A comparison of British and French Military Identity and Organization during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Timothy Paul Candlish Phd university of York History March 2012



Download 1.13 Mb.
Page45/46
Date conversion21.02.2016
Size1.13 Mb.
1   ...   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 84.

0 Mingay, English Landed Society in the Eighteenth Century, 7.

0 Carl B. Cone, The English Jacobins: Reformers in Late Eighteenth Century England (New York: Scribners, 1968), 6-7.

0 Anthony Page, John Jebb and the Enlightenment Origins of British Radicalism (London: Praegar, 2003), 196.

0 E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (London: Penguin, 1980), 662.

0 J. R. Dinwiddy, Radicalism and Reform in Britain 1780-1850 (London: Hambledon, 1992), 126-129.

0 Robert Hamilton, Duties of a Regimental Surgeon considered, vol. 2 (London: Longman, 1794), 65-66.

0 Cormac Lowth, ‘The One-legged Sailor and the King,’ Dublin Historical Record vol. 58, no. 2 (2005), 196.

0 Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 43.

0 Ditchfield, George III, an essay in monarchy, 161.

0 Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 37.

0 Ibid, 36.

0 Ibid, 19-20.

0 Kevin Linch, The Recruitment of the British Army 1807-1815, PhD, University of Leeds, October 2001, 24-25.

0 Ibid, 231-233.

0 Herbert, The Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 1.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, xxi.

0 Glover, Wellington’s Army in the Peninsula, 30-31.

0 Hall, British Strategy in the Napoleonic War, 3.

0 Matthew P Dziennik, “Through an Imperial Prism: Land, Liberty, and Highland Loyalism during the American War of Independence,” The Journal of British Studies 50, no. 2 (2011), 351.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 231-232.

0 Christine Wright, Wellington’s Men in Australia, Peninsular War veterans and the making of Empire c. 1820-40, (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 21-24.

0 J. E Cookson, “Early Nineteenth-century Scottish military pensioners as homecoming soldiers,” The Historical Journal 52, no. 2 (2009), 321.

0 Ibid, 332-336.

0 Wright, Wellington’s Men in Australia, 15-16.

0 Glover, Wellington’s Army in the Peninsula , 36- 37.

0 C. A. Stevens, ‘The Rifle Brigade 1800 to c.1870:A Study of Social, Cultural, and Religious Attitudes’, PhD (University of Sheffield, 1996), 53-54.

0 Barnett, Britain and her army, 237.

0 Catriona Kennedy, ‘John Bull into Battle: Military Masculinity and the British Army Officer during the Napoleonic Wars,’ in Hagemann, Karen, Mettele, Gisela, and Rendall, Jane, eds., Gender, War, and Politics, Transatlantic Perspectives, 1775-1830, (Palgrave, 2010), 134.

0 Lawrence James, Warrior Race: a History of the British at War (London: Abacus, 2002), 319.

0 Karl Demeter, The German Officer Corps in Society and State, 1650-1945, (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965), 279.

0 Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 42.

0 Robert B. Shoemaker, Gender in English Society: the Emergence of Separate Spheres (London: Longman, 1998), 29.

0 Matthew McCormack, ‘Dance and Drill, Polite Accomplishments and Military Masculinities in Georgian Britain,’ Cultural and Social History 8, 3 (2011), 319-322.

0 Duffy, The Military Experience in the Age of Reason (London: Kegan and Paul, 1987), 77.

0 Stephen Banks, “Killing with Courtesy: The English Duelist, 1785-1845,” The Journal of British Studies vol. 45, no. 3 (2008), 532-533.

0 Duffy, The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 77.

0 Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 28-30.

0 Haythornthwaite, The Armies of Wellington, 24.

0 Corelli Barnett, “The Education of Military Elites,” Journal of Contemporary History vol. 2, no. 3 (1967), 18.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 240.

0 Stevens, ‘The Rifle Brigade’, 110-112.

0 Glover, Wellington’s Army in the Peninsula, 38.

0 Haythornthwaite, The Armies of Wellington, 29.

0 Donaldson, The Eventful Life of a Soldier, 66

0 Patricia Y C E Lin, “Caring for the Nation’s Families: British soldiers’ and sailors’ families and the State, 1793-1815”, in Soldiers, Citizens, and Civilians, Experiences and Perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1790-1820, eds Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann, and Jane Rendall, (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 109.

0 F. C. Page, Following the Drum: Women in Wellington’s Wars (London: Andre Deutsch, 1986), 26-27.

0 Mary Catherine Derby, ed., A great man’s friendship; letters of the Duke of Wellington to Mary, marchioness of Salisbury, 1850-1852 (New York: Payson and Clarke, 1927), 110.

0 Herbert, Rifleman Harris, 98-99.

0 Edward Costello, Rifleman Costello: The Adventures of a Soldier of the 95th Rifles in the Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars (Leonaur, 2005), 159.

0 Donaldson, The Eventful Life of a Soldier, 60.

0 Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, ‘The republican gentleman: the race to rhetorical stability in the new United States’, in Masculinities in Politics and War, Gendering Modern History, eds Stefan Dudink, Karen Hagemann, John Tosh, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), 63-65.

0Matthew McCormack, The Independent Man, citizenship and gender politics in Georgian England, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), 34.

0 Stevens, ‘The Rifle Brigade’, 57-60.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 122.

0 Tony Hayter, The Army and the Crowd in mid-Georgian England (Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978), 9-11.

0 Ibid, 27.

0 Mike Jay’s The Unfortunate Colonel Despard is a useful resource.

0 Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, 525-527.

0 Marianne Elliott, Robert Emmett, the making of a Legend (London: Profile, 2003), 47.

0 Mike Jay, The Unfortunate Colonel Despard (London: Bantam, 2004), 225-226.

0 Ibid, 201-202.

0 Ibid, 183.

0 Ibid, 284.

0 Albert Goodwin, The Friends of Liberty, the English Democratic movement in the age of the French Revolution (London: Hutchinson, 1979), 441.

0 Beckett, Britain’s part-time Soldiers, 72.

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 61.

0 Pichichero, ‘Le Soldat Sensible’, 556.

0 Gilette Ziegler, The Court of Versailles (London: Allen and Unwin, 1966) 109-110.

0 Cornille de Bontin, Les Volontaires Nationaux et le recrutement de l’armée pendant la Revolution dans L’Yonne (Auxerre : Imprimerie Albert Gallot, 1813), 8.

0 Jacques Guibert, Le soldat citoyen, ou Vues patriotiques sur la maniere la plus avantageuse de pourvoir a la defense du royaume (Neufchatel: 1780), 48-49.

0 Ibid, 38.

0 Ibid, 49-50.

0 Schama, Citizens, 750

0 Blaufarb, The French Army 1750-1820, 81-82.

0 Ibid, 108-109.

0 J P Bertaud, The Army of the French Revolution, 88.

0 Ibid, 115-121.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 34.

0 Schama, Citizens, 374.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 10-11.

0 Richard Cobb, The French and their Revolution (London: Murray, 1998), 12.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 12.

0 Bertaud, The Army of the French Revolution 223-225

0 Martyn Lyons, France under the Directory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), 152.

0 J Staes, ‘Lettres de soldats béarnais de la Révolution et du Premier Empire’, in Revue de Pau et du Béarn, No. 8, 1980, 151-152.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 114-115.

0 Ibid, 119.

0 Robert Palmer, Twelve who Ruled: the year of the Terror in the French Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970), 181-184.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 141.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 20-23.

0 Palmer, Twelve who Ruled, 8.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 21.

0 Francois Furet, Revolutionary France 1770-1880 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 8.

0 Besenval, Memoires du Baron de Besenval, 189.

0 Duffy, The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 37.

0 Lynn, Giant of the Grand Siècle, 228.

0 Samuel F Scott, “Gentlemen Soldiers at the time of the French Revolution,” Military Affairs 45, no. 3 (1981), 106-7.

0 Bien, “The Army in the French Enlightenment,” 77.

0 Schama, Citizens, 32.

0 Ibid, 47.

0 Cobb, The French and their Revolution, 259.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 122.

0 John. A Lynn, “Towards an Army of Honour: The Moral Evolution of the French Army 1789-1815,” French Historical Studies 16, no. 1 (1989), 153-154.

0 Michael J Hughes, “Making Frenchmen into Warriors: Martial Masculinity in Napoleonic France, in French Masculinities, History, Culture, and Politics, eds. Christopher E Forth and Bertrand Taithe (London: Palgrave, 2007), 54-55.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 57.

0 Ibid, 72.

0 Ibid, 178-179.

0 Anne C Vila, “Elite Masculinities in Eighteenth Century France,” in French Masculinities, History, Culture, and Politics, Christopher E Forth and Bertrand Taithe, eds. (London: Palgrave, 2007), 22-25.

0 Ibid, 62.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 53.

0 David Hopkin, “The World turned upside down: Female Soldiers in the French armies of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars,” in French Masculinities, History, Culture, and Politics, Christopher E Forth and Bertrand Taithe, eds. (London: Palgrave, 2007), 79.

0 Frank Hamel, A Woman of the Revolution, Theroigne de Mericourt (New York: Brentano’s, 1911), 278-279.

0 Alan Forrest, ‘Citizenship, Honour, and Masculinity: Military Qualities under the French Revolution and Empire,’ Gender War, and Politics, 101.

0 Joan B Landes, “Republican Citizenship and heterosocial desire: concepts of masculinity in Revolutionary France”, French Masculinities, History, Culture, and Politics,109.

0 Thomas Cardoza, “Habits Appropriate to her Sex’: the Female Military Experience in France during the Age of Revolution,’ Gender, War, and Politics, 190.

0 Elting, Swords around a Throne, 606-613.

0 Cardoza, “Habits Appropriate to her Sex’, Gender, War, and Politics, 193-194.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 50.

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 37.

0 Ibid, 67.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 137-138.

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 55-56.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 153-154

0 Elting, Swords around a Throne, 616.

0 Jacques Hebert, ‘The Great Joy of Père Duchesne,’ Le Père Duchesne, http://www.marxists.org/history/france/Revolution/hebert/1793/pere-duchesne.htm, (accessed October 7 2011).

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 84.

0 Ibid, 81.

0 Ibid, 77.

0 Palmer, Twelve who Ruled, 95.

0 Jacques Hébert, ‘The Great Preparations of Père Duchesne’, http://www.marxists.org/history/france/Revolution/hebert/1793/preparations.htm, (accessed October 21 2011).

0 Forrest, The Soldiers of the French Revolution, 114-115.

0 Weston Phipps, The Armies of the First French Republic vol. 1, 30.

0 Schama, Citizens, 764.

0 Wilkinson, French army before Napoleon, 137.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 216.

0 Ibid, 218.

0 J. David Markham, Imperial Glory, The Bulletins of Napoleon’s Grande Armée (London: Greenhill, 2003), 9-10.

0 Ibid, 55-58.

0 Norman Hampson, Saint-Just (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), 77-78.

0 Owen Connolly, ‘A Critique of John Lynn’s “Toward an Army of Honor: the Moral Evolution of the French Army, 1789-1815”, French Historical Studies 16, no. 1 (1989), 175-176.

0 Carl von Clausewitz, trans J. Graham, On War, vol I, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1946/1946-h/1946-h.htm#2HCH0018, accessed November 20th 2012.

0 Heather Streets’ Martial Races, the military race and masculinity in British imperial culture 1857-1914 is very useful in understanding underlying concepts and general thought.

0 Roberts, Clan, King, and Covenant, 11.

0 John Prebble, Mutiny, Highland Regiments in Revolt, (London: Secker and Warburg, 1975), 22.

0 V. G. Kiernan, “Foreign Mercenaries and Absolute Monarchy,” Past and Present no. 11, (1957), 70.

0 Roberts, Clan, King, and Covenant, 10.

0 Edward Burt, Letters of a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, vol. 2 (London: Ogle, 1822), 270.

0 Roberts, Clan, King, and Covenant, 12.

0 Samuel Johnson, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (London: Strahan, 1791), 153-54.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 41.

0 Dziennik, ‘Through an Imperial Prism,’ 336.

0 Ibid, 22.

0 Prebble, Mutiny, 23.

0 Ibid, 27.

0 Burt, Edward, Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, Vol. 2, 24.

0 Ibid, vol. 1, 51-52.

0 Margaret Sankey and Daniel Szechi, “Elite Culture and the Decline of Scottish Jacobitism 1716-1745,” Past & Present, no. 173 ( 2001), 94.

0 Mackillop. More Fruitful than the Soil, 13.

0 Sankey, Szechi, ‘Elite Culture and the Decline of Scottish Jacobitism,’ 94.

0 Roberts, Clan, King, and Covenant, 5.

0 Ibid, 12.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 24.

0 James, Warrior Race, 333-334.

0 Matthew Dziennik, ‘The Greatest Number walked out,; Imperial Conflict and the contractual basis of Highland society in the early highland regiments,’ in Catriona Kennedy and Matthew McCormack, eds., Soldiering in Britain and Ireland, 1750-1850 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013), 20.

0 Stephen Conway, “War and National Identity in the Mid-eighteenth century British Isles,” The English Historical Review 116, no. 468 (2001), 866.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 141.

0 Andrew Mackillop, “Continuity, Coercion, and Myth: The Recruitment of Highland Regiments in the Later Eighteenth Century,” The Historical Journal 46, no. 3 (2003), 34.

0 Robert Gould, Mercenaries of the Napoleonic Wars (Brighton: Tom Donovan, 1995), 59-60.

0 Mackillop, “Continuity, Coercion, and Myth’, 31-32.

0 Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil, 58-59.

0 Dziennik, ‘The Greatest Number walked out,’, Soldiering in Britain and Ireland, 23.

0 John Firebrace and Alan Rawlings, His Majesty’s Fraser Fencible Regiment of Foot 1794-1802, (Southsea: by the Authors, 1993), 7.

0 Trevor-Roper, The Invention of Scotland, 209.

0 Glover,
1   ...   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page