies claim….No Taxation etc….Parliament passes the DEClaratory act… stating “Virtual Representation”… all subjects of the crown worldwide are virtually represented by Parliament… and in 1767 the BP passes the Townshend Duties, an indirect tax collected at ports on certain goods…. Including TEA….. now there is not as fervent a response to these but… the colonists learn that the revenue from the duty will go to pay gov’s…they worry about losing the power of the purse…which they had used to control their royally appointed gov’s… combined with the creation of the Admiralty courts…. Taking accused smugglers to England for trial where THEY HAVE TO PROVE THEIR INNOSENCE (violation of English bill of rights)…. Protest begins again… the Townshend duties not very successful are repealed except for a tax on TEA…. With the quartering act and more and more troops coming to Boston …conflict is bound to occur and in 1770 the Boston Massacre happens… combined with the TEA TAX and the colonists are looking for a fight. Meanwhile as Samuel Adams and others sensing trouble they create the Committees of Correspondence in 1772 so that they colonies through their legislatures can communicate effectively about events. In 1773, Gov. Hutchinson of Boston ignites the TEA PARTY by a letter of his becoming public where he states that taking away the colonists rights is important to regain control…the Sons of Liberty respond with a TEA PARTY(remember the parties took place in all colonial seaports north and south)… and the BR. GOV”T responds with the Intolerable, Coercive, or Boston Port Acts in 1774 closing the Port and putting Boston under harsh martial law until the damages are paid…. In response the colonists call together the 1st Continental Congress and form the Association to organize boycotts across the colonies…. BP also in 1774 passes the Quebec Act which takes away all rights from anyone living in Quebec which now is all of the Former French possessions including in the neighboring Ohio Valley… and approves Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec… always on guard (Whiggism) the colonists are worried that their rights are next to be lost and that POPERY is coming…. With a huge influx of troops to Boston they begin to single out rebel troublemakers Samuel Adams and John Hancock… and go to Lexington and Concord with troops to capture them and a weapons cache…
The American Revolution 1775-1783
Most Revolutionary Soldiers were volunteers, not paid well and had little food or clothes….
Remember that 90% of the Colonists were still LOYAL British Subjects until July 4, 1776…..
The Revolution is broken up into 3 eras… The War of Inconsistency (asking for Peace, claiming allegiance to England [Olive Branch Petition] 1775-1776, The War in the North 1776-1780 [beginning with the Declaration of Independence], and The War in the South 1780 – 1783 [concluding with the Treaty of Paris, 1783 which ends the War].
Women during the AR contributed by….collecting medicine, food, and supplies for the Continental Army and many on the frontier defended their homes and families and kept them running for 8-9 years in some cases…whew…
France secretly helps us with gunpowder and weapons before they formally sign on to fight with us in 1778… without their support we LOSE for sure…obviously they wanted to see the British defeated and embarrassed…
Also remember some of the rebellions of the past and some to come such as; Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676, The Paxton Boys marching on Philadelphia in 1764, The Regulators in North Carolina in the 1770’s, Shay’s Rebellion in Western Mass after the Rev. and The Whiskey Rebellion in Western Penn in the early 1790’s… They all are in some form rebellious against DISTANT AUTHORITY… and also the control of Gov’t by the wealthy easterners along the coasts in their colonies… In Shay’s, which leads to the ending of the Aritcles and the Const. Conv… , and in the Whiskey Rebellion in opposition to the Excise Tax (tax on goods made in USA diff than a TARIFF, a tax on goods made outside the USA) on Whiskey…part of Hamilton’s Financial plan under GW’s 1st government under the Constitution…
The War of Inconsistency- Phase 1 – April 1775 until Declaration of Independence July, 1776.
Inconsistent due to attacking offensively (Canada Dec. 1775) and asking for peace, stating loyalty to England (Olive Branch Petition, July 1775)….
April, 1775… Looking for Hancock, S. Adams, and weapons, the British March to Lexington and Concord…. At Lexington green the ‘shot heard round the world,’ is shot… and war begins… The british do not find either..nor weapons… and upon return are attacked by colonials hiding behind trees etc… like Indians, and the british are routed… many injuries.
Lexington and Concord, April 1775
Meeting of the 2nd Continental Congress (most sig. early act to appoint GW commander of Army)
Battle of Bunker Hill, June 1775…
Olive Branch Petition, July 1775
Burning of Falmouth, Maine and Norfolk, VA
Battles of Quebec and Montreal, Dec. 1775
Common Sense, 1776..Thomas Paine….criticized Monarchies…praises Democracy
France gives Secret Support
Evacuation of Boston by British, March 1776
Declaration of Independence, June 1776-July 4, 1776 – natural rights borrowed from philosopher John Locke….Life, liberty, Pursuit of Happiness ( Locke said Property instead), 27 grievances against the King.