A. general remarks



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WOMEN'S ROLE LATE EMPIRE & EARLY MIDDLE AGES
00000000I. LATE EMPIRE 3-5TH CENTURIES

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. ROMAN EMPIRE EXPANDED ROME'S DOMINATION TO NORTHERN EUROPE

2. DURING THIS TIME THEY CAME IN CONTACT NOT ONLY WITH CELTIC TRIBES

3. BUT WITH NUMEROUS GERMANIC TRIBES

a. VISIGOTHS = SPAIN

b. OSTROGOTHS - ITALY

c. VANDALS - NORTH AFRICA

d. ALLEMANI - GERMAN AREA

e. BURGUNDIANS - S.E FRANCE - EASTERN GAUL

f. MEROVINGIANS FRANCE & GERMANY

g. ANGLO-SAXONS - ENGLAND

h. FRANKS - FRANCE & GERMANY

4.0 THESE GERMANIC PEOPLE WERE MIGRATING TOWARDS ROME'S BOUNDARIES

5. PARTLY TO OBTAIN EMPLOYMENT IN ROME'S LEGIONS

6. BUT ALSO TO SAVOR THE FRUITS OF CIVILIZATION

7. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THIS PERIOD OF HISTORY IS VERY SKETCHY DUE TO LACK OF SOURCES

8. SO MUCH OF KNOWLEDGE OF THESE GERMANIC TRIBES BEFORE THEY BECAME CHRISTIANIZED

9. WRITTEN BY ROMAN WRITERS INTERESTED IN POINTING OUT DECADENCE OF ROMAN SOCIETY

10. & SO CONTRASTED IT WITH THEIR PERCEIVED POSITIVE PICTURE OF GERMANS

11. WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT IS THAT CULTURE OF GERMANS WILL BE MINGLED WITH ROMAN CULTURE

12. CHRISTIAN CULTURE WILL BE 3RD MAJOR COMPONENT OF SOCIETY WE TERM MIDDLE AGES

13. SO LATE ANTIQUITY & EARLY MIDDLE AGES FUSED TOGETHER

14. MOST MEDIEVALISTS SAY MIDDLE AGES BEGAN 500 A.D.

B.0 SOURCES FOR DOING HISTORY OF EARLY MEDIEVAL WOMEN

1. NATIONAL LAWS OF GERMANIC PEOPLES PUT IN WRITING BETWEEN ABOUT 500 & 800 INDISPENSABLE TO RECONSTRUCT LIFE OF WOMEN

2. CAPITULARIES OF MEROVINGINAN & THEN CAROLINGIAN SUCCESSORS ALSO CONTAIN MUCH MATERIAL ON DAILY LIFE

3. TOGETHER WITH CHURCH COUNCILS, PENITENTIALS OF CHURCH

4. & HAGIOGRAPHICAL WORKS

5. ALLOW US TO RECONSTRUCT LIFE OF WOMEN

C.0 STRUCTURE OF GERMANIC SOCIETY

1. TRIBES - NOT UNITED KINGDOMS

2. GERMANIC WORLD ONE OF ROAMING BANDS OF UNMARRIED YOUNG MEN

3. WHO UNLIKE THEIR ROMAN COUNTERPARTS

4. CONSIDERED INDEPENDENT ONCE THEY CAME OF AGE

5. GONE WAS EUROPE BASED ON URBAN CULTURE

6. IN ITS STEAD RURAL LIFE

7. PLAGUES SWEPT ACROSS CONTINENT BETWEEN MID 6TH C AND MID 8TH C.

8. CUTTING POPULATION IN HALF

9. IT ONLY CREPT BACK TO ITS PREVIOUS HIGH OF 32 MILLION AROUND 1000

10. TYPICAL PYRAMIDAL

11. BIRTH & PROPERTY DETERMINED NOBILITY

12. WAR & HUNTING FOR NOBLE MEN

13. FARMING LEFT TO THOSE UNABLE TO FIGHT

a. WOMEN

b. OLD MEN

c. SERFS & SLAVES

14.0 FAMILIES DIVIDED INTO KIN GROUPS

a. GERMAN TERM SIPPE

b. STRUCTURE, CHARACTER & EXACT FUNCTIONS SUBJECT OF EXTENSIVE CONTROVERSY AMONG MODERN HISTORIANS

c. SIPPE NO MORE THAN 50 FAMILIES

15.0 APPARENTLY HEAD OF KIN GROUP SIMILAR TO ROMAN PATERFAMILIAS

16. BUT WITH 1 MAJOR DIFFERENCE

a. ONCE BARBARIAN SONS ATTAINED AGE OF MAJORITY

b. ACQUIRED LEGAL INDEPENDENCE

17.0 FAMILY HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR OFFENSES COMMITTED BY ITS MEMBERS

18. UNLESS SATISFACTION MADE IN FORM OF FINE OR WERGELD

19. ALL MEMBERS OF FAMILIES CAUGHT UP IN BLOOD FEUD IN DANGER OF EXTINCTION

20. VALUE ATTACHED TO EVERY INDIVIDUAL O

21. CALCULATED ON BASIS OF

a. SOCIAL STANDING

b. MILITARY OR CRAFT SKILLS

c. SEX & AGE

22.0 WHILE MEN OF FIGHTING AGE HAD HIGHEST WERGELD

23. NEXT CAME WOMEN OF CHILD-BEARING AGE

24. THEN CHILDREN

25. LAST ELDERLY

26. IF ACCUSED REFUSED TO PAY WERGELD

27. OR VICTIM'S FAMILY REFUSED TO ACCEPT IT

28. THEN BLOOD FEUD DID ENSUE

a. MANY INSTANCES OF THESE RECORDED IN GREGORY OF TOURS HISTORY OF THE FRANKS

b. ALSO FRANKISH & BURGUNDIAN & VISIGOTHIC LAWS ATTEST TO THIS TOO

D.00 STATUS OF WOMEN

1. IT HAS BEEN ARGUED THAT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGES WOMEN ENJOYED GREATER POWER THAN THEIR ROMAN COUNTERPARTS

2. DOES APPEAR THAT FRANKISH WOMEN DID ENJOY SOME FREEDOMS

3. THEY WERE NOT CONSIDERED LEGAL MINORS

4. THEY COULD ACT AS GUARDIANS OF THEIR CHILDREN

5. GERMANS RECKONED KINSHIP OR DESCENT BILINEALLY

a. TRACED IT THROUGH BOTH MEN & WOMEN

6.0 BUT ALSO RECKONED JUST IN FEMALE LINE

a. AS IT COULD BE MORE RELIABLY DETERMINED

7.0 WITH BILATERAL KINSHIP THOUGH

a. GREGORY OF TOURS' CHRONICLE ILLUSTRATES

8.0 FRANKISH BROTHERS & SISTERS MAINTAINED CLOSE ADULT RELATIONSHIPS

9. KING CHILDEBERT I (REIGNED 511-58)

10. JOURNEYED TO SPAIN TO RESCUE HIS SISTER CLOTILD FROM HER HUSBAND AMALRIC

11. ARIAN CHRISTIAN WHO WAS MISTREATING HER BECAUSE OF HER CATHOLIC FAITH

12. CLOTILD HAD SENT HER BROTHER A TOWEL STAINED WITH HER OWN BLOOD

13. SHED WHEN HER HUSBAND HAD STRUCK HER (P. 170 GREGORY OF TOURS)

14. BERTRAM BISHOP OF BORDEAUX PROTECTED HIS SISTER BERTHEGUND

15. WHO HAD LEFT HER HUSBAND & ENTERED HER MOTHER'S CONVENT EVEN CIRCUMVENTING ORDER OF KING GUNTRAM THAT SHE RETURN TO HER HUSBAND & CHILDREN

16. LEFT INHERITANCES TO BOTH SONS & DAUGHTERS

17. MATRILINEAL LINE IMPORTANT

18. MOTHER'S BROTHER OFTEN SERVED AS PROTECTOR OF HER CHILDREN

19. QUEENS WIELDED REAL POWER AS DID WIDOWS

E.0 WOMEN & POWER

1. TACITUS CLAIMS THAT GERMANIC MALES HEARD ADVICE OF WOMEN WITH RESPECT

2. WOMEN PARTICIPATED IN PUBLIC ASSEMBLIES OF MEROVINGIAN FRANCE

3. SO FREQUENTLY IN FACT THAT THEY EVOKE STRICTURES OF CHURCH COUNCIL IN 660

4. IT IS ASTOUNDING THAT CERTAIN MISERABLE WOMEN, ACTING SHAMELESSLY AND IMPUDENTLY AGAINST DIVINE & HUMAN LAWS, CEASELESSLY ATTEND GENERAL ASSEMBLIES & PUBLIC MEETINGS. THEY DISTURB MORE THAN THEY DIRECT THE AFFAIRS OF THE KINGDOM AND THE GOOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. FOR IT IS INDECENT AND REPREHENSIBLE EVEN AMONG BARBARIAN NATIONS THAT WOMEN SHOULD DISCUSS THE ISSUES THAT CONCERN MEN. THESE WOMEN OUGHT TO BE SITTING AMONG THEIR GIRLS OF THE CLOTH SHOP AND OUGHT TO BE TALKING ABOUT THEIR WOOL PROCESSING AND THEIR TEXTILE LABORS AND ABOUT WOMEN. INSTEAD, THEY USURP FOR THEMSELVES SENATORIAL AUTHORITY, SITTING IN PUBLIC ASSEMBLY AS IF IN A COURT OF LAW

5. WOMEN ALSO APPEARED AS ADVOCATES IN LAWSUITS

6. YET KEEP IN MIND THAT GERMANS DREW NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRIVATE & PUBLIC POWER

7. OR BETWEEN POUBLIC & PRIVATE RIGHTS

8. AS RESULT WOMEN WHOSE FAMILIES ECONOMICALLY POWERFUL

9. OR WHO HELD EXTENSIVE PROPERTY IN THEIR OWN NAMES

10. OCCUPIED PUBLIC SPHERE AS WELL AS PRIVATE

F.0 BARBARIAN MARRIAGES

1. MARRIAGES EVEN MORE FAMILY-GOVERNED & MALE DOMINATED THAN ROMAN

2. MARRIAGE ALLIANCES PLAYED NB ROLE

a. NOTABLY UN UNIONS BETWEEN BARBARIAN NOBILITY

b. & OLD GALLO-ROMAN SENATORIAL CLASS

3.0 BETROTHAL ARRANGED BY MALE RELATIVES OF BRIDE

a. WHOSE CONSENT WAS NOT REQUIRED

b. IT APPEARS BARBARIAN MALES MARRIED EARLIER THAN ROMANS

4.0 BETROTHAL CONSISTED OF PROMISE OF MARRIAGE & AGREEMENT OF TERMS

5. FOLLOWED BY FEAST OF 2 FAMILIES AT WHICH ACTUAL PAYMENT OF BRIDEPRICE BY GROOM'S FAMILY TOOK PLACE

6. BRIDE COMPLETED MARRIAGE BY GIFT OF ARMS TO GROOM

7. BUT IT IS CLEAR THAT MAIN ENDOWMENT WAS FROM GROOM TO BRIDE

8. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE W/ROMAN PRACTICE WAS BARBARIAN PAID FOR HIS WIFE

9. MARRIAGE BY PURCHASE RECORDED AMONG

a. BURGUNDIANS, LOMBARDS & SAXONS

10.0 IMPLICATION IS THAT THERE WAS A SHORTAGE OF WOMEN AMONG BARBARIANS

11. SUPPOSITION STRENGTHENED BY PREVALENCE OF ABDUCTION

12. MARRIAGE BY ABDUCTION DONE BY VICTORS TO GAIN PROMINENT WIFE

13. AGAIN & AGAIN ACCORDING TO GREGORY OF TOURS

a. HISTORIAN OF LATE 6TH C.

b. CONQUERING KING ESPOUSES WIDOW OR DAUGHTER OF HIS DEFEATED RIVAL

c. APPARENTLY AS PART OF LOOT

14.0 BUT ALSO DONE AT TIMES TO CIRCUMVENT GETTING PARENTS CONSENT

15. WHICH WAS MANDATORY

16. SOME OF TRIBES WIVES NO MORE THAN CHATTELS

17. THEY WERE BOUGHT LIKE SALVES

18. MARRIAGE BY PURCHASE IS RECORDED AMONG BURGUNDIANS, LOMBARDS & SAXONS

19. MARRIAGE FORMULA INVENTED FOR RAPISTS & ABDUCTORS

a. READ IT

20.0 AMONG SOME PEOPLES SUTTEE OR SACRIFICE OF WIDOW

21. ON DEATH OF ONE OF THE LEADING MEN WAS KNOWN

G.0 ORIGINAL 3 PARTS TO GERMANIC WEDDING

1. BETROTHAL & AGREEMENT ON TERMS

2. WEDDING CELEBRATION

3. MORGENGABE = MORGEN GIFU - MORNING GIFT

a. GERMANIC CUSTOM

b. WIFE RECEIVED GIFT OF LAND OR SOME OTHER TANGIBLE GIFT

c. FOLLOWING CONSUMMATION OF MARRIAGE

d. SURRENDER OF HER VIRGINITY

e. HUSBAND'S ACQUISITION OF HIS SEXUAL RIGHTS

f. LASTED UNTIL 11TH C

g. TODAY SCANDINAVIA STILL EXISTS - NEW WIVES GIVEN MORNING RINGS

H.00 CHURCH ADDED 4TH PART

1. CONSUMMATION

2. CHURCH USED THIS ACT AS FINAL STEP TO MAKE A VALID MARRIAGE

3. CALLED CARNAL COPULATION

4. CF W/MODERN COUPLES LIVING TOGETHER TODAY WHO HAVE CONSUMMATED THEIR UNION

a. BY MEDIEVAL STANDARDS ARE LEGALLY MARRIED

5.0 WHY - BECAUSE OF BETROTHALS OF CHILDREN

6. COMMON MA - ARISTOCRACY

7. POLITICAL MARRIAGES NB TOOLS

a. ALLIANCES, PREVENT WAR

8.0 CHURCH SET 7 YRS OLD AS LOWEST AGE FOR BETROTHAL

a. MANY EGS OF EARLIER THOUGH

9.0 AGE FOR CONSUMMATION & VALID MARRIAGE

a. 12 FOR GIRLS

b. 14 FOR BOYS

I.00 MARRIAGE PATTERNS

1. THROUGH EARLY MA OLD GERMANIC CONCEPTS OF MARRIAGE

2. CONTENDED WITH NEW TEACHINGS OF CHURCH

3. EXOGAMY & INCEST TABOO PROVIDED ONE AREA OF CONFLICT

4. CHURCH AGAINST MARRIAGES WITH AFFINES (IN-LAWS_

a. CHURCH COUNCILS REPEATED LABELED THIS INCESTUOUS

5.0 SO MARRIAGES FORBIDDEN

a. WIDOW OF ONE'S BROTHER

b. WITH MOTHER=IN-LAW

c. WIDOW OF UNCLE

d. SISTER OF ONE'S WIFE

e. WITH DAUGHTER-IN-LAW

f. WITH AUNT

6.0 UNFORTUNATELY SUCH MARRIAGES OFTEN HIGHLY CONVENIENT

7. FINALLY IN LATE 6TH C CHILDEBERT II ENACTED LEGISLATION PROVIDING FOR DEATH PENALTY FOR MAN WHO MARRIED HIS FATHER'S WIDOW OR HIS WIFE'S SISTER

8. OR FOR WIDOW WHO MARRIED HER HUSBAND'S BROTHER

J.0 CONSANGUINITY

1. ROMAN LAW HAD PROHIBITED MARRIAGE BETWEEN PARTNERS CLOSER THAN 4TH DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP

a. MEANING AUNTS, UNCLES, NEPHEWS & NIECES

b. BUT LEAVING 1ST COUSINS FREE TO MARRY

2.0 CHURCH AT FIRST AGREED

3. THEN FORBADE IT & ADDED NO MARRIAGE WITH 2ND COUSINS EITHER

K.0 POLYGAMY

1. ANOTHER AREA OF DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN CHURCH & GERMANS

2. MONOGAMY - CHURCH'S ONLY ACCEPTABLE MARRIAGE

3. AUGUSTINE

a. EXCUSED PROPHETS OT PRACTICING POLYGAMY

(1) SOLE MOTIVATION NOT LUST BUT PROPAGATION

b.0 NOW WORLD AMPLY STOCKED

c. DAY OF JUDGEMENT COMING

d. MULTIPLE WIVES NO LONGER NEEDED

4.0 POLYGAMY POPULAR W/RULERS

5. KINGS & NOBLES OF 6TH & 7TH CENTURIES

a. KEPT CONCUBINES

b. MAINTAINED MULTIPLE WIVES

c. REPUDIATED ONE WIFE TO TAKE ANOTHER

d. WITH NO MORE FORMALITY THAN WORD & GESTURE

6.0 PRACTICE FOR EVERY YOUNG MAN BEFORE MARRIAGE TO HAVE A CONCUBINE

a. USUALLY BY 14 OR SO & WOULD EVEN FATHER CHILD

b. BEFORE CONTRACTING FORMAL MARRIAGE

7.0 CHURCH'S STANCE

a. CONCUBINES GO OR MARRY THEM IF OF RIGHT STATUS

8.0 CHARIBERT

a. 6TH C. MEROVINGIAN KING

b. ENAMORED PAIR SISTERS WIFE'S RETINUE

c. REPUDIATED WIFE

d. MARRIED SISTERS SEQUENTIALLY W/ANOTHER WIFE IN BETWEEN

e. EVEN THOUGH EXCOMMUNICATED - REFUSED TO BE COERCED

9.0 DAGOBERT - 7TH C.

a. REPUDIATED WIFE

b. MARRIED 3 OTHERS SIMULTANEOUSLY

c. WHILE MAINTAINING SO MANY CONCUBINES

d. CHRONICLER SAID NOT SPACE TO NAME ALL THEM

10.0 BY 8TH C 1 WIFE GAINED SUBSTANTIAL ACCEPTANCE

L.0 BARBARIAN ADULTERY

1. UNLIKE ROMANS & BARBARIANS CHURCH ADOPTED SINGLE SEXUAL STANDARD

a. NO ADULTERY - HUSBAND OR WIFE

2.0 BUT IN PRACTICE CHURCH ACCEPTED TRADITIONAL BIAS HUSBAND OK - WIFE NO

3. SOME REGIONS MAN ADULTER ONLY IF SEX W/MARRIED WOMAN

4. IF W/SINGLE WOMAN THEN FORNICATION - LESSER CRIME

5. BUT WIFE ADULTERESS WHETHER SEX W/BACHELOR OR MARRIED MAN

6. EACH TRIBE HAD OWN LAWS ON ADULTERY

7. MOST GERMANIC TRIBES ADULTERY RARE FOR WIVES

8. AS PUNISHMENT VERY SEVERE

9. 1 TRIBE PUNISHED ON SPOT BY HUSBAND

a. HAIR CUT OFF

b. STRIPPED NAKED

c. TURNED OUT OF HOUSE & FLOGGED ALL WAY OUT OF VILLAGE

d. ONCE DISHONORED NEVER COULD RETURN

10.0 ANOTHER TRIBE HUSBAND HAD RIGHT TO KILL ADULTEROUS WIFE

11. PLUS OPTION OF KILLING LOVER OR DEMANDING LARGE COMPENSATION

12. LOMBARDS

a. APPEAL BY ACCUSED LOVER TO TRIAL BY COMBAT

(1) PROVIDED NOT SLAVE OR CAUGHT IN ACT

13.00 ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND

a. WIFE'S NOSE & EARS WERE CUT OFF

14.0 BUT ADULTERESSES ALSO RISKED BEING

a. STRANGLED

b. BURNT ALIVE

c. SUBJECTED TO WATER TEST

15.0 PLANTAGENET ENGLAND

a. KING JOHN CASTRATION OF MAN OK BY BOTH HUSBAND & RELATIVES

(1) HAD TO WARN 1ST OR LOOSE LANDS

b.0 HENRY III ONLY CUCKOLD HUSBAND COULD CASTRATE

M.00 DIVORCE

1. EARLY MA PRACTICED BY ALL GERMANIC TRIBES

2. BUT BY HUSBANDS NOT BY WIVES EXCEPT FOR A-S

3. GERMANIC LAW HUSBAND COULD REPUDIATE WIFE VARIETY REASONS

4. IF HAD NO REASON THEN HAD TO GIVE UP HER PROPERTY & PAY HER COMPENSATION

5. ONLY ANGLO SAXON WOMEN FREE TO DIVORCE

a. AETHELBERT - 7TH C

(1) WIFE LEFT W/CHILDREN GOT 1/2 GOODS

(2) WIFE LEFT W/O CHILDREN SAME SHARE CHILD

6.00 CHURCH RESOLVED TO MAKE DIVORCE HARD TO OBTAIN

7. CHURCH ASSOCIATION DEGRADATION OF ROMAN NOBILITY W/COMMON PRACTICE OF DIVORCE & REMARRIAGE

8. CHURCH DECIDED TO USE NT GUIDE

9. AS OT ALLOWED DIVORCE - DEUTERONOMY 24:1-4

10. AUGUSTINE AGAIN DEVELOPED CHURCH'S THEOLOGY ON

11. DIVORCE

12. HE THOUGHT NT AMBIGUOUS

a. MARK 10:11-12

(1) JESUS FORBADE DIVORCE

b.0 MATTHEW 5:32

(1) CERTAIN REASONS DIVORCE LEGITIMATE

c.0 TODAY - CONSENSUS JESUS AGAINST DIVORCE

d. MARK'S MORE ANCIENT ACCOUNT IS CORRECT

e. MATTHEW' RECASTED JESUS' WORDS BASED ON JEWISH PRACTICE OF TIMES

13.0 BUT CHURCH WAS NOT ABLE TO MAKE ANY HEADWAY IN GETTING PEOPLE TO DO AWAY W/DIVORCE

14. COURSE OF MA CHURCH FOLLOWED UNEVEN PATTERN OF ALLOWING & DISALLOWING DIVORCE

15. BY LAST HALF 8TH C. CHURCH DECIDED DIVORCE OK FOR CERTAIN REASONS

a. IF CAN'T WIN BATTLE - THEN JOIN THEM

16.0 6 WAYS ALLOWED

a. ADULTERY

b. SERVILE STATUS ANCESTRY OF WIFE

c. LEPROSY

d. LACK OF CONSENT

e. HUSBAND IMPOTENT

f. SPOUSE LEFT TO BECOME MONK OR NUN

17.0 NO TO MUTUAL CONSENT PRACTICED BY SOCIETY

18. BURGUNDIANS COULD SEND BACK A WIFE FOR

a. ADULTERY

b. USE OF DRUGS TO CARRY OUT ABORTION

c. BEING RAPED

N.00 DID GERMAN WOMEN CONTROL THEIR FERTILITY?

1. BARBARIANS CLEARLY DID NOT HAVE SAME INTEREST AS ROMANS IN LIMITING NUMBER OF CHILDREN

2. CHILDREN SEEN AS PRECIOUS COMMODITY

3. PROCREATION BECAME OBSESSION

4. FINES LEVIED BY GERMANS ON PERSON RESPONSIBLE IN CASES OF VIOLENT DEATH

5. GIVE INDICATION OF NB THEY ATTRIBUTED TO REPRODUCTION

6. FOR DEATH OF OLD WOMAN 200 SOUS

7. FOR CHILDBEARING WOMEN 400 SOUS

8. FOR PREGNANT WOMAN 700 SOUS

9. IF NATURAL OFFSPRING COULD NOT BE OBTAINED

10. REPLACEMENTS SEIZED ON RAIDS

a. BECAME SLAVES

11.0 OLD IDEA OF WOMEN'S SEXUAL INSATIABILITY MAINTAINED

12. MALE MASTURBATION - 10 DAYS' PENANCE

13. FEMALE MASTURBATION

a. SINCE IT ALLOWED WOMEN TO AVOID THEIR DUTIES TO BOTH MEN & PROCREATION

b. SUBJECTED TO ONE YEAR'S PENANCE

O.00 PENITENTIALS & THOSE RELATING TO WOMEN

1. SEXUALITY OCCUPIED LARGE PLACE IN PENITENTIALS

2. POPE GREGORY I ATTRIBUTED SPREAD OF PRACTICE OF WET NURSING TO WOMEN'S DESIRE FOR SEX

3. NORMALLY FOREGONE UNTIL CHILD HAD BEEN WEANED

a. BAD CUSTOM IS SPRUNG UP...THAT WOMEN DISDAIN TO SUCKLE [THEIR CHILDREN]



b. ....AND GIVE THEM TO OTHER WOMEN TO SUCKLE

4.0 AT SAME TIME THAT CHURCH PRAISED CONTINENCE

5. IT ATTACHED GREAT IMPORTANCE TO OTHER PAULINE THESES

a. CONJUGAL DUTY

b. OBLIGATION OF PARTNERS TO SATISFY EACH OTHER';S PASSIONS AS REMEDY AGAINST CONCUPISCENCE

6.0 MOST PENITENTIALS PRESCRIBED ABSTINENCE FROM SEX DURING LENT

7. FINNIAN PENITENTIAL RECOMMENDED CONTINENCE FOR 3 40-DAY PERIODS

8. AS WELL AS SATURDAY OR SUNDAY

9. OTHERS ADDED NO SEX ON WEDNESDAY & FRIDAY

10. DURING ADVENT, PENTECOST

11. DURING FEAST DAYS & VIGILS & BEFORE & AFTER COMMUNION

12. INTENT NOT TO LIMIT FERTILITY BUT TO PREVENT IMMORALITY

13. SEX ALSO TO BE SHUNNED DURING WIFE'S PREGNANCY

14. OR AT LEAST FOR LAST 3 MONTHS

15. & FOR 40 DAYS AFTER BIRTH

16. PENITENTIAL OF THEODORE WENT SO FAR AS TO DECLARE THAT

a. HUSBAND OUGHT NOT TO SEE HIS WIFE NUDE

17.0 GENERALLY FORBIDDEN ALL BUT MISSIONARY POSITION

a. AS BELIEVED MOST FAVORABLE FOR CONCEPTION

18.0 WHOLE SPECTRUM OF PENALTIES APPLIED TO FORNICATION

19. MORE SEVERE FOR CLERIC THAN LAYMAN

20. ALSO HAD TO TAKE ACCOUNT OF OTHER CONDITIONS

a. WAS WOMAN VIRGIN?

b. WAS SHE NEIGHBOR'S WIFE?

21.0 FORNICATION WITH WIDOW DREW 1 YR PENANCE

22. WITH GIRL 2 YRS

23. PROSTITUTION LIKE CONTRACEPTION IS NEVER MENTIONED IN EARLY PENITENTIALS

24. APPARENTLY LITTLE PRACTICED IN LARGELY RURAL ENVIRONMENT OF EARLY MIDDLE AGES

P.0 WOMEN & MAGIC

1. TACITUS OBSERVED THAT GERMANS

a. BELIEF THAT [FEMININE] SEX HAS CERTAIN SANCTITY & PROPHETIC GIFT & THEY NEITHER DESPISE THEIR COUNSELS NOR DISPARAGE THEIR ANSWERS

2.0 NORTHERN BARBARIANS CULTIVATED MUCH RICHER CULTURE OF MAGIC THAN DID MEDITERRANEAN PEOPLES

3. WOMEN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL SOCIETY RETAINED SPECIAL AFFINITY TO MAGICAL ARTS

4. CONTINUAL ADMONITIONS BY VARIOUS CHURCH COUNCILS

5. INDICATE GERMANIC WOMEN CONTINUED MANY OF THEIR PRACTICES EVEN AFTER CHRISTIANIZED

a. COUNCIL OF BRAGA 579 DOES NOT ALLOW IN COLLECTION OF HERBS THAT ARE MEDICINAL THAT ANY PRACTICE OR INCANTATIONS BE USED BUT ONLY CHRISTIAN PRAYERS

6.0 IN LATE 9TH C PARISH PRIEST TOLD TO INVESTIGATE FOLLOWING

7. INQUIRY IS TO BE MADE WHETHER THERE IS ANY WOMAN WHO THROUGH CERTAIN SPELLS & INCANTATIONS IS AID TO BE ABLE TO CHANGE MINDS OF MEN, THAT IS MOVE THEM FROM HATE TO LOVE OR FROM LOVE TO HATE: OR CAN DAMAGE OR CARRY OFF THE PROPERTIES OF MEN. INQUIRY WHETHER THERE IS ONE WHO SAYS THAT TOGETHER WITH A CROWD OF DEMONS TRANSFORMED INTO WOMEN SHE RIDES AT NIGHT ON CERTAIN BEASTS AND IS NUMBERED IN THEIR COMPANY. SUCH A WOMAN BY ALL MEANS SHOULD BE EXPELLED FORM THE PARISH

8. APPARENTLY PAGAN GODDESS DIANA OFTEN LED WOMEN AS THEY FLEW ABOUT AT NIGHT ON BACKS OF BEASTS

9. WOMAN ALSO KNEW HOW TO MIX POISONS

a. A WOMAN IF SHE KILLS ANY PERSONS BY MAGICAL ART, THAT IS BY DRINK OR BY ANY CRAFT, LET HER DO PENANCE FOR 7 YEARS. BUT IF SHE IS POOR, FOUR YEARS






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