A comparison of British and French Military Identity and Organization during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Timothy Paul Candlish Phd university of York History March 2012



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Peninsular Preparation, 151.

0 John Fortescue, A History of the British Army, vol. 4 (London: Macmillan, 1915), 889.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 101.

0 Firebrace, Rawlings, Fraser Fencible Regiment, 3.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 59.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 1.

0 Ibid, 64-65.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 41.

0 Innes Munro, A narrative of the military operations, on the Coromandel coast, against the combined forces of the French, Dutch, and Hyder Ally Cawn, from the year 1780 to the peace in 1784 (London: T. Bensley, 1789), 71.

0 Ibid, 39-40.

0 Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the rise of the West 1500-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 35.

0 Stephen Brumwell, Redcoats: The British Soldier and the War in the Americas, 1755-1763 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 287.

0David Stewart, Sketches of the Highlanders, vol. 1, 399-400

0 P. Doddridge, “Appendix III, An Account of some remarkable particulars concerning the ancient family of the Munroes of Fowlis,” in Some remarkable passages in the life of the honourable Colonel James Gardiner , who was slain at the Battle of Prestonpans, September 21 1745 (Edinburgh: 1807), 248-249.

0 Ernest Gellner, Nationalism (London: Phoenix, 1998), 35.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 44-45.

0 Joseph Donaldson, Recollections of the eventful life of a soldier, 46.

0 Archibald Clerk, Memoir of Colonel John Cameron, Fassiefern, K.T.S., lieutenant-colonel of the Gordon Highlanders, or 92nd Regiment of Foot (Glasgow: Murray, 1858), 20-21.

0 Ibid, 21-22.

0 Dziennik, ‘Through an Imperial Prism,” 332.

0 Ibid, 333.

0 Burt, Letters of a Gentleman in the North of Scotland vol. 2, 270-271.

0 Dziennik, ‘Through an Imperial Prism,’ 339.

0 Ibid, 349.

0 Clerk, Memoir of Colonel John Cameron, 28.

0Dziennik, “Through an Imperial Prism,”, 349-351.

0 Andrew Mackillop, “The Political Culture of the Scottish Highlands from Culloden to Waterloo,” The Historical Journal 46, no. 3 (2003), 516-517.

0 J. E. Cookson, “Early Nineteenth-Century Scottish Military Pensioners as Homecoming Soldiers,” The Historical Journal 52, no. 2 (2009), 323-324.

0 Ibid, 336.

0 Daniel Nicol, “With Abercrombie and Moore in Egypt. From the unpublished diary of Sergeant Daniel Nicol,” in With Napoleon at Waterloo: and other unpublished documents of the Peninsular campaigns, Mackenzie Macbride and Edward Bruce Low, (London: Griffiths, 1911), 30.

0 Glover, Peninsular Preparation, 177-179.

0 Prebble, Mutiny, 50-51.

0 Dziennik, “The Greatest Number walked out,’ 31.

0 Ibid, 118-121.

0 Ibid, 184-185.

0 Ibid, 496-500.

0Trevor-Roper, Invention of Scotland, 196.

0 Burt, Edward, Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, vol. 2, 86.

0Trevor-Roper, The Invention of Scotland, 199

0 Ibid, 200.

0 Ibid, 208.

0 Prebble, Mutiny, 163.

0 Ian Scobie, An Old Highland Fencible Corps: the History of the Reay Fencible Regiment of Foot, or Mackay’s Highlanders, 1794-1802, with an Account of its Services in Ireland during the Rebellion of 1798 (London: Blackwood, 1914), 43-44.

0 Scott, The Response of the French Royal Army to the French Revolution, 6

0 Ibid, 12-13

0 Scott, “Regeneration of the French Line Army,” 309.

0 M O Báille, “The Buannadha: Irish Professional Soldiery of the Sixteenth Century,” Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society 22, no. 1/2 (1946), 53-55.

0 Mary Ann Lyons, Thomas O’Connor, Strangers to Citizens: The Irish in Europe, 1600-1800 (Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 2008), 12-14.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 23-24.

0 Ibid, 67.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 11-12.

0 Matthew O’Conor, A Military History of the Irish Nation, comprising a memoir of the Irish Brigade in the service of France, (Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1845), 98-99.

0 Ibid, 99-104.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 630.

0 Ibid, 142.

0 Shepherd, Ireland’s Fate, 188; O’Callaghan, 157.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 601.

0 Shepherd, Ireland’s Fate, 190.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 162-164.

0 Ibid, 598-599.

0Ibid, 608-609.

0 Ibid, 630.

0 Ibid, 633

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 8.

0 Ibid, 27.

0 Thomas Emmet, Memoir of Thomas Addis Emmet and Robert Emmet, vol. 1 (New York: the Emmet Press, 1915), 377.

0 Thomas Bartlett, “Miles Byrne: United Irishman, Irish Exile, and Beau Sabreur,” in The Mighty Wave, the 1798 Rebellion in Wexford, eds Dáire Keogh and Nicholas Furlong (Blackrock: Four Courts, 1998), 120.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 1, 6-7.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 10.

0 Ibid, 30-31.

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 33-34.

0 Byrne Memoirs, vol. 2, 37.

0 Ibid, 40.

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 78.

0 Ibid, 92.

0 Ibid, 111.

0 Gould, Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars, 34-35.

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 174-175.

0 Gould, Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars, 58-59.

0 Mike Chapell, The King’s German Legion (1) 1803-1812 (Botley: Osprey, 2000), 10

0 Robert Grouvel, Les Corps de Troupe l’emigration Francaise 1789-1815 (Paris: Les editions de la Sabretache, 1957), 9-16.

0 Ibid, 345-349.

0 Thomas Bartlett, ‘Clemency and compensation: the treatment of defeated rebels and suffering loyalists after the 1798 rebellion,’ in Revolution, Counter-Revolution, and Union, Ireland in the 1790s, Jim Smyth ed., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 100.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 238-239.

0 Lyons, O’Connor, Strangers to Citizens, 15.

0 Charles Royster, A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775-1783 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979), 14.

0Catriona Kennedy, ‘True Brittons and Real Irish’: Irish Catholics in the British Army during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars,’ Catriona Kennedy and Matthew McCormack, eds, Soldiering in Britain and Ireland, 1750-1850 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013), 43-44.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, xvi-xvii.

0 Ibid, 5-10.

0 Miles Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 1, 34-35.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 235.

0 Miles Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 1, 180.

0 Gilbert Burnet, History of My Own Time, Vol. IV (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1833), 145.

0 Cookson, The British Armed Nation 1793-1815, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), 11.

0 Kennedy, ‘True Brittons and Real Irish’, 40.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 3, 341-342.

0 Peter Drake, Amiable Renegade, the Memoirs of Captain Peter Drake (London: Oxford University Press, 1960), 60-61.

0 William Daunt, The Life and Times of Daniel O’Connell, vol. 1 (Dublin: Mullany, 1867), 117.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 367.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 3, 239.

0 Gould, Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars, 36.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 634.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 454-456.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 2, 87.

0 William Tone, ed., Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone, vol. 2 (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1826), 514.

0 Thomas Pakenham, The Year of Liberty, the Great Irish Rebellion of 1789 (London: Hodder and Staughton, 1969), 29.

0 Guy Dempsey, Napoleon’s Mercenaries: foreign units in the French army under the Consulate and Empire, 1799- 1814, (London: Greenhill, 2002), 181.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 335-337; Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 42.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 2, 91-92.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 351-352

0 Shepherd, Ireland’s Fate, 188.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 358-359.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 1, 94.

0 Eugène Fieffé, Histoire des troupes étrangères au service de France (Paris: Dumaine, 1854), 186.

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 41-42.

0 Elting, Swords around a Throne, 346.

0 Byrne, Memoirs, vol. 2, 12.

0 Ibid, vol. 2, 37-38.

0 Napoleon Bonaparte, Correspondance de la Napoléon 1er, vol. 16, 341.

0 Edward Fraser, The war drama of the Eagles, Napoleon’s standard-bearers on the battlefield in victory and defeat from Austerlitz to Waterloo (London: Murray, 1912), 51.

0 Elliott, Partners in Revolution, 350.

0 Tom Bartlett, ‘Last Flight of the Wild Geese’: Napoleon Bonaparte’s Irish Legion 1803-1815’, in T. O’Connor , and M. Lyons, The Irish in Europe 1600-1850 (2006), 164.
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