A note on on verb/object order and head/relative clause order



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postverbal adverbial clauses:


I-oru ku=okowa [da vi-towa kubiine] (McGuckin 2002,320)

3:NON.PRES-go-down to-river Comp CAUS-bathe PURP

‘They went down the river for the purpose of taking a bath’
postnominal RCs:

ededa [ i-riku] a-kita=i-si (McGuckin 2002,305)

children 3:NON.PRES-dance 1Sg-see=TR-3PL ‘I saw the children who danced’



Georgian (Kartvelian - Aronson 1972; Harris 1992,1994, 1995; Hewitt 1987; Testelec 1998a)


postverbal complement clauses:

me vici [rom sen xval ar moxval] (Khatuna Okroshidze, p.c.; cf. Testelec 1998a,240)

I know.Prs that you tomorrow not come.Fut ‘I know that you will not come tomorrow’


postverbal adverbial clauses :

ar gauvlia ert k’vires, [rom amas meore šemtxveva-c daerto] (Harris 1995,1393)

not it/pass one week, that him/DAT second incident-too it/occurred/him

‘Not a week had passed, when a second incident also occurred to him’
postnominal RCs:48

Xalxi [romelic kareb-tan axlos idga] aqaqanda (Aronson 1972, 141)

The people [who doors-at close were standing] began to shout

‘The people who were standing near the doors began to shout’
Godoberi (Dakho-Dagestanian – Kibrik 1996)

postverbal complement clauses :



il-u-ra b=i?-at-a-da [ waša Ridu w-a?a-bu-³i] (Kibrik 1996,175)

mother-OBL-AFF NEUT=know-PRS-CONV-COP boy to.Godoberi MASC=come-PST-PRT-SUB

‘Mother knows that they boy has come to Godoberi’

postverbal adverbial clauses:49



mak’i čar-u wu=na [bac’a ha?-ir-a-di] (Kibrik 1996,205)

child run.PAST-CONV Masc=go.PST [wolf see-MASD-OBL-ERG]

‘The child ran away because he saw the wolf’
postnominal RCs:

di-ra ha?a jaci [maHačqala-jalda j=ihi-bu] (Kibrik 1996,151)

I-OBL-AFF see.PST sister Makhachkala.PLACE FEM=live.PST-PRT

‘I saw (my) sister who lived in Makhachkala’

Hindi (Indo-Aryan - M&B,278; Singh 1977)

postverbal complement clauses:



Ram ne kaha [ki Sita bimar he] (Singh 1977,204)

Ram Agt said that Sita sick be ‘R. said that S. was sick’

postverbal adverbial clauses:

Vo dhiire bol rahaa hai [kyon-ki us-ka gala kharaab hai] (Anoop Mahajan, p.c.)

He softly talk progr be-pres why-that his throat bad be-pres

‘He is speaking softly because his throat is bad’

postnominal RCs:



us aadmii ne [jo miir hai] ek makaan khariidhaa (M&B,290)

that man erg Rel rich is a house bought ‘The man who is rich bought a house’



Hittite (Indo-European - M&B,278; Lehmann 1984,123ff; Luraghi 1997)

postverbal complement clauses:



nu mahhan austa anda=kan [kuit hatkesnuwantes …] (Luraghi 1997,59)

CONN when see-1sg-Pret into-PTC COMPL oppress-PART-NOM-PL

‘when I saw that they were being oppressed…’

postverbal adverbial clauses:



nu É-ri= ssi anniskizzi [kuitman=as lazziyattat…] (Luraghi 1997,66f)

CONN house-D/L POSS3sg-D/L work-3sg-ITER-PRES until-3sg-NOM recover-3sg-PRES

‘and (he) works in his house, until he (sc. the injured) recovers…

postnominal RCs:



TUKUL=ma [kuin apiya harkun n= an] halissiyanun (Luraghi 1997,39)

weapon=Ptc Rel-Acc there have-1sg-Pret Conn=3sg-acc inlay-1sg-Pret


‘the weapon that I had there I had inlaid’

Hopi (Uto-Aztecan – Heath 1972Š; Dryer 1980; Grune 1995)


postverbal complement clauses:

Pas nî qa navota [îŋ hiroro-ta-q’ö] (Dryer 1980,130)

Very I Neg hear you snore-dur-sub,ds ‘I certainly didn’t hear you snore’

postverbal adverbial clauses:

Pam waaya [nu' put tuwa-q'ö] (Grune 1995,11)

he ran-away I him see-(subject-switch) ‘He ran away when I saw him’


postnominal RCs:50

nu' pookot [moosa kuukiqat] ngöyva (Grune 1995,12; cf. also Heath 1972,238)

I dog(obj) cat(subj) biting-him(obj) chased ‘I chased the dog that the cat bit’



Kabardian (Northwest Caucasian – Colarusso 1992,189,190)51

postverbal adverbial clauses:



sa maz-m s-k’+a-a [maraak’wwa 0-q’a-s-śp-n-wa]

I forest-obl I-move+intr-past-aff berries 3-hor-I-pick-inf-pred

‘I went into the forest to pick berries’
postnominal RCs:

λ’-r [a-tx λ-r 0-q’a-z-tx-a-wa]

man-abs that-book-abs 3-hor-who-write-past-pred ‘the man who wrote that book’



Kairiru (Oceanic (Austronesian) – Ross 2002a)

postverbal complement clauses:



ei o-wot [yieq qo-myai r˜uon] (Ross 2002a,210)

3sg 3sg-say 2sg 2sg-come COMPL ‘He said that you had come’


postverbal adverbial clauses:52

postnominal RCs:



moin nai [kyau u-r˜im] ceik e-rib (Ross 2002a,211)

woman that 1sg 1sg-see:3sg stringbag 3sg-carry ‘The woman I saw was carrying a stringbag’


Kuku Yalanji (Pama-Nyungan – Patz 2002)53

postverbal complement clauses:



karrkay-angka nyaji-ny, [jarba kuni-ji-nya] (Patz 2002,173)

child-Erg.pt(A) see-Past snake.Abs(S) kill-Itr-Sub

‘The child saw the snake being killed/how the snake was killed’

postverbal adverbial clauses:



ngayu baya waju-l, [yundu wumbul-ma-nka] (Patz 2002,166)

1sg.Nom(A) fire-Abs(O) burn-NonPast 2sg.Nom(S) warm-Inch-Purp

‘I light a fire so that you get warm’
postnominal RCs:

buliman-angka warru karrba-ny,[bayan janjarri-l-janjarri-nya] (Patz 2002,181)

policeman-Erg.pt(A) yg.man.Abs(O) grab-Past house.Abs(O) snoop-l-Red-Sub

‘The policeman apprehended the chap (who was/while he was) snooping in the house’

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