|MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilizations during the post classical period? 1) _______
A) Highly developed agriculture B) Monotheistic practices
C) Elaborate cultural systems D) Diverse civilizations
2) What was the relationship between the Toltecs and their predecessors in central Mexico? 2) _______
A) The Toltecs adopted the animistic religion of their predecessors, but failed to develop cities or ceremonial centers.
B) The Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice.
C) The entry of the Toltecs into central Mexico marks an abrupt break in the cultural development of the region.
D) The Toltec rejected all economic and social practices but did use similiar religious practices.
3) How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs? 3) _______
A) As slaves, fit only for conquest
B) As the givers of civilization
C) As heretics, who practiced a forbidden religion
D) As barbarians who lacked culture
4) The people who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico were the 4) _______
5) Around what year did the Aztecs migrate to the central valley of Mexico? 5) _______
A) 1434 B) 1150 C) 932 D) E) 1325
6) What city did the Aztecs establish circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco? 6) _______
A) Teotihuacan B) Chinampa
C) Texcoco D) Tenochtitlan
7) What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system? 7) _______
A) Aztec society was transformed in the sense that the Mexicans adopted the social patterns of the Maya.
C) Despite the stress of warfare and invasion, the Aztec society remained remarkably unchanged by the process.
D) Conquest opened up Aztec society to incursions by the indigenous peoples who began to form a trained bureaucracy.
E) From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a highly stratified society.
8) Which of the following statements concerning Aztec religion is most accurate? 8) _______
A) Tonatiuh and Tezcatlipoca became the paramount gods along with Nezhualcoyotl.
B) Aztec deities were normally associated only with male forms.
C) Shortly after establishing their empire, the Aztecs abandoned all gods other than their patron, Huitzilopochtli.
D) Aztec deities were numerous and had different forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars of the Hindu deities.
9) The central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was 9) _______
A) Chac. B) Quetzalcoatl.
C) Tlaloc. D) Huitzilopochtli.
10) The Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of the lakes of central Mexico was the development of 10) ______
A) chinampas. B) Pochteca. C) pipiltin. D) quipus.
11) The capital of the Inca empire was 11) ______
A) Cuzco. B) Chan Chan. C) Cajamarca. D) Tihuanaco.
12) The Inca ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438 was 12) ______
A) Ahuitzotl. B) Nezhualcoyotl.
C) Pachacuti. D) Moctezuma II.
13) What do the authors suggest was the principal reason for Inca conquest and expansion? 13) ______
A) The practice of split inheritance
B) The existence of long-distance trade merchants within the imperial administration
C) The absence of irrigation systems within the Inca empire
D) Their need for human sacrificial victims
14) What was the Inca practice of split inheritance? 14) ______
A) On the death of the previous ruler, the family's wealth was equally divided among all male heirs.
B) All power and wealth was inherited by the eldest son but religious leadership fell to the youngest daughter.
C) On the death of the previous ruler, the inheritance passed through the family of the senior wife to her oldest brother.
E) All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy.
15) The religious practice most closely associated with the state and the person of the Inca in Andean civilization was the cult of 15) ______
A) the rain god.
D) human sacrifice.
E) the sun.
16) The period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the 16) ______
A) Era of Division. B) Warring States era.
C) Jurchen invasion era. D) Time of Troubles.
17) The dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han was the 17) ______
A) Chou. B) Song. C) Qing. D) Sui.
18) What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry? 18) ______
A) The scholar-gentry class began to evolve into a new merchant and trade class due to the intervention of the emperors.
B) The Tang continued to support and patronize the growth of Buddhism in China at the expense of the Confucian scholar-gentry.
C) The Tang feared the development of the scholar-gentry and continued to support the nomadic aristocracy of China.
E) The Tang supported the rebirth of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
19) What was the result of the imperial attempt by the Tang to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire? 19) ______
A) Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years.
B) Despite official attempts to suppress Buddhism, monastic orders continued to exert political influence and control landed wealth as they did in the first decades of Tang rule.
C) Buddhism became a sect of minor importance but with many followers among the scholar-gentry.
D) Buddhism survived the brief imperial persecution and was restored as the primary religion of the state during the Song dynasty.
20) Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary? 20) ______
A) Chinese population was increasingly concentrated along the northern plains of the Yangtze River.
B) Major river systems in China ran from north to south, and the canal was necessary to connect the coastal regions with the western frontier.
C) The Yangtze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era.
D) Peasants were moving from the countryside of southern China to the urban areas of the North.
21) What was the military organization of the Heian government in Japan? 21) ______
A) The emperor formalized the creation of a peasant-conscript army on the model of the Chinese.
B) The emperor accepted the introduction of Chinese troops as the basis for the Japanese army.
C) Buddhist monasteries depended on the bushi for protection.
D) Local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces.
22) By the middle of the 9th century, what aristocratic family exerted exceptional influence over imperial affairs at the Japanese court at Heian? 22) ______
A) Fujiwara B) Genshin C) Minamoto D) Yoritomo
23) Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military elite were called 23) ______
24) What was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan? 24) ______
A) The samurai were critical to the development of a free peasantry on which the warriors depended for supplies of food and arms.
B) The creation of the samurai created a period of great social mobility in Japan during which people rapidly moved out of the peasantry and into the class of warriors.
C) Peasants who were willing to be trained could become samurai.
D) Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.
25) The victory of the Minamoto marks the beginning of what period in Japanese history? 25) ______
A) The Tokugawa Shogunate B) The Onin wars
C) The feudal age D) The Taika period
26) During what period did the nomads of central Asia impact the other global civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere during the post classical era? 26) ______
A) 800-900 B) 1200 to 1400
C) 1300 to 1500 D) 1100 to 1300
27) What was the basic unit of Mongol society? 27) ______
A) The city-state B) The tribe
C) The nuclear family D) Band
28) In the early 12th century, the Qin kingdom of northern China was defeated by a Mongol confederation under the leadership of 28) ______
A) Kubilai Khan. B) XiXia.
C) Hulegu. D) Batu.
29) Which of the following statements concerning Chinggis Khan's early life is most accurate? 29) ______
A) Following his father's death, he was abandoned by many followers and captured by a rival tribe.
B) He fled following his father's death to the Chinese, who provided him with military support.
C) Following the death of his father, he immediately enjoyed military success over rival clans.
D) He did not become leader of the Mongols until he had secured the assistance of his rival Batu.
30) The Mongol military forces were 30) ______
B) composed of a mixture of infantry and cavalry.
C) armed with firearms
D) technologically inferior to most of their opponents.
E) entirely cavalry.