A HISTORY OF ISRAEL @ 17th Century BCE The Patriarchs of the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob bring the belief in One God to the Promised Land where they settle. Famine eventually forces the Israelites to migrate to Egypt
@ 13th-12th Century BCE Moses leads at least some Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert. Beginnings of the Torah, received at Mount Sinai. During next two centuries the Israelites gradually conquer the land and settle into agricultural life.
@ 1020Jewish Monarchy established.
First King, Saul, succeeded by David. King David (c.1004-965 BCE) and Solomon (c.965-930 BCE). First Temple built.
@ 930Kingdom divided into Judah and Israel with rival capitals Jerusalem and Samaria. 722 - 720: Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
586Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia. The Babylonian conquest brought an end to the First Jewish Commonwealth (First Temple period) but did not sever the Jewish people's connection to the Land of Israel. 538-142Persian Period
538-515Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt. led by Zerubabel, a descendant of the House of David. Less than a century later, the Second Return was led by Ezra the Scribe.
Establishment of the Knesset Hagedolah (Great Assembly) as the supreme religious and judicial body of the Jewish people marked the beginning of the Second Jewish Commonwealth (Second Temple period).
332 Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule. The Land remained a Jewish theocracy under Syrian-based Seleucid rulers.
166-160 Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple. The Jews subsequently entered Jerusalem and purified the Temple (164 BCE). First Hanukkah.
142-63Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans Kings. The kingdom regained boundaries not far short of Solomon's realm, political consolidation under Jewish rule was attained and Jewish life flourished.
63Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey. The Romans exercise overlordship until the Muslim Conquest.
37BCE - 4 CE Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem rebuilt by Herod on massive scale.
70CE: Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple. Masada falls in 73 CE.
132-135Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
Jerusalem refounded as pagan city, Aelia Capitolina, by Hadrian.
210Codification of Mishnah—first level of the Talmud—completed.
313-636Roman Christian (Byzantine) Rule: Churches built on Christian holy sites in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Galilee, and monasteries were established in many parts of the country. Jews deprived of their former relative autonomy, as well as of their right to hold public positions, forbidden to enter Jerusalem except on one day of the year (Tisha b'Av - ninth of Av)to mourn the destruction of the Temple.
The Persian invasion of 614 was welcomed and aided by the Jews, who were inspired by messianic hopes of deliverance. Subsequently, the Byzantine army regained the city (629) and again expelled its Jewish population.
The Arab conquest of the Land came four years after the death of Muhammad (632) and lasted more than four centuries, with caliphs ruling first from Damascus, then from Baghdad and Egypt.
691 Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik on site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem,
1099-1291Crusader Domination For the next 200 years, the country was dominated by the Crusaders, who, following an appeal by Pope Urban II, came from Europe to recover the Holy Land from the infidels. 1187 Crusaders defeated by Saladin, but hold a few castles.
1291-1516Mamluke Rule: The Land under the Mamluks became a backwater province ruled from Damascus. Akko, Jaffa (Yafo) and other ports were destroyed for fear of new crusades, and maritime as well as overland commerce was interrupted. By the end of the Middle Ages, the country's urban centers were virtually in ruins, most of Jerusalem was abandoned and the small Jewish community was poverty-stricken. 1517-1917Ottoman Rule: Following the Ottoman conquest in 1517, the Land was divided into four districts and attached administratively to the province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul. Orderly government, until the death (1566) of Sultan Suleiman the Magificent, brought improvements and stimulated Jewish immigration. Some newcomers settled in Jerusalem, but the majority went to Safad where, by mid-16th century, the Jewish population had risen to about 10,000, and the town had become a thriving textile center as well as the focus of intense intellectual activity. During this period, the study of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) flourished, and contemporary clarifications of Jewish law, as codified in the Shulhan Arukh, spread throughout the Diaspora from the study houses in Safad. 1564 Shulhan Arukh, codification of Jewish law and custom published by Safed mystics. 1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1882-1903First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.
1897First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
1904-1914Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1909First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
1917400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest; British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine". 1918-1948: British Rule 1919-1923Third Aliya, mainly from Russia 1922Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations. Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home. Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
1924-1932Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.
1929 The “Troubles” Begin. Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
1936-1939Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
1939Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
1939-1945World War II; Holocaust in Europe.
1947UN proposes Partition: Arab and Jewish states in the Land.
1948State of Israel: End of British Mandate (14 May) State of Israel proclaimed (14 May). Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May) War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949) Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established
1949Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon. Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule. First Knesset (parliament) elected. Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
1948-1952Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
1964National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.