A new Deal for Transport Better for Everyone The Government's White Paper on the Future of Transport Contents Foreword Acknowledgements Scope of the White Paper part I chapter 1: a new Deal for Transport part II chapter 2: Sustainable Transport Chapter



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We will encourage the spread of best practice in crime prevention techniques on public transport. In particular, we will identify and evaluate current crime prevention initiatives and issue guidance on good practice measures to improve security for passengers and pedestrians.

There are already initiatives where train operators are working with local authorities to improve security at stations. We welcome these, not least because stations are a key area of concern for lone travellers, particularly women. Some operators are reinforcing security on their trains through, for example, the use of CCTV.

We expect all public transport operators to adopt the crime prevention strategies contained in our guidance "Personal Security on Public Transport - Guidelines for Operators". Simple measures can be important, for example, better lighting and training and availability of staff. Station staff also have an important role in helping their customers, particularly elderly and disabled people, to use services.

We have recently launched, with the British Transport Police and Crime Concern, the "Secure Stations Scheme" aimed at fighting the fear of crime at stations. Further measures may also be needed to make car parks near stations or at park and ride sites even safer, to encourage more people to use public transport for part of their journey.

Secure Stations fight fear of crime

Under the new "Secure Stations Scheme" all 3,000 stations policed by the British Transport Police can apply to become Secure Stations. The scheme establishes the first ever national standards for station security. To be accredited, stations must meet management and design standards for:



  1. trained staff and close-circuit surveillance;

  2. rapid response in emergencies;

  3. regular inspection and maintenance;

  4. better lighting and secure fencing;

Standards apply to station platforms, interiors, approaches and car parks.

Station operators have to conduct an independent passenger survey to see whether passengers feel safe at the station and provide evidence of low crime rates over a sustained period.





Transport staff also deserve to be free from the fear of crime. We will encourage good practice by all public transport operators to protect their staff. The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' (DETR) practical guide on "Protecting Bus Crews" sets out measures to reduce the risks for bus crews.

For bus passengers, the greatest fear about personal security is waiting at the bus stop and on the walk to and from the bus stop at either end of the journey. This is something that can be tackled in part through getting street design right in the first place, as well as by enhanced security through measures such as CCTV - which also has a part to play in making bus journeys feel safer.

Attention also needs to be given to the design and layout of bus stations and their operation, particularly at night, in order to increase passenger security. Revised planning guidance in England (see Chapter 4) will highlight the need for environments that are convenient, attractive and safe for walking.

Concern for personal security can also impose extra costs. For example, people preferring to travel in pairs or in groups may have had to look to taxis as a cheaper option than public transport. But there are alternatives. We will encourage marketing schemes such as 'two for the price of one' which can help to keep people using public transport, particularly after dark.



Encouraging group travel

  1. South West Trains 'family fare' - 1997 Christmas promotion allowed five people to travel to Guildford from local stations for a total of £5;

  2. Centro (West Midlands PTE) daytripper - up to six people benefit from the daytripper card for no more than the price of one adult and one child;

  3. 'Kids for a Penny' - in a bid to encourage family bus travel, Trent Buses ran a scheme last summer (June to August) allowing a child accompanied by a paying adult to travel on their buses for just 1p.




Local traffic management: the potential
Bus priority


  • significant scope for development in larger towns, with traffic restraint measures;

  • local transport plans to develop and implement coherent and comprehensive policies;

  • Quality Partnerships and Quality Contracts to secure better bus services.


Traffic calming

  • scope for development of new designs of traffic calming in, for example, historic cores of some towns, popular countryside destinations and rural lanes; low speed and home zones in residential areas.



Priority routes

  • cycle route networks;

  • pedestrian route enhancements;

  • priority route networks as in London and Edinburgh provide a framework for application of traffic management policies, eg bus priority, parking restraint, urban traffic control.


Urban traffic control

  1. early progress possible in local authorities to make fuller use of the best facilities already available;

  2. over time, Government/industry collaboration on new range of modern urban traffic management systems.


Driver information

  • good signing can help efficient use of the network. It needs to be well-maintained and updated; signing can be made less environmentally intrusive;

  • new techniques such as automatic incident detection offer the prospect of strategic traffic management control of highway networks;

  • use of in-vehicle information services likely to grow; route guidance will help to reduce unnecessary travel, especially when live traffic information is incorporated.


Vehicle measures

  • restriction of certain areas to 'clean' or 'quiet' vehicles.

Parking


  • control of on-street parking to prevent vehicles obstructing traffic and pedestrians;

  • new types of equipment for controlling on-street parking; electronic meters, pay and display machines operated by magnetic cards, and voucher systems;

  • parking enforcement by local authorities, penalties used to fund enforcement, scope for more authorities to take up new powers;

  • parking control, on and off-street, as a component of plans to reduce the amount of travel in and to congested town centres;

  • parking restraint strategies that include packages of measures to improve access to town centres by public transport and deter through-traffic and a levy on parking at the workplace can substantially reduce the amount of traffic in central areas;


Car Sharing Lanes

  • High Occupancy Vehicle Lane in Leeds recently opened as part of EU research project, will be monitored for progress and potential elsewhere.


Accessible transport for disabled people and easier access for all
Public transport must meet the needs of all in our community and 'accessible' public transport is vital for disabled people in particular, so that they have the opportunity to play a full part in society. The steps we are taking through the Disability Discrimination Act will mean that in future public transport is accessible to disabled people as a matter of course, including those who need to use a wheelchair. This will also make life easier for the growing population of people who are elderly and those who need to travel with a baby-buggy or pram, or heavy shopping.

We are bringing into effect the requirements for new rolling stock on the railway from the end of this year. For buses and taxis the implementation dates are being set following consultation. We have consulted on an implementation date of 1 January 2002 for taxis and a range of dates according to different bus and coach types, starting with 1 January 2000 for large single deck vehicles.

From 1 January 1999, to conform with EU law, we will raise the maximum axle weight of buses and coaches from 10.5 to 11.5 tonnes and increase their maximum gross weight from 17 to 18 tonnes. We will bring forward the necessary legal changes shortly. This change will allow some safety and accessibility improvements to buses and coaches such as the ability to design low-floor buses, without imposing significant reductions in carrying capacity.

Accessibility is a much more complex issue than simply making it easier to get on and off public transport. To get the most out of investment in accessible public transport, local authorities and transport operators will have to consider the needs of disabled people from start to finish of their journey. This involves tackling barriers in the street, at bus stops and at public transport interchanges. The availability of staff to help disabled people is important.

Local authorities can use the land use planning system to ensure that developments are accessible to disabled people. When drawing up their local transport plans, local authorities will be expected to address accessibility issues. We will draw up guidance to help them.

Widening choice
Europa Buscentre and Great Victoria Street Railway Station, Belfast:


  • an integrated bus and rail facility in a fully accessible environment;

  • design features include low level counters at booking offices, low level public telephones, textphone facilities, tactile flooring, high contrast signage, an induction loop, parents' room and toilets for disabled customers.

Buchanan Bus Station, Glasgow:




  • provides level access throughout with automatic doors and dropped kerbs;

  • has low level telephones and wheelchair accessible toilets and a wheelchair is available on request for people with walking difficulties.

Because the accessibility regulations under the Disability Discrimination Act will apply only to new buses, coaches, trains and newly licensed taxis, it will take time to achieve a fully accessible transport network. Good progress is already being made by the bus industry in introducing modern, accessible buses into the fleet. Some local authorities have introduced grants to prompt operators to try low-floor buses by 'topping up' the difference in cost compared with a conventional bus. We expect our proposals for Quality Partnerships to accelerate the introduction of low-floor buses.

On the railway, much can be achieved within the existing regulatory framework. For example, all inter-city services are fully accessible and new services such as the Heathrow Express are designed and built to offer full access. The Rail Regulator has a duty to take account of the needs of disabled people. This includes the production of a Code of Practice, which has been drawn up in consultation with the Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee. In addition, the Strategic Rail Authority will have a specific duty to protect the interests of disabled people and promote the provision of accessible transport.

We want airports and ferries to be more accessible and cater for the needs of disabled people. We also want more taxis to be accessible to disabled people and for private hire companies to make greater efforts to respond to their needs. But we appreciate that for some, severely disabled people in particular, a car may be the only viable way of getting around. The New Deal for transport is about widening choice not forcing people out of their cars. Anyone who meets the required standards will have the right to hold a driving licence and own and use a car. We have already, for example, exempted vehicles first registered in the 'disabled exempt' tax class from the fee that was introduced in April for the first registration of a vehicle. Disabled people registering their vehicle in this class are among those with the most severe mobility difficulties.



Car free housing

  • frees up the land normally used for car parking and access for other uses, including more green space;

  • children can play out of doors in greater safety and residents benefit from better local air quality and less noise;

  • the approach has been pioneered in Germany and the Netherlands, and construction is starting shortly in Edinburgh on one of the first schemes in this country.


Streets for people
Integration on local roads
Through the New Deal for transport we will improve the environment in towns and cities and create the conditions for people to move around more easily. More road space and priority will be given to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport.

We will achieve this by a different approach to traffic management. This new approach will also help to achieve the air quality objectives of the National Air Quality Strategy. Local authorities will be expected to take a strategic view of traffic management when preparing Regional Planning Guidance and development plans (see Chapter 4), considering how different measures can complement each other. Local transport plans will set out how these measures are to be delivered at the local level.

Local authorities should not have to 'reinvent the wheel' in traffic management. We will provide advice and guidance, and disseminate the principles of good practice that emerge from our traffic management research programme. We will also encourage the use of new technology in traffic management where appropriate and cost-effective.

In the past there has been some concern that a different approach to traffic management could cause excessive congestion on other parts of the network. Research8 suggests that this concern can be exaggerated and has stressed that schemes should be judged against a broad range of objectives. We will encourage the development of new appraisal systems that take account of the wider benefits of a more radical and comprehensive approach to traffic management.

We wish to reduce the impact on traffic and pedestrians caused by street works for utility companies. We will consult on options for an incentive system, with penalties, to minimise disruption to all road users, and to encourage improved co-ordination of streetworks.
Living town centres
Thriving town centres are the focus of urban life. They are central to sustainable development because they are easily accessible by a choice of transport. Good public transport is essential and so, too, is the quality of environment. People want well-planned town centres where they can live, enjoy shopping, working and local culture. Too often, town centres have been sacrificed to busy roads: the New Deal for transport will give priority to people over traffic.

Putting people first in Edinburgh

  • road space priorities have been changed with clear benefits for pedestrians, bus users, local business and the environment;

  • in the historic Royal Mile, space for pedestrians has been increased substantially and it is closed to vehicles at the busiest times during the International Festival. It is estimated that improvements will lead to an extra £26 million being spent in Edinburgh every year;

  • in Princes Street, the main shopping street, traffic levels have been reduced substantially. Accidents are down by a third (14% down in the wider area), air quality is significantly improved and shoppers are spending more.

Despite initial misgivings from some local traders, pedestrianisation schemes have proved very popular. We will also encourage local authorities to consider traffic calming and the reallocation of road space to promote walking and cycling and to give priority to public transport.

We will support local authorities and the haulage industry in the development of 'City Logistics' systems9, drawing on the experience of projects which have been initiated in other EU countries. These could help to improve efficiency in goods deliveries and reduce pollution.

We have launched the ALTER project - Alternative Traffic in Towns - during the UK Presidency of the EU to help to produce healthier town centres and cities. ALTER will produce concerted action by cities across Europe to give preferential access in certain areas to vehicles with zero or low emissions. Oxford is one of the lead authorities, together with Athens, Barcelona, Florence, Lisbon and Stockholm. All European cities with a population of more than 100,000 are to be invited to a conference in Florence in October 1998 to take the project forward.

The concept of 'Clear Zones' is being developed through our Foresight programme.10 Clear Zones can improve the quality of life in town centres through:


  • reducing the impact of traffic while maintaining accessibility, viability and vitality;

  • reducing emissions caused by public transport and goods distribution;

  • looking at demand management and the provision of efficient interfaces and information between different types of transport.

A co-ordinator has been appointed under the Foresight Transport Panel to help in the development and demonstration of technologies to achieve these aims, and to support local authorities who wish to implement Clear Zones. 
Quality residential environments
We want towns and cities to be places where people want to live. The New Deal for transport will support the urban renaissance that is essential to revitalise urban living and save our countryside from urban sprawl.

In part, this means people being able to go about their daily business without being intimidated by traffic. Better planning can contribute to achieving better and safer residential environments by influencing the design and layout of new developments. Traffic can be calmed from the outset by designing for low speeds. Sometimes new developments can be designed to be 'car free'.

In established residential areas we want to see the creative use of traffic management tools. We want local authorities to make greater use of the wide range of techniques now available that allow traffic calming to be introduced cost-effectively and with sensitivity to the environment. This will include more extensive use of '20 mph zones'. In these zones, the frequency of accidents has been reduced by about 60% and accidents involving children have fallen by 67%.

20 mph zones are most effective in a series of residential streets or other areas, where speeding traffic puts pedestrians, often children, and other vulnerable road users such as cyclists at risk. To encourage greater use, we will issue new guidance. We have already announced proposals to free local authorities to make their own decisions about 20 mph speed limits.

'Home zones' have been developed in a number of European countries and involve even lower traffic speeds, more pedestrianised areas and design features that emphasise the change in priority to pedestrians and cyclists. They could prove to be a valuable tool in improving the places where people live and children play.

With good design many of the objectives of homes zones could be achieved within existing legislation. We will welcome proposals by, and work with, local authorities who wish to pilot the idea.



Millennium Village, Greenwich a sustainable urban community

  • school, shops, small businesses, medical facilities, places of worship, community facilities, parkland and open spaces to be within easy walking distance of homes and each other;

  • much reduced car dependency;

  • well connected by public transport through the Jubilee Line Extension to the heart of London and by the Millennium Transit - a modern, low emission and frequent bus service - to local stations.



A more peaceful countryside
Traffic management can help to produce better and safer local road conditions, both for those who live and work in rural areas and for visitors, and protect the character of the countryside.

We welcome the Countryside Commission's demonstration projects11 for traffic management and the support of the local highway authorities concerned. One of the main conclusions of the work is the need for a strategic approach to managing local traffic, otherwise problems are shunted around the countryside from one place to another. Countryside traffic strategies, that enable individual traffic schemes to be brought forward as part of a wider consideration of traffic and transport, will be important parts of local transport plans.

Traditional traffic management measures can have an urban look and can be even more damaging in the countryside than on the appearance of our towns. We will therefore encourage the continued development of new and imaginative ways of designing local traffic schemes to make them more sensitive to their surroundings. The Countryside Commission's work on Village Design Statements and Countryside Design Summaries is a helpful contribution. The Commission is also producing new guidance for traffic management and calming design and last year, with our support, set up the Countryside Traffic Measures Group (CTMG) to spur innovation in rural traffic management. This will broaden our understanding of the way traffic management measures can be designed with sensitivity to the countryside.

The Countryside Commission will set up later this year a Rural Traffic Advisory Service. It will organise local groups and seminars to speed the adoption of the measures explored in the CTMG and the Commission's research on the design and implementation of rural traffic measures.



"Rural traffic: getting it right", the Countryside Commission's demonstration projects
In Cumbria:


  • traffic calming for Crook: responding to a community request;

  • Elterwater Parking: relieving parking congestion;

  • under Loughrigg: protecting a quiet country lane;

  • public transport information;

  • cycling services.

In Surrey, "be a star, don't use the car":



  • protecting minor roads from 'rat-running' in the Dorking area;

  • amenity and safety on the road for South West Waverley;

  • congestion in a tourist village: Shere;

  • traffic and schools: Lingfield Primary;

  • two wheels not four, the Surrey cycleway.

On Dartmoor, "take moor care":



  • area speed limit: reducing animal accidents;

  • strategic coach route network;

  • Okehampton Railway station and interchange;

  • village traffic calming schemes;

  • cycling schemes: Dartmoor by bike.

The Countryside Commission envisages working closely with local authorities as part of a 'Quiet Roads' initiative - to introduce measures to make selected country lanes more attractive for walking, cycling and horse riding, in the interests of a more tranquil and attractive rural environment. The Commission is also developing 'greenways' as traffic free routes within the countryside and from towns and cities to the countryside. Together with Quiet Roads they can form networks that provide safe alternatives to car travel.

We will help the Countryside Commission and local authorities develop these ideas. This could be through advice and support, including regulatory cover for experiment and innovation where appropriate, or by pilot projects linked to rural traffic management. Local authorities will be able to finance such initiatives through funding for their local transport plans.




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