A History of Chile WHAP/Napp “Brazil was the first nation to experience the full effects of the conservative reaction to the Cuban Revolution. Claiming that Brazil’s civilian political leaders could not protect the nation from communist subversion, the army overthrew the democratically elected government of President João Goulart in 1964. The military suspended the constitution, outlawed all existing political parties, and exiled former presidents and opposition leaders. Death squads – illegal paramilitary organizations sanctioned by the government – detained, tortured, and executed thousands of citizens. The dictatorship also undertook an ambitious economic program that promoted industrialization through import substitution, using tax and tariff policies to compel foreign-owned companies to increase investment in manufacturing.
This combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization came to be called the ‘Brazilian Solution’ in Latin America. Elements of this ‘solution’ were imposed across much of the region in the 1970s and early 1980s, beginning in Chile. In 1970 Chile’s new president, Salvador Allende, undertook an ambitious program of socialist reforms to redistribute wealth from the elite and middle classes to the poor. He also nationalized most of Chile’s heavy industry and mines, including the American-owned copper companies that dominated the Chilean economy. From the beginning of Allende’s presidency the administration of President Richard Nixon (served 1969 – 1973) worked to organize opposition to Allende’s reforms and to overturn his election. Afflicted by inflation, mass consumer protests, and declining foreign trade, Allende was overthrown in 1973 by a military uprising led by General Augusto Pinochet and supported by the United States. President Allende and thousands of Chileans died in the uprising, and thousands more were illegally seized, tortured, and imprisoned without trial. Once in power Pinochet rolled back Allende’s social reforms, dramatically reduced state participation in the economy, and encouraged foreign investment.” ~ The Earth and Its Peoples Main Points of Passage:
Complete the Review Quilt Below (Place Key Points in Each Box):
Class Hierarchy during Colonialism:
Class Hierarchy after Independence:
Napoleon and Chile:
1973 in Chile:
Human Rights Violations in Chile:
Charges against Pinochet:
During Pinochet’s dictatorship many who were considered political dissidents were arrested and most were never heard from again. In response to this harsh political climate, the arpillera movement was born. Arpilleras are small hand sewn and embroidered/embellished tapestries, created by women, most of whose relatives were among those listed as detained/disappeared during the military dictatorship in Chile.
Describe the arpillera movement.
Explain the historical events which led to the arpillera movement.
Explain the point of view of the arpillera movement.