A comparison of British and French Military Identity and Organization during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Timothy Paul Candlish Phd university of York History March 2012



Download 1.13 Mb.
Page44/46
Date conversion21.02.2016
Size1.13 Mb.
1   ...   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46

Online Articles


Hadaway, Stuart. “Injurious to the Service at Large.’ The Regimental School System and Education in the British Army in the Napoleonic Era”, http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rgtschool1.html, accessed 15 October 2012.

Muzásm, Luis Sorando, trans Caroline Miley. “Trophies Taken by the British from the Napoleonic Army during the War of Spanish Independence (Peninsular War 1808-1814, http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/battles/c_capturedflags.html#3, accessed 15 October 2012.


Journal Articles

Báille, M O. “The Buannadha: Irish Professional Soldiery of the Sixteenth Century.” Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society 22, no. 1/2 (1946): 49-94.


Banks, Stephen. “Killing with Courtesy: The English Duellist, 1785-1845. The Journal of British Studies 45, no. 3, (2008): 528-558.
Barnett, Corelli. “The Education of Military Elites” Journal of Contemporary History 2, no. 3 (1967): 15-35.
Bell, David A., “The Unbearable Lightness of Being French: Law, Republicanism and National Identity at the End of the Old Regime.” The American Historical Review 106, no. 4 (2001): 1215-1235.
Bertaud, Jean-Paul. “Napoleon’s Officers.” Past and Present no. 112 (1986): 91-111.
Bertaud, Jean-Paul. The Army of the French Revolution: from citizen-soldiers to instrument of power. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Bien, David D. “The Army in the French Enlightenment. Reform, Reaction, and Revolution.” Past and Present, no. 85 (1979): 68-98.
Brown, Howard G. “Politics, Professionalism, and the Fate of Army Generals after Thermidor.” French Historical Studies 19, no. 1 (1995): 133-152.
Colley, Linda. “The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British Nation 1760-1820.” Past and Present no. 102 (1984): 94-129.
Colley, Linda. “The Politics of Eighteenth-Century British History.” The Journal of British Studies 25, no. 4 (1986): 359 379.
Connolly, Owen. “A Critique of John Lynn’s “Toward an Army of Honor: the Moral Evolution of the French Army, 1789-1815”, French Historical Studies 16, no. 1 (1989), 174-179.
Conway, Stephen. “War and National Identity in the Mid-Eighteenth century British Isles.” The English Historical Review 116, no. 468 (2001): 863-893.
Cookson, John E. “Early Nineteenth-century Scottish military pensioners as homecoming soldiers.” The Historical Journal 52, no. 2 (2009): 319-341.
Cookson, John E. “The English Volunteer Movement of the French Wars, 1793-1815: Some Contexts.” The Historical Journal 32, no. 4 (1989): 867-891.
Coss, Edward J. All for the King’s Shilling: the British Soldier under Wellington 1808-1814. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.
Dziennik, Matthew P. “Through an Imperial Prism: Land, Liberty, and Highland loyalism in the American War of Independence.” The Journal of British Studies 50, no. 2 (2011): 332-358.
Dennery, Etienne. “Democracy and the French Army.” Military Affairs 5, no. 4 (1941): 233-240.
Epstein, Robert M. “Patterns of Change and Continuity in Nineteenth-Century Warfare.” The Journal of Military History 56, no. 3 (1992): 375-388.
Erickson, Arvel B. “Abolition of Purchase in the British Army.” Military Affairs 23, no. 2 (1959): 65-76.
Gilbert, Arthur N. “A Tale of Two Regiments: Manpower and Effectiveness in British Military Units during the Napoleonic Wars,” Armed Forces and Society 9 (1982-83): 275-292.
Grew, Raymond., Harrigan, Patrick J., Whitney, James. “The Availability of Schooling in Nineteenth-Century France.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14, no. 1 (1983): 25-63.
Gooch, Brison D. “A Commentary on the Napoleonic Legend.” Military Affairs 30, no. 4 (1966-1967): 199-206.
Harling, Philip, “The Duke of York Affair (1809) and the Complexities of War-Time Patriotism.” The Historical Journal 39, no. 4 (1996): 963-984.
Hay, Douglas. “Crime and Justice in 18th and 19th Century England.” Crime and Justice 2, (1980): 45-84.
Houston, Robert Allan. “British Society in the Eighteenth Century.” The Journal of British Studies 25, no.4 (1986): 436-466.
Hyatt, A. M. J. “The Origins of Napoleonic Warfare: A Survey of Interpretations.” Military Affairs 30, no. 4 (1966-1967): 177-185.
Kiernan, V. G. “Foreign Mercenaries and Absolute Monarchy.” Past and Present no. 11, (1957): 66-86.
Lowth, Cormac. “The One-Legged Sailor and the King.” Dublin Historical Record 58, no. 2 (2005): 195-207.
Lynn, John A. “French Opinion and the Military Resurrection of the Pike, 1792-1794.” Military Affairs 41, no.1 (1977): 1-7.
Lynn, John. A., “Towards an Army of Honour: The Moral Evolution of the French Army, 1789-1815.” French Historical Studies 16, no. 1 (1989) 152-173.
Mackillop, Andrew. “Continuity, Coercion and Myth: The Recruitment of Highland Regiments in the Later Eighteenth Century.” Scottish Tradition 26, (2001): 30-55.
Mackillop, Andrew. “The Political Culture of the Scottish Highlands from Culloden to Waterloo.” The Historical Journal 46, no. 3 (2003): 511-532.
Mathews, Joseph J. “Napoleon’s Military Bulletins.” The Journal of Modern History 22, no. 2 (1950): 137-144.
McCormack, Matthew. “Dance and Drill, Polite Accomplishments and Military Masculinities in Georgian Britain.” Cultural and Social History 8, 3 (2011), 315-330.
Mitchell, Harvey, “Resistance to the Revolution in Western France.” Past and Present no. 63 (1974): 94-131.
Palmer, Robert R. “The National Idea in France before the Revolution.” Journal of the History of Ideas 1, no. 1 (1940): 95-111.
Paret, Peter. “Nationalism and the Sense of Military Obligation.” Military Affairs 34, no. 1 (1970): 2-6.
Pichichero, Christy. “Le Soldat Sensible: Military Psychology and Social Egalitarianism in the Enlightenment French Army,” French Historical Studies 31, 4 (2008), 553-580.
Sankey, Margaret and Szechi, Daniel. “Elite Culture and the Decline of Scottish Jacobitism 1716-1745.” Past & Present, no. 173 (2001): 90-128.
Scott, Samuel F. “Gentlemen Soldiers at the time of the French Revolution.” Military Affairs 45, no. 3 (1981): 105-108.
Scott, Samuel F. “The Regeneration of the Line Army during the French Revolution.” The Journal of Modern History 42, no. 3 (1970): 307-330.
Senelick, Laurence. “Mollies or Men of Mode? Sodomy and the Eighteenth-Century London Stage.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 1, no. 1 (1990): 33-67.
Staes, J. “Lettres de soldats béarnais de la Révolution et du Premier Empire,” in Revue de Pau et du Béarn, No. 8, (1980), 151-165.
Woolf, Stuart. “The Construction of a European World-View in the Revolutionary-Napoleonic Years.” Past and Present no. 137 (1992):72-101.

1 Basil Liddell Hart, ed, The Letters of Private Wheeler 1809-1828, (London: Michael Joseph, 1951).

2 Yuval Noah Harari, The Ultimate Experience: Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450-2000 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2008); Neil Ramsey, The Military Memoir and Romantic Literary Culture, 1780-1835 (Farnham, Ashgate, 2011).

3 Christopher Herbert, ed., Recollections of Rifleman Harris (London: Cassel, 2006).

4 Thomas Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, or Highland Light Infantry, from 1806 to 1815 (Edinburgh: Tait, 1819).

5 Joseph Donaldson, Recollections of the Eventful Life of a Soldier (Philadelphia: G.B. Zeiber, 1845).

6 Jakob Walter, The Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier (Adlestrop: Windrush, 1991).

7 Elzear Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, (New York: Sturgis and Walton, 1911).

8 J. R. Coignet, Les Cahiers du Capitaine Coignet, publiés d’après le manuscrit original par Lorédan Larchey (Paris: Le Livre Club du Libraire, 1957).

9 Adrien Bourgogne, Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne, 1812-1813 (New York : Doubleday and Maclure, 1899).

10 Ramsay Weston-Phipps, The Armies of the First French Republic, Vol I. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1926).

11 Samuel F. Scott, The Response of the French Royal Army to the French Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).

12 Spenser Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon (Oxford: Clarendon, 1915).

13 Paddy Griffith, The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789-1802 (London: Greenhill, 1998).

14 Georges Blond, La Grande Armée (London : Arms and Armour, 1995).

15 Andrew Uffindell, Napoleon’s Immortals, the Imperial Guard and its Battles 1804-1815 (Stroud: Spellmount, 2007).

16 Rory Muir, Tactics and the Experiences of Battle in the Age of Napoleon (London: Yale University Press, 1998).

17 John R. Elting, Swords around a Throne: Napoleon’s Grande Armée (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989).

18 Michael Broers, Europe under Napoleon 1799-1815 (London, Arnold, 1996).

19 John Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic (Oxford: Westview, 1996).

20 J. P. Bertaud, The Army of the French Revolution: from citizen-soldiers to instrument of power (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).

21 Alan Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, The Soldiers of the Revolution and Empire (London: Hambledon and London, 2002).

22 Correlli Barnett, Britain and her Army (London: Penguin, 1970).

23 J. A. Houlding, Fit for Service: the Training of the British Army, 1715-1795 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981).

24 Richard Glover, Peninsular Preparation: the Reform of the British Army 1795-1809 (Cambridge: Ken Trotman, 1988).

25 Edward J, Coss, All for the King’s Shilling: the British Soldier under Wellington 1808-1814 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010).

26 David French, Military Identities:, the Regimental System, the British Army, and the British People c.1870-2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) ; Heather Streets, Martial Races; The military, race, and masculinity in British imperial culture, 1857-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005).

27 Ian F. W. Beckett, Britain’s Part-Time Soldiers, the Amateur Military Tradition 1558-1945 (Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 2011).

28 Kevin Linch, ‘A Citizen and not a Soldier’: the British Volunteer Movement and the War against Napoleon,’ in Soldiers, Citizens, and Civilian, Experiences and Perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1790-1820, eds Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann, and Jane Rendall (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

29 Alfred H Burne, The Noble Duke of York, the military life of Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (London: Staples, 1949).

30 Allan W. Berry, The West Suffolk Militia 1778-1802 (Colchester: by the Author, 1992).

31 John Firebrace and Alan Rawlings, His Majesty’s Fraser Fencible Regiment of Foot, 1794-1802 (Southsea: By the Authors, 1993).

32 Anthony Bruce, The Purchase System in the British Army (London: Royal Historical Society, 1980).

33 John Cornelius O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigade in the Service of France (Glasgow: Cameron and Ferguson, 1885).

34 Robert Shepherd, Ireland’s Fate,the Boyne and after (London: Aurum, 1990).

35 John Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993).

36 Marianne Elliott, Partners in Revolution, (London: Yale University Press, 1982).

37 John Prebble, Mutiny, Highland Regiments in Revolt (London: Secker and Warburg, 1975).

38 Hugh Trevor-Roper, The Invention of Scotland (London: Yale University Press, 2008).

39 Edward Burt, Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, Vols 1-2 (London: Ogle, 1822).

40 Andrew Mackillop, More Fruitful than the Soil: Army, Empire, and the Scottish Highlands 1715-1815 (East Linton: Tuckwell, 2000).

41 Christopher D. Hall, British Strategy in the Napoleonic War: 1803-1815 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996).

42 Gunther E. Rothenberg, The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon (London: Batsford, 1978).

43 Brian Bond, The Pursuit of Victory: From Napoleon to Saddam Hussein (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

44 Ugo Pericoli, 1815: The Armies at Waterloo (London: Sphere, 1973).

45 Victor E. Neuberg, Popular Education in Eighteenth Century England (London: Woburn, 1971), 2.

46 E.G West, Education and the Industrial Revolution (London: Batsford, 1975), 63-64

47 Ibid, 75.

48 P. W. Musgrave, Society and Education in England since 1800 (London, 1968), 7.

49 Philip McCann, Popular Education and Socialization in the Nineteenth Century (London: Methuen, 1977), 17.

50 Neuberg, Popular Education in 18th Century England, 9-10.

51 Ibid, 11.

52 McCann, Popular Education and Socialization, 19.

53 Neuberg, Popular Education in 18th Century England, 104.

54 Ibid, 105.

55 John Lough, The Philosophes and Post-Revolutionary France (Oxford: Clarendon, 1982), 244.

56 James Livesey, Making Democracy in the French Revolution (London, Harvard University Press, 2001), 173.

57 Raymond Grew, Patrick J. Harrigan and James Whitney, “The Availability of Schooling in Nineteenth-Century France,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14, no. 1 (1983), 39.

58 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 49.

59 Firebrace and Rawlings, His Majesty’s Fraser Fencible Regiment, 26.


0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 17.

0 Ibid, 44.

0 Charles Clode, The Military Forces of the Crown, their Administration and Government, Vol. I. (London: John Murray, 1869), 274.

0 Kevin Linch, Britain and Wellington’s Army: Recruitment, Society, and Tradition, 1807-15 (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2011), 70-71.

0 Arthur N. Gilbert, “A Tale of Two Regiments: Manpower and Effectiveness in British Military Units during the Napoleonic Wars,” Armed Forces and Society 9 (1982-83): 278.

0 Edward J, Coss, All for the King’s Shilling: the British Soldier under Wellington 1808-1814 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010), 67.

0 Richard Holmes, Redcoat, the British soldier in the age of Horse and Musket (London: Harper Collins, 2001), 141.

0 Clode, The Military Forces of the Crown, Vol. 2, 34.

0 Coss, All for the King’s Shilling, 58-59.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 144.

0 Coss, All for the King’s Shilling, 79-80.

0 Gilbert, “A Tale of Two Regiments,” 289-290.

0 William Lawrence, The Autobiography of Sergeant William Lawrence, A hero of the Peninusular and Waterloo Campaigns (London, Sampson Low, 1886), http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29263/29263-h/29263-h.htm#page009 (accessed March 26, 2012).

0 Douglas Hay, “Crime and Justice in 18th and 19th Century England,” in Crime and Justice, Vol. 2, (1980), 51.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 141.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 118.

0 Beckett, Britain’s part-time soldiers, 63-5.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 136-137.

0 Ibid, 87.

0 Linch, Britain and Wellington’s Army, 57.

0 Ibid, 85-87.

0 Ibid, 74-76.

0 Ibid, 103.

0 Clive Emsley, British Society and the French Wars, 1793-1815 (London: Macmillan, 1979), 101.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 45-47.

0 Ibid, 138-139.

0 Bruce, The Purchase System in the British Army, 21.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 102.

0 Arvel B Erickson, “Abolition of Purchase in the British Army,” Military Affairs 23, No. 2 (Summer, 1959), 65-66.

0 Cooper, T.W., and Medhurst, M, The Military Career of Colonel Francis Skelley Tidy C.B., 1999-06-49, March 1997, 1.

0 Erickson, “Abolition of Purchase”, 66.

0 Bruce, The Purchase System in the British Army, 25.

0 Richard Holmes, Soldiers, a history (London: Harper Press, 2011), 138.

0 Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 229-230

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 166-167.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 103.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 240.

0 Herbert, Recollections of Rifleman Harris, v.

0 Ibid, 1.

0 Hall, British Strategy in the Napoleonic Wars, 3-5

0 Richard Glover, Wellington’s Army in the Peninsula (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977), 26.

0 Thomas Morris, Recollections of Military Service in 1813, 1814, and 1815 (London: by the author, 1845), 8-9.

0 Linch, Britain and Wellington’s Army, 45-46.

0 Ibid, 63.

0 Ibid, 76.

0 Beckett, Britain’s part-time soldiers, 84.

0 Ibid, 99-101.

0 Ibid, 103.

0 Herbert Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 5.

0 Liddell Hart, Letters of Private Wheeler, 17.

0 Lawrence, Autobiography, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29263/29263-h/29263-h.htm#page009, accessed 16 October 2012.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 13.

0 Clode The Military Forces of the Crown, Vol 1, 289.

0 Burne, Noble Duke of York, 231.

0 Sylvia R. Frey, The British Soldier in America: A Social History of Military Life in the Revolutionary Period (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981), 95.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 177.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, xxi.

0 Hall, British Strategy in the Napoleonic Wars, 3

0 Holmes, Soldiers, 159.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 104-105.

0 Rees Howell Gronow, The Reminiscences and Recollections of Captain Gronow, being anecdotes of the Camp, Court, Clubs, and Society, 1810-1860 (London: Bodley Head, 1964), 27.

0 James Abercromby, Lieutenant-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, K.B., 1793-1801 (Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas, 1861), 17.

0 George Napier, Passages in the Early Military Life of General Sir George T. Napier, K.C.B., written by himself (London: J. Murray, 1884), 1.

0 Ibid, 7-8.

0 Adjutant-General’s Office, 1 Jan 1807, Rules and Regulations for the Manual and Platoon Exercises, Formations, Field-Exercise, and Movements of His Majesty’s Forces, for the use of Non-Commissioned Officers of the British Army (War Office, T. Egerton, Whitehall, 1816), 4

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 160-161.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 14-15.

0 Frey, The British soldier in America, 97-98.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 275.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 287-288

0 Gates, The British Light Infantry Arm, 44-45.

0 Liddell Hart, Letters of Private Wheeler, 16.

0 Ibid, 14.

0 Glover, Peninsular Preparation, 121.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 243.

0 Stuart Hadaway, “Injurious to the Service at Large.’ The Regimental School System and Education in the British Army in the Napoleonic Era”, http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rgtschool1.html, accessed 15/10/12.

0Augustus Mockler-Ferryman, Annals of Sandhurst: A Chronicle of the Royal Military College from its Foundation to the Present Day (London: William Heinemann, 1900), 10-12.

0 Ibid, 13.

0 Ibid, 23.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 24.

0 Harari, The Ultimate Experience: 111-116.

0 Ibid, 160-161.

0 Francis Larpent, The Private Journal of F. Seymour Larpent, Vol. 1 (London: Richard Bentley, 1853), 133

0 Coss, All for the King’s Shilling, 114-115.

0 Joseph Donaldson, Recollections of the Eventful Life of a Soldier (Philadelphia: G.B. Zeiber, 1845), 158-159.

0 John Drinkwater, A History of the late siege of Gibraltar. With a description and account of that Garrison, from the earliest periods (London: T. Spilsbury, 1786), 152.

0 Ibid, 161-162.

0 Ibid, 81.

0 William Lawrence, Autobiography of Sergeant William Lawrence, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29263/29263-h/29263-h.htm, accessed 29th October 2012.

0 Liddell Hart, ed., Letters of Private Wheeler, 21.

0 Liddell Hart, Letters of Private Wheeler, 15.

0 Holmes, Redcoat, 296.

0 Holmes, Soldiers, 140.

0 Gronow, Captain Gronow, 35.

0 Liddell-Hart, Private Wheeler, 18

0 Gronow, Captain Gronow, 28.

0 Ibid, 71.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the 71st, 26-27.

0 Ibid, 64-65

0 Gronow, Captain Gronow, 71-72.

0 Herbert, Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 28.

0 Liddell Hart, Letters of Private Wheeler, 28.

0 John E. Cookson, ‘‘Regimental Worlds’ Interpreting the Experience of British Soldiers during the Napoleonic Wars’ Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann, and Jane Rendall, eds., Soldiers Citizens and Civilians, Experiences and Perceptions of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 36.

0 Herbert, Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 5.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 136.

0 Saul David, All the King’s Men: The British Redcoat in the Era of Sword and Musket (London: Penguin, 2013), 7.

0 Andrew Bamford, ‘The British Army on Campaign 1808-1815; manpower, cohesion, and effectiveness,’ PhD (Leeds, 2009), 38.

0 French, Military Identities, 85.

0 Digby Smith, Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars (London: Anness, 2006), 92-117.

0 French, Military Identities, 86.

0 Smith, Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars, 95.

0 French, Military Identities, 86-89.

0 Frey, The British Soldier in America, 123

0 Bamford, ‘The British Army on Campaign 1808-1815’, 41.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 41.

0 Luis Sorando Muzásm trans Caroline Miley, ‘Trophies Taken by the British from the Napoleonic Army during the War of Spanish Independence (Peninsular War 1808-1814, http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/battles/c_capturedflags.html#3, accessed 15 October 2012.

0 J. H. Settle, Anecdotes of Soldiers in Peace and War (London: Methuen, 1905), 108.

0 Frey, The British Soldier in America, 129-130.

0 Linch, Britain and Wellington’s Army, 137.

0 Houlding, Fit for Service, 120-123.

0 Cookson, ‘Regimental Worlds’, 33-34.

0 Liddell Hart, Letters of Private Wheeler, 19.

0 Herbert, Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 28.

0 Cookson, ‘Regimental Worlds’, 26.

0 Herbert, Recollections of Rifleman Harris, 67.

0 Turpin de Crisse, Commentaires sur les Institutions Militaires de Végèce (l’Imprimerie de Cl. Lequatre, 1779), viii-ix.

0 Barnett, Britain and her Army, 69.

0 John A. Lynn, “French Opinion and the Military Resurrection of the Pike, 1792-1794,” Military Affairs 41, No.1, Feb., 1977), 4.

0 John A. Lynn, Giant of the Grand Siècle, the French Army 1610-1715 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 358-361.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 26.

0 John Childs, Armies and Warfare in Europe, 1648-1789 (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1982), 51.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 6.

0 Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (London: Viking, 1989), 374.

0 Samuel F Scott, “The Regeneration of the Line Army during the French Revolution”, The Journal of Modern History 42, No. 3, (1970), 310.

0 Weston-Phipps, Armies of the First French Republic, 15.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 52.

0 Jacques Fricasse, “Journal de marche du sergent Fricasse de la 127e demi-brigade : 1792-1802,” ftp://ftp.mirrorservice.org/sites/ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/3/1/9/8/31988/31988-h/31988-h.htm (accessed March 26, 2012).

0 Scott, “Regeneration of the French Line Army,” 319-320.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 132.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 6-8.

0 Scott, “Regeneration of the Line Army,” 322-325.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 134.

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 8-9.

0 Coignet, Capitaine Coignet, 57.

0 Coss, All for the King’s Shilling, 147.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 20.

0 Marie-Joseph Lafayette, Memoirs, Correspondence, and Manuscripts of General Lafayette, (Saunders, 1837), 2-3.

0 Philip Mansel, The Court of France, 1789-1830 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 7.

0 Pierre Besenval, Memoires du Baron de Besenval, Vol. 2 (Paris : 1821), 187.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 21.

0 Ibid, 28.

0 Rafe Blaufarb, The French Army 1750-1820 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002), 68.

0 Scott, ‘Regeneration of the Line Army,’ 319-327.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 132-133.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 9-11.

0 Barnett, Britain and her army, 8.

0 O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades, 633

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 4-5.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 50-53.

0 Forrest, Napoleon’s Men, 4.

0 Louis Bricard, Jouran du Canonnier Bricard, 1792-1802 (Paris : C Delagrave, 1891), 8.

0 Schama, Citizens, 24-25.

0 David A. Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of Modern Warfare (London: Bloomsbury, 2007), 34.

0 Blaufarb, The French Army 1750-1820, 17.

0 Gaston Maugras, Pierre Croze-Lemercier, Memoirs of Delphine de Sabran, Marquise de Custine (London : W Heinemann, 1912), 15.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 3-4

0 Bourgogne, Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne, vii.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 34.

0 Felix de Wimpffen,  Discours de M. le Baron Felix de Wimpffen, Député de Caen, Paris : imprimerie nationale, 1789) 7-8.

0 Rothenberg, The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon, 19.

0 Jacques Guibert, Essai général de tactique (Liège, C. Plomteux, 1773), 9.

0 David Dundas, Principles of Military Movements, chiefly applied to Infantry, Illustrated by the Manoeuvres of the Prusssian Troops (Uckfield: Naval and Military Press, 1788), 36-41; Reglement concernant l’exercise et les maneouvres de l’infanterie (Paris: Bureau du Journal Militaire, 1791), 10-23.

0 Wilkinson, The French Army before Napoleon, 140.

0 C.S. Forester, Napoleon and his Court (London: Methuen, 1924), 135.

0 John A Lynn, “French Opinion and the Military Resurrection of the Pike,” Military Affairs 41, no. 1 (1977), 1-4.

0 Besenval, Memoires du Baron de Besenval, 186-187.

0 David D. Bien, “The Army in the French Enlightenment. Reform, Reaction, and Revolution,” Past and Present, no. 85, (1979), 90-91.

0 Louis de Bourienne, Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte (London: R. Bentley, 1836), 4.

0 Blaufarb, The French Army 1750-1820, 20-23.

0Ibid, 61.

0 Ibid, 91-92.

0 Ibid, 112-113.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 7-9.

0 Bourgogne, Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne, viii.

0 Uffindell, Napoleon’s Immortals, 4.

0 Weston-Phipps, The Armies of the First French Republic, 35.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 101-102.

0 Scott, Response of the French Royal Army, 36-38.

0 Bertaud, Army of the French Revolution, 57

0 Schama, Citizens, 27.

0 Theobald Wolfe Tone, Memoirs of Theobald Wolfe Tone, Vol. 1 (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1826), 322.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 63.

0 Uffindell, Napoleon’s Immortals, 153.

0 Lynn, Bayonets of the Republic, 102-104.

0 M. de Rocca, In the Peninsula with a French Hussar: memoirs of the War of the French in Spain (London: Greenhill, 1990), 78-79.

0 Bourgogne, Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne, 3.

0 de Rocca, In the Peninsula with a French Hussar, 59-60.

0 Barnett, Britain and her army, 126-127.

0 Christy Pichichero, ‘Le Soldat Sensible: Military Psychology and Social Egalitarianism in the Enlightenment French Army’, French Historical Studies 31, 4 (2008), 566.

0 Digby Smith, Kevin F. Kiley, Uniforms from 1755-1783: The American Revolutionary War (London: Anness, 2008), 174-185.

0 Smith, Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars, 47-52.

0 Elting, Swords around a Throne, 344-351.

0 Gallaher, Napoleon’s Irish Legion, 105.

0 Bourgogne, Memoirs of Sergeant Bourgogne , 252.

0 Wilkinson, French Army before Napoleon, 113.

0 Scott, ‘Regeneration of the French Line Army,’ 328-330.

0 Abbé Cognet, Souvenirs militaires d'un jeune abbé [Cognet], soldat de la République (1793-1801), publiés par le baron Ernouf (Paris : Didier, 1881), 10.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 145.

0 Uffindell, Napoleon’s Immortals, 182.

0 Pichichero, ‘Le Soldat Sensible’, 572-573.

0 Blaze, Recollections of an Officer of Napoleon’s Army, 4-5.

0 Ibid, 42-43.

0 Ramsey, The Military Memoir, 9.

0 David Chandler, Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1979), 207-208.

0 Linda Colley’s Britons was a particularly useful source in developing this chapter, providing as it does a focussed analysis of the period. Further information on British society in the period, specifically the towns, can be found in Joyce Ellis’ The Georgian Town, 1680-1840, as well as The Transformation of English Provincial Towns, edited by Peter Clark. Relations between the army and the public drew on a variety of sources, of which the more focused included Hayter’s The army and the crowd in mid-Georgian England, Myerly’s British Military Spectacle, and Soldiers, Citizens, and Civilians, a collection of essays by Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann, and Jane Rendall. Karen Hagemann also contributes to the collection Masculinities in Politics and War, alongside Stefan Dudink and John Tosh. Gender issues are also covered in Elizabeth Foyster’s Manhood in Early Modern England, while the role of women in warfare is examined in F. C. G. Page’s Following the Drum.

0 In practice there was considerable variation between boroughs as to who could vote, due to legal inconsistencies over the nature of freehold property.

0 Erich Fromm, The Fear of Freedom (London: Routledge and Kegal Paul, 1942), 26-28.

0 Joyce M Ellis, The Georgian Town, 1680-1840, (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001), 117-118.

0 Pococke, Journal of a Soldier of the Seventy-First Glasgow Regiment, 15.

0 Linda Colley, Britons, Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (London: Yale University Press, 2009), 18.

0 Liddell Hart, Private Wheeler, 94.

0 G.E. Mingay, English Landed Society in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge and Paul, 1963), 3-5.

0 Colley, Britons, 203-4.

0 Philip J. Haythornthwaite, The Armies of Wellington (London: Brockhampton, 2001), 24.

0 Ellis, The Georgian Town, 71-72.

0 John Breuilly, Nationalism and the State
1   ...   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page